The Yoruba calendar (Kojoda) is a calendar used by the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin. The calendar has a year beginning on the last moon of May or first moon of June of the Gregorian calendar, and an era of 8042 BC. The new year coincides with the Ifá festival
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The traditional Yoruba week has four days. The four days that are dedicated to the Orisa go as follow:
- Day 1 is dedicated to Obatala (Sopanna, Iyaami, and the Egungun)
- Day 2 is dedicated to Orunmila (Esu, Ifá and Osun) *
- Day 3 is dedicated to Ogun (Osoosi)
- Day 4 is dedicated to Sango (Oya)
To reconcile with the Gregorian calendar, Yoruba people also measure time in seven days a week and four weeks a month. The four-day calendar was dedicated to the Orisas and the seven-day calendar is for doing business.
Time is measured in iṣeju (minutes), wakati (hours), ọjọ́ (days), o̩sẹ̀ (weeks), oṣu (months) and o̩dun (years). There are 60 (ọgọta) iṣẹju in 1 (ookan) wakati; 24 (merinlelogun) wakati in 1 ọjọ́; 7 (meje) ọjọ́ in 1 ọsẹ̀; 4 (mẹrin) ọsẹ̀ in 1 oṣu and 52 (mejilelaado̩ta) ọsẹ̀ in 1 (ookan) o̩dun. There are 12 (mejila) oṣu in 1 (ookan) ọdun.
“KỌ́JỌ́DÁ” - 'Ki ọjó̩ dá: may the day be clear(ly foreseen), calendar'.
|KṒJṒDÁ 10057/ CALENDAR 2014-2015|
|ÒKÙDÚ 10053 / June 2011|
|O̩jọ́-Ȯrùnmílá /Ìfá / Awo||11||12||13||14||15||16||17||18||19|
The traditional Yoruba calendar (Kọ́jọ́da) has a 4-day week and 91 weeks in a year. The Yoruba year spans from 3 June of a Gregorian calendar year to 2 June of the following year. According to the calendar developed by Remi-Niyi Alaran, the Gregorian year 2019 AD is the 10,061st year of Yoruba records of time. With the British colonial and European cultural invasions, came the need to reconcile with the Gregorian calendar: Yoruba people also measure time in seven days a week and 52 weeks a year.
|ȮSĖ in Yoruba calendar||Day in Gregorian calendar|
|Oṡu in Yoruba calendar||Months in Gregorian calendar|
The year in festivals
Note: since there are thirteen months in the Youruba calendar, the relation between the Gregorian and Yoruban months is approximate only.
Erele / February
Erénà / March
Annual rites of passage for men Èrèna/March 12 – 28
Oduduwa (odudu, the dark pigment; ni ewa, is the beauty) / Iyaagbe (iya, mother; agbe, who receives) = Oríṣà of Earth and matron of the Ayé. Oduduwa endows the ebony dark skin pigment that accords greatest gifts of spirituality, beauty and intellect to the bearer. The essence of procreative love. Èrèna/March 15 – 19
Oshosi = Oríṣà of Adventure and the hunt Èrèna/March 21 – 24:
Igbe / April
Onset of wet season (Spring)
Èbìbí / May
Egungun (Commemoration of the Ancestors, including community founders and illustrious dead. Èbíbí: starts last Saturday of May, for 7 days
Okudu / June
- June 3: Onset of the Yoruba New Year (2008 is the 10,050th year of Yoruba culture). Ọrúnmilà / Ifá = Oríṣà of Divination and founder of the Ifá sciences, whose divination is with 16 palm nuts. Mass gathering of the yoruba
- Shopona (Oríṣà of Disease, shopona, small pox is a viral disease) and Osanyin (Oríṣà of Medicine and patron of the healing professions: osan, afternoon; yin, healing)
- Okudu 10 - 23: Annual rites of passage for women
- Okudu 18 - 21: Yemoja = matriarch of the Òrún-Rere). Oduduwa gave birth to a boy Aganju (Land) and Yemoja (Water) from marriage to Ọbàtala. Yemoja in turn birthed many other Oríṣà.
Agẹmo / July
Agẹmo: first and second weeks in July
Oko (Agriculture) Harvesting of the new Yam crop.
Ẹlégba-Bara (Ẹlégba, one who has power to seize) / Eṣu (shu, to release eject from; ara, the body) = Oríṣà of male essence and Power, who is the great Communicator and messenger of the will of Olódùmarè. No woman should bara (ba ra, to rub with, have intercourse with) a man who has not done Ikola (circumcision: ike, cutting; ola, that saves) in sacrifice to Ẹlégba. Agẹmo second weekend of July
Ṣàngo (shan, to strike:/ Jakuta:ja, fight; pẹlu okuta, with stones). The Oríṣà of Energy – Ara (Thunder) and Manamana, make fire (Lightning) whose divination is with 16 cowries and whose messenger and water-bearer is Oshumare (the Rainbow). Agẹmo: third week of July
Ogun / August
Oṣun-Oṣogbo Oṣun = Oríṣà of Fertility and custodian of the female essence. who guides pregnancies to term. Ogun: last weekend of August
Ogun = Oríṣà of the metal and war crafts, and engineering. The custodian of truth and executioner of justice, as such patron of the legal and counselling professions who must swear to uphold truth while biting on a piece of metal.
Òwéré / September
It is the month in which festivals are being celebrated and a month of blessing. It celebrates how Yoruba is a rich culture.
Ọwara / October
Ọwaro third weekend of October
Onset of the dry season (Autumn)
Shigidi (Orísà of Òrún-Apadi, the realm of the unsettled spirits and the ghosts of the dead that have left Aye and are forsaken of Òrún-Rere. Custodian of nightmares and patron of assassins. Solemn candlelight to guide the unsettled away from your residence, else they settle in your dolls or other toys. Ọwaro 30 World Slavery Day?
Bèlu / November
Òpé / December
Obaluaye (Oríṣà of Ṣòwò (Commerce) and owo (wealth). Òpé 15
Onset of the second dry season (winter solstice)
- Yoruba calendar, Afropedea