Amice studied mathematics at the École normale supérieure de jeunes filles in Sèvres, beginnining in 1956 and earning her agrégation in 1959. She became an assistant at the Faculté des sciences de Paris until 1964, when she completed a state doctorate under the supervision of Charles Pisot. Her dissertation was Interpolation p-adique [p-adic interpolation].
On completing her doctorate, she became maître de conférences at the University of Poitiers and then, in 1966, professor at the University of Bordeaux. She returned to Poitiers in 1968 but then in 1970 became one of the founding professors of Paris Diderot University, where she was vice president from 1978 to 1981.
In 1975 she became president of the Société mathématique de France.
Amice was the author of a textbook on the p-adic number system, Les nombres p-adiques (Presses Universitaires de France, 1975).