Zitkála-Šá (1876–1938) (Lakota: Red Bird = Cardinal (bird)), also known as Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, her missionary-given and later married name, was a Yankton Dakota Sioux writer, editor, translator, musician, educator, and political activist. She wrote several works chronicling her struggles with cultural identity and the pull between the majority culture she was educated within and her Dakota Sioux culture into which she was born and raised. Her later books were among the first works to bring traditional Native American stories to a widespread white English-speaking readership, and she has been noted as one of the most influential Native American activists of the 20th century.
Zitkala-Ša, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, NPG.79.26
Zitkála-Šá, "Red Bird"
|Died||January 26, 1938 61) (aged|
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Other names||Gertrude Simmons Bonnin|
|Education||White's Manual Labor Institute, Wabash, Indiana|
|Alma mater||Earlham College|
|Occupation||Writer, editor, musician, teacher and Native American activist|
|Employer||Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Uintah-Ouray reservation|
|Known for||Co-composed the first American Indian opera, founded the National Council of American Indians, authored books and magazine articles|
|Sun Dance Opera, Old Indian Legends, American Indian Stories, "Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians"|
|Parent(s)||Mother, Ellen Simmons, also called Taté Iyòhiwin ("Every Wind" or "Reaches for the Wind")|
Working with American musician William F. Hanson, Zitkala-Ša wrote the libretto and songs for The Sun Dance Opera, (1913), the first American Indian opera. It was composed in romantic musical style, and based on Sioux and Ute cultural themes.
She was co-founder of the National Council of American Indians in 1926, which was established to lobby for Native people’s right to United States citizenship and other civil rights they had long been denied. Zitkala-Ša served as the council’s president until her death in 1938.
Early life and education
Zitkála-Šá was born on February 22, 1876 on the Yankton Indian Reservation in South Dakota. She was raised by her mother, Ellen Simmons, whose Dakota name was Thaté Iyóhiwiŋ (Every Wind or Reaches for the Wind). Her father was a German-American man named Felker, who abandoned the family while Zitkala-Ša was very young.
For her first eight years, Zitkála-Šá lived on the reservation. She later described those days as ones of freedom and happiness, safe in the care of her mother's people and tribe. In 1884, when Zitkala-Ša was eight, missionaries came to the Yankton Reservation. They recruited several of the Yankton children, including Zitkala-Šá, taking them for education to the White's Indiana Manual Labor Institute, a missionary Quaker school that taught speaking, reading, and writing English, in Wabash, Indiana. This training school was founded by Josiah White for the education of "poor children, white, colored, and Indian," with the goal of helping them advance in society.
Zitkála-Šá attended the school for three years until 1887. She later wrote about this period in her work, The School Days of an Indian Girl. She described both the deep misery of having her heritage stripped away when she was forced to pray as a Quaker and cut her traditionally long hair. By contrast, she took joy in learning to read and write, and to play the violin.
In 1887 Zitkála-Šá returned to the Yankton Reservation to live with her mother. She spent three years there. She was dismayed to realize that, while she still longed for the native Yankton traditions, she no longer fully belonged to them. In addition, she thought that many on the reservation were conforming to the dominant white culture.
In 1891, wanting more education, Zitkála-Šá decided at age fifteen to return to the White's Indiana Manual Labor Institute. She planned to gain more through her education than becoming a housekeeper, as the school anticipated girls would eventually do. She studied piano and violin and started to teach music at White's after the teacher resigned. In June 1895, when Zitkála-Šá was awarded her diploma, she gave a speech on the inequality of women’s rights, which received high praise from the local newspaper.
Though her mother wanted her to return home after graduation, Zitkála-Šá chose to attend Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, where she had been offered a scholarship. Higher education for women was quite limited at the time. While initially feeling isolated and uncertain among her predominantly white peers, she soon proved her oratorical talents again with a speech entitled "Side by Side" in 1896. During this time, she began gathering traditional stories from a spectrum of Native tribes, translating them first to Latin and then to English for children to read. In 1897, however, six weeks before graduation, she was forced to leave Earlham College due to ill health and financial difficulties.
From 1897 to 1899 Zitkala-Ša studied and played the violin at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston.
In 1899 she took a position at Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania, where she taught music to the children. She also conducted debates on the treatment of Native Americans. At the 1900 Paris Exposition, she played violin with the school's Carlisle Indian Band. In the same year, she began writing articles on Native American life, which were published in such national periodicals as Atlantic Monthly and Harper's Monthly. Her critical appraisal of the American Indian boarding school system and vivid portrayal of Indian deracination were markedly contrasting to the more idealistic writings of most of her contemporaries.
In early 1901, she became engaged to Carlos Montezuma, whom she likely met when he served as caretaker of the Carlisle band in 1900 after he had completed medical school. She broke off the relationship by August. He had refused to give up his private medical practice in Chicago and relocate with her to the Yankton Indian Agency.
Also in 1900, Zitkala-Ša was sent by Carlisle's founder, Colonel Richard Henry Pratt, to the Yankton Reservation to recruit students. It was her first visit in several years, and she was greatly dismayed to find that her mother's house was in disrepair, her brother's family had fallen into poverty, and that white settlers were beginning to occupy lands allotted to the Yankton Dakota under the Dawes Act of 1887. Upon returning to the Carlisle School, she came into conflict with Pratt. She resented his rigid program of assimilation into dominant white culture and the limitations of the curriculum. It prepared Native American children only for low-level manual work, assuming they would return to rural cultures. In 1901 Zitkala-Ša was dismissed. That year she had published an article in Harper's Monthly describing the profound loss of identity felt by a Native American boy after undergoing the assimilationist education at the school.
In 1901 Zitkála-Šá began collecting stories to publish in Old Indian Legends, commissioned by the Boston publisher Ginn and Company. She took a job as a clerk at the Bureau of Indian Affairs office at Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
Marriage and family
In 1902 she met and married Captain Raymond Talefase Bonnin. Of mixed race, he was culturally Yankton and had one-quarter Yankton Dakota ancestry.
Soon after their marriage, Captain Bonnin was assigned to the Uintah-Ouray reservation in Utah. The couple lived and worked there with the Ute people for the next fourteen years. During this period, Zitkala-Ša gave birth to the couple's only son, Raymond Ohiya Bonnin.
Also during this period, Zitkála-Šá met American professor and composer William F. Hanson, who taught music at Brigham Young University in Utah. Together, in 1910, they started their collaboration on the music for The Sun Dance Opera, for which Zitkala-Sa wrote the libretto and songs. She based it on sacred Sioux ritual, which the federal government prohibited the Ute from performing on the reservation. The opera premiered in Utah in 1913, with dancing and some parts performed by the Ute; lead singing roles were filled by non-natives. It was the first opera to be co-authored by a Native American. It debuted to high local praise.
Zitkála-Šá had a fruitful writing career, with two major periods. The first period was from 1900 to 1904, when she published legends collected from Native American culture, as well as autobiographical narratives. She continued to write during the following years, but she did not publish. These unpublished writings, along with others including the libretto of the Sun Dance Opera, were collected and published posthumously in 2001 as Dreams and Thunder: Stories, Poems, and the Sun Dance Opera, edited by P. Jane Hafen.
Zitkála-Šá's articles in the Atlantic Monthly were published from 1900 to 1902. They included "An Indian Teacher Among Indians," published in Volume 85 in 1900. Included in the same issue were "Impressions of an Indian Childhood" and "School Days of an Indian Girl". All of these works were autobiographical in nature, describing in great detail her early experiences both on the reservation and her later conflict in struggling with assimilation to the dominant American culture.
Zitkála-Šá's other articles ran in Harper's Monthly. "Soft-Hearted Sioux" appeared in the March 1901 issue, Volume 102, and "The Trial Path" in the October 1901 issue, Volume 103. She also wrote "A Warrior's Daughter", published in 1902 in Volume 6 of Everybody's Magazine. These works also were largely autobiographical in nature. Some recounted stories of people she knew or taught, in addition to her own personal story.
In 1902 Zitkála-Šá published "Why I Am a Pagan" in Atlantic Monthly, volume 90. It was a treatise on her personal spiritual beliefs. She countered the contemporary trend that suggested Native Americans readily adopted and conformed to the Christianity forced on them in schools and public life.
Much of her work is characterized by its liminal nature: tensions between tradition and assimilation, and between literature and politics. These tensions are expressed particularly in her autobiographical works. In her well-known American Indian Stories, for example, she both expresses a literary account of her life and delivers a political message. The narrative expresses her tension between wanting to follow the traditions of the Yankton Dakota while being excited about learning to read and write, and being tempted by assimilation. This tension has been described as generating much of the dynamism of her work.
The second period was from 1916 to 1924. During this period, Zitkala-Ša concentrated on writing and publishing political works. She and her husband had moved to Washington, D.C., where she became politically active. She published some of her most influential writings, including American Indian Stories (1921), with the Hayworth Publishing House. She co-authored Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery (1923), an influential pamphlet, with Charles H. Fabens of the American Indian Defense Association and Matthew K. Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association. She also created the Indian Welfare Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, working as a researcher for it through much of the 1920s.
American Indian Stories
American Indian Stories is a collection of childhood stories, allegorical fiction, and an essay, including several of Zitkála-Šá's articles that were originally published in Harper's Monthly and Atlantic Monthly. First published in 1921, these stories told of the hardships which she and other Native Americans encountered at the missionary and manual labor schools designed to "civilize" them and assimilate them to majority culture. The autobiographical writings described her early life on the Yankton Reservation, her years as a student at White's Manual Labor Institute and Earlham College, and her period teaching at Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Her autobiography contrasted the charm of her early life on the reservation with the "iron routine" which she found in the assimilation boarding schools. Zitkala-Ša wrote: "Perhaps my Indian nature is the moaning wind which stirs them [schoolteachers] now for their present record. But, however tempestuous this is within me, it comes out as the low voice of a curiously colored seashell, which is only for those ears that are bent with compassion to hear it."
Old Indian Legends
Commissioned by the Boston publisher Ginn and Company, Old Indian Legends (1901) was a collection of stories which she learned as child </ref> and had gathered from various tribes. Directed primarily at children, the collection was an attempt both to preserve Native American traditions and stories in print and to garner respect and recognition for those traditions from the dominant European-American culture.
Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians
One of Zitkála-Šá's most influential pieces of political writing, "Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians" was published in 1923 by the Indian Rights Association. The article exposed several American corporations that had been working systematically, through such extra-legal means as robbery and even murder, to defraud Native American tribes, particularly the Osage, to their rights to leasing fees from development of their oil-rich land in Oklahoma. The work influenced Congress to pass the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which encouraged tribes to re-establish self-government, including management of their lands. Under this act, the government returned some lands to them as communal property, which it had previously classified as surplus, so they could put together parcels that could be managed.
Articles for American Indian Magazine
Zitkála-Šá was an active member of the Society of American Indians, which published the American Indian Magazine. From 1918 to 1919 she served as editor for the magazine, as well as contributing numerous articles. These were her most explicitly political writings, covering topics such as the contribution of Native American soldiers to World War I, issues of land allotment, and corruption within the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the agency within the Department of Interior that oversaw American Indians. Many of her political writings have since been criticized for favoring assimilation. She called for recognition of Native American culture and traditions, while also advocating US citizenship rights to bring Native Americans into mainstream America. She believed this was how they could gain political power and protect their cultures.
Making an opera
In 1910 Zitkala-Ša began collaborating with American composer William F. Hanson, who taught at Brigham Young University. She wrote the libretto and songs. She also played Sioux melodies on the violin, and Hanson used this as the basis of his music composition.
In February 1913, the premiere performance of The Sun Dance Opera was presented at Orpheus Hall in Vernal, Utah. The production featured members of the Ute Nation, who lived on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. It was significant for adapting the Native American oral musical tradition to a written one. Its debut was met with critical acclaim. Few works of Native American opera since have dealt so exclusively with Native American themes.
In 1938 the New York Light Opera Guild premiered The Sun Dance Opera at The Broadway Theatre as its opera of the year. Its publicity credited only William F. Hanson as composer.
Zitkála-Šá was politically active throughout most of her adult life. During her time on the Uintah-Ouray reservation in Utah, she joined the Society of American Indians, a progressive group formed in 1911. It was dedicated to preserving the Native American way of life while lobbying for the right to full American citizenship. The letterhead of the council stationary claimed that the overall goals for the Society of American Indians was to "help Indians help themselves in protecting their rights and properties". Zitkala-Ša served as the SAI's secretary beginning in 1916. She edited its journal American Indian Magazine from 1918 to 1919. Since the late 20th century, activists have criticized the SAI and Zitkala-Ša as misguided in their strong advocacy of citizenship and employment rights for Native Americans. Such critics believe that Native Americans have lost cultural identity as they have become more part of mainstream American society.
As the secretary for the SAI, Zitkála-Šá corresponded with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She began to criticize practices of the BIA, such as their attempt at the national boarding schools to prohibit Native American children from using their native languages and cultural practices. She reported incidents of abuse resulting from children's refusal to pray in the Christian manner. Her husband was dismissed from his BIA office at the Ute reservation in 1916. The couple and their son relocated to Washington, D.C., where they thought to find allies.
From Washington, Zitkála-Šá began lecturing nationwide on behalf of the SAI to promote the cultural and tribal identity of Native Americans. During the 1920s she promoted a pan-Indian movement to unite all of America's tribes in the cause of lobbying for citizenship rights. In 1924 the Indian Citizenship Act was passed, granting US citizenship rights to most indigenous peoples who did not already have it. (About two-thirds of Native Americans were already citizens by the implementation of land allotment and other measures.)
In 1926 she and her husband founded the National Council of American Indians, dedicated to the cause of uniting the tribes throughout the U.S. in the cause of gaining full citizenship rights through suffrage. From 1926 until her death in 1938, Zitkala-Ša would serve as president, major fundraiser, and speaker for the NCAI. She was the major figure in those years. Her early work was largely disregarded after the organization was revived in 1944 under male leadership.
Zitkála-Šá was also active in the 1920s in the movement for women's rights, joining the General Federation of Women's Clubs in 1921. This grassroots organization was dedicated to diversity in its membership and to maintaining a public voice for women's concerns. Through the GFWC she created the Indian Welfare Committee in 1924. She helped initiate a government investigation into the exploitation of Native Americans in Oklahoma and the attempts being made to defraud them of drilling rights and leasing fees for their oil-rich lands. Zitkala-Ša was co-author of "Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribe-Legalized Robbery". The article exposed several corporations that had robbed and even murdered Native Americans in Oklahoma to gain access to their lands.
Its influence contributed to Congressional passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 under the President Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. He had high-level aides also working on American Indian issues to improve their lives. Sometimes described as the 'Indian New Deal,' the law encouraged tribes to restore and adopt self-government, along a model of elected representative government. It returned management of their lands to Native Americans.
In her work for the NCAI in 1924, Zitkála-Šá ran a voter-registration drive among Native Americans. She encouraged them to support the Curtis Bill, which she believed would be favorable for Indians. Though the bill granted Native Americans US citizenship, it did not grant those living on reservations the right to vote in local and state elections. Zitkala-Ša continued to work for civil rights, and better access to health care and education for Native Americans until her death in 1938.
Death and legacy
Zitkála-Šá died on January 26, 1938 in Washington, DC at the age of sixty-one. She is buried under the name of Gertrude Simmons Bonnin in Arlington National Cemetery. Since the late 20th century, the University of Nebraska has reissued many of her writings on Native American culture.
Zitkala-Sa's legacy lives on as one of the most influential Native American activists of the twentieth century. She left with her an influential theory of Indian resistance and a crucial model for reform. Through her activism, Zitkala-Sa was able to make crucial changes to education, health care, legal standing of Native American people and the preservation of Indian culture.
Writings by Zitkala-Sa
|Library resources about |
- Old Indian Legends. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985
- American Indian Stories. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.
- Zitkála-Šá. "Why I Am a Pagan." Atlantic Monthly, 1902.
- Zitkála-Šá, Fabens, Charles H. and Matthew K. Sniffen. Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery. Philadelphia: Office of the Indian Rights Association, 1924.
- Zitkála-Šá. Dreams and Thunder: Stories, Poems, and The Sun Dance Opera. Edited by P. Jane Hafen. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8032-4918-7.
- Zitkála-Šá: Letters, Speeches, and Unpublished Writings, 1898-1929. Edited by Tadeusz Lewandowski. Leiden, Boston: Brill Press, 2018. ISBN 9789004342101.
For a more comprehensive listing of all her writings see the American Native Press Archives maintained by the Sequoyah Research Center at the University of Arkansas, Little Rock.
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- Buechel, Eugene; Manhart, Paul (2002) , Lakota Dictionary: Lakota-English/English-Lakota (New Comprehensive ed.), Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-1305-0, OCLC 49312425.
- Capaldi, Gina (2011), Red Bird Sings: The Story of Zitkala-Sa, Native American Author, Musician, and Activist, Millbrook Press, ISBN 0-7613-5257-0.
- Fear-Segal, Jacqueline (August 1999), "Nineteenth-Century Indian Education: Universalism Versus Evolutionism", Journal of American Studies, 33 (2): 323–341.
- Fisher, Dexter (August 1979), "Zitkala Sa: The Evolution of a Writer", American Indian Quarterly, 5 (3): 229–238.
- Giese, Paula (4 July 1996), "Gertrude Bonnin, Zitkala Sha, Yankton Nakota", Native Authors, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Gridley, Marion E. (1974), American Indian Women, Dutton, ISBN 978-0801502347.
- Hafen, P. Jane (Autumn 1997), "Zitkala Sa: Sentimentality and Sovereignty", Wicazo Sa Review, 12 (2): 31–41.
- Hafen, P. Jane (1 April 1998), "A Cultural Duet/ Zitkala Sa And the Sun Dance Opera", Great Plains Quarterly.
- Henderson, Melissa Renee; Curtwright, Lauren (14 August 2004), "Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (Zitkala-Ša)", Washington State University.
- Herzog, Kristin, Gertrude Bonnin, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Honorees: 2010 National Women's History Month", Women's History Month, National Women's History Project, 2010, archived from the original on 27 November 2010, retrieved 14 November 2011.
- Leeper, Jean, "Josiah White and His White's Iowa Manual Labor Institute", Ancestry.com, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Lewandowski, Tadeusz (2016), Red Bird, Red Power: the Life and Legacy of Zitkala-Sa, University of Oklahoma, ISBN 978-0806151786.
- Peyer, Bernd, ed. (2007), American Indian nonfiction: an anthology of writings, 1760s-1930s, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 9780806137988, OCLC 71004237.
- Peyer, Bernd C. (1997), The Tutored Mind: Indian Missionary-Writers in Antebellum America, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
- Rappaport, Doreen (1997), The Flight of Red Bird: The Life of Zitkala-Ša, New York: Puffin, ISBN 978-0-8037-1438-0.
- Rappaport, Helen (2001), Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers, 1, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-101-4
- "Register of the Gertrude and Raymond Bonnin Collection, 1926-1938", L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University, December 1998, retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Smith, Catherine Parsons (January 2001), "An Operatic Skeleton on the Western Frontier: Zitkala-Ša, William F. Hanson, and the Sun Dance Opera", Women & Music.
- Stone, Tammy (2000), "Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons", American National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1500796 Missing or empty
- Susag, Dorothea (Winter 1993), "Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin): A Power(full) Literary Voice", Studies in American Indian Literatures, 2, 5 (4): 3–24, JSTOR 20736763.
- Wilkins, David E.; Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik (2018), American Indian Politics and the American Political System (4th ed.), Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1442252653.
- Zitkala-Ša (1921), American Indian Stories, Washington, D.C.: Hayworth, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Zitkala-Ša (2001), Hafen, P. Jane (ed.), Dreams and Thunder: Stories, Poems, and The Sun Dance Opera, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-4918-7.
- Zitkala-Ša (2009), The School Days of an Indian Girl, and An Indian Teacher Among Indians, Dodo Press, ISBN 1-4099-7860-5.
- Zitkala-Ša (1900), "Impressions of an Indian Childhood, School Days of an Indian Girl, An Indian Teacher among Indians", The Atlantic Monthly, 85: 37–47, 185–194, 381–386, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Zitkala-Ša (1902a), "A Warrior's Daughter", Everybody's Magazine, 6: 346–352, retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Zitkala-Ša (1902b), "Why I am a Pagan", The Atlantic Monthly, 90: 801–803, retrieved 13 February 2019.
|Library resources about |
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zitkala-Sa.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Works by Zitkala-Sa at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Zitkala-Sa at Internet Archive
- Works by or about Gertrude Simmons Bonnin at Internet Archive
- Works by Zitkala-Sa at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (Zitkala-Ša) from Voices in the Gaps
- National Council of American Indians Records, correspondence of Gertrude and Raymond Bonnin
- Portrait of Zitkala-Ša, by Gertrude Käsebier
- National Council of American Indians Records. Provo, Utah: L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University.