Yi people

The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo)[2] are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. Numbering nine million people, they are the seventh largest of the 55 ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They live primarily in rural areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi, usually in mountainous regions. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is the prefecture containing the largest population of Yi people within mainland China, with two million Yi people in the region. For other countries, as of 1999, there were 3,300 "Lô Lô" people living in the Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, and Lào Cai provinces in northern Vietnam.

Yi
ꆈꌠ
彝族

Alternative names:
Nuosu and dozens of others
Total population
9 million (2010)
Regions with significant populations
China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi): 9 million (2010).
Vietnam: 4,541 (2009).[1]
Thailand & Laos: 2,203 (2015).
Languages
Yi language (majority); Southwestern Mandarin (minority)
Religion
majority - Bimoism (native Yi variety of Shamanism); minority - Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Bamar, Naxi, Qiang, Tibetan, Tujia.

The Yi speak various Yiyu, Loloish languages, closely related to Burmese. The prestige variety is Nuosu, which is written in the Yi script.

Location

Of the more than 9 million Yi people, over 4.5 million live in Yunnan Province, 2.5 million live in southern Sichuan Province, and 1 million live in the northwest corner of Guizhou Province. Nearly all the Yi live in mountainous areas, often carving out their existence on the sides of steep mountain slopes far from the cities of China.

The altitudinal differences of the Yi areas directly affect the climate and precipitation of these areas. These striking differences are the basis of the old saying that "The weather is different a few miles away" in the Yi area. Yi populations in different areas are very different from one another, making their living in completely different ways.[3]

Subgroups

Although different groups of Yi refer to themselves in different ways (including Nisu, Sani, Axi, Lolo, Acheh) and sometimes speak mutually unintelligible languages, they have been grouped into a single ethnicity by the Chinese, and the various local appellations can be classified into three groups:

  • Ni (). The appellations of Nuosu,[4] Nasu, Nesu, Nisu, and other similar names are considered derivatives of the original autonym “” (Nip) appended with the suffix -su, indicating "people". The name "Sani" is also a variety of this group. Further, it is widely believed that the Chinese names 夷 and 彝 (both pinyin: ) were derived from Ni.
  • Lolo. The appellations of Lolo, Lolopu, etc. are related to the Yi people's worship of the tiger, as “lo” in their dialects means "tiger". "Lo" is also the basis for the Chinese exonym Luóluó 猓猓, 倮倮, or 罗罗. The original character 猓, with the "dog radical" 犭and a guǒ 果 phonetic, was a graphic pejorative,[5] comparable to the Chinese name guǒran 猓然 "a long-tailed ape". Languages reforms in the PRC replaced the 猓 character in Luóluó twice. First by Luó 倮, with the "human radical" 亻and the same phonetic, but that was a graphic variant for luǒ 裸 "naked"; and later by Luó 罗 "net for catching birds". Paul K. Benedict noted, "a leading Chinese linguist, has remarked that the name 'Lolo' is offensive only when written with the 'dog' radical.[6]
  • Other. This group includes various other appellations of different groups of Yi. Some of them may be of other ethnic groups but are recognised as Yi by the Chinese. The "Pu" may be relevant to an ancient ethnic group Pu (). In the legends of the northern Yi, the Yi people conquered Pu and its territory in the northeastern part of the modern Liangshan.

(Groups listed below are sorted by their broad linguistic classification and the general geographic area where they live. Within each section, larger groups are listed first.)

Classification Approximate total population Groups
Southern 1,082,120 Nisu, Southern Nasu, Muji, A Che, Southern Gaisu, Pula,
Boka, Lesu, Chesu, Laowu, Alu, Azong, Xiuba
Southeastern 729,760 Poluo, Sani, Axi, Azhe, Southeastern Lolo, Jiasou, Puwa,
Aluo, Awu, Digao, Meng, Xiqi, Ati, Daizhan, Asahei, Laba,
Zuoke, Ani, Minglang, Long
Central 565,080 Lolopo, Dayao Lipo, Central Niesu, Enipu, Lopi, Popei
Eastern 1,456,270 Eastern Nasu, Panxian Nasu, Wusa Nasu, Shuixi Nosu,
Wuding Lipo, Mangbu Nosu, Eastern Gepo, Naisu, Wumeng,
Naluo, Samei, Sanie, Luowu, Guopu, Gese, Xiaohei Neisu,
Dahei Neisu, Depo, Laka, Lagou, Aling, Tushu, Gouzou,
Wopu, Eastern Samadu
Western 1,162,040 Mishaba Laluo, Western Lolo, Xiangtang, Xinping Lalu,
Yangliu Lalu, Tusu, Gaiji, Jiantou Laluo, Xijima, Limi, Mili,
Lawu, Qiangyi, Western Samadu, Western Gepo,
Xuzhang Lalu, Eka, Western Gaisu, Suan, Pengzi
Northern 2,534,120 Shengba Nosu, Yinuo Nosu, Xiaoliangshan Nosu, Butuo Nosu,
Suodi, Tianba Nosu, Bai Yi, Naruo, Naru, Talu, Mixisu, Liwu,
Northern Awu, Tagu, Liude, Naza, Ta'er
Unclassified 55,490 Michi (Miqie), Jinghong Nasu, Apu, Muzi, Tanglang, Micha,
Ayizi, Guaigun

History

Some scholars believe that the Yi are descended from the ancient Qiang people of today's western China, who are also said to be the ancestors of the Tibetan, Naxi and Qiang peoples. They migrated from southeastern Tibet through Sichuan and into the Yunnan Province, where their largest populations can be found today.

They practice a form of animism, led by a shaman priest known as the Bimaw. They still retain a few ancient religious texts written in their unique pictographic script. Their religion also contains many elements of Daoism and Buddhism.

Many of the Yi in Liangshan and northwestern Yunnan practiced a complicated form of slavery. People were split into the nuohuo or Black Yi (nobles), qunuo or White Yi (commoners), and slaves. White Yi were free and could own property and slaves but were in a way tied to a lord. Other ethnic groups were held as slaves.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Legend

Most Yi believe they have the same ancestor, ꀉꁌꅋꃅ or ꀉꁌꐧꃅ (Axpu Ddutmu or Axpu Jjutmu). It is said that Apu Dumu married three wives and had six sons: each of the wives bore two sons. In the legend, the oldest two sons leading their tribes conquered other aborigines of Yunnan and began to reside in most of the territories of Yunnan. The youngest two sons led their tribes eastwards and were defeated by Han, before finally making western Guizhou their home and creating the largest quantity of Yi script documents. The other two sons led their tribes across the Jinsha River and dwelled in Liangshan. This group had close intermarriage with the local (Pup).

Known history

Most Yi live in Liangshan, Chuxiong, and Honghe. At the Lizhou archaeological site (礼州遗址) near Xichang of Liangshan, dating to 3,000 years ago, many artifacts of the Neolithic Age have been discovered. Although no evidence proves that these ancient cultures of the stone age have a direct connection with modern Yi people, their descendants, a local bronze culture, may have had some influence on Yi people, as the ancestors of Yi people had frequent contact and intermarriage with local tribes, such as Dian (), Qiong () and Zuo (), during their southwards migration from the north eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Today, the Yi people still call the city of Xichang as ꀒꎂ (Op Rro). In spite of the affix “or-”, the root “dro” is believed by some scholars to be related to the tribe Qiong (), as the pronunciation is quite close to the ancient pronunciation of the Chinese character "邛."

During the Han dynasty, the central sovereign of China conquered the valley of Anning River, which is a tributary of Yalong River, and founded a county there named Qiongdu ('Qiong capital'). The site is Xichang of present-day and from that time onwards, Xichang has become the bridge of Chengdu and Kunming across Yi area. Since Han dynasty, Yi people have been involved in the history of China. In the north dialect of modern Yi language, Chinese Han is still called ꉌꈲ (Hxie mgat), which is related to the Chinese word "汉家 (Hànjiā), which means household of Han.

After the Han dynasty, the Shu of the Three Kingdoms conducted several wars against the ancestors of Yi under the lead of Zhuge Liang. They defeated the king of Yi, ꂽꉼ (Mot Hop; 孟获) and expanded their conquered territory in Yi area. After that, the Jin Dynasty succeed Shu as the suzerainty of Yi area but with weak control.

After the Jin dynasty, central China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties with frequent wars against the invading nomads from the north and lost its control of Yi and Yi area.

Although the Sui dynasty reunited China, it did not retrieve control of Yi but had close communications with Han residential spots scattered within Yi area (most along Anning River). After the Sui dynasty's mere 37 years, the situation continued in Tang dynasty. During Sui and Tang dynasty, the local aborigines of present-day Yunnan and Liangshan were distinguished by Chinese Han as Wuman (乌蛮; 'black barbarian') and Baiman (白蛮; 'white barbarian'). Some scholars believe that Wuman is the ancestor of modern Yi while Baiman is the ancestor of modern Bai people (白族) of Yunnan.

The Wuman and Baiman people founded six independent cities on Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The cities were known as zhao (Chinese: ) in Chinese texts, meaning 'city chieftain'. In 649 the king Xinuluo (细奴逻) of the Mengshe Zhao (蒙舍诏) extended his city's territory into a kingdom that assumed the name Great Meng (大蒙国). Great Meng was near Erhai Lake. Yi people believe the capital of the Great Meng was located in the area of nowaday Weishan county. In 737 with the support of the Tang dynasty of China, King Piluoge (皮罗阁) of the Great Meng united the six cities (zhao) in succession, establishing a new kingdom. As the Great Meng was the most southern of the six, the Tang dynasty recorded the united Great Meng as Nanzhao (南诏), which means the southern city. Although academic arguments exist (see Controversy of Nanzhao), there is a popular view that the royal family of Nanzhao were Yi people and ministers were Bai people. In the Weishan county of today, the saga of King Piluoge is still widely told.

Tibet also noted the spring of Nanzhao, which in Tibetan is called Jang. Although Tibet had maintained suzerainty over Nanzhao for decades, Nanzhao finally turned to the Tang dynasty. At the era of King Geluofeng (阁罗凤), who was the son of King Piluoge, the Tang dynasty performed three expeditions against Nanzhao to conquer it, but all failed.

Nanzhao existed for 165 years until A.D. 902. After 35 years of tangled warfare, Duan Siping (段思平) of the Bai birth founded the Kingdom of Dali, succeeding the territory of Nanzhao. Most Yi of that time were under the ruling of Dali. Dali's sovereign existed for 316 years coterminous with the Song dynasty of central China, until it was conquered by Kublai Khan. During the era of Dali, Yi people lived in the territory of Dali but had little communication with the royalty of Dali.

Kublai Khan included Dali in his domain, grouping it with Tibet. The Yuan emperors remained firmly in control of the Yi people and the area they inhabited as part of Kublai Khan's Yunnan Xingsheng (云南行省) at current Yunnan, Guizhou and part of Sichuan. In order to enhance its sovereign over the area, the Yuan dynasty set up a dominion for Yi, Luoluo Xuanweisi (罗罗宣慰司), the name of which means local appeasement government for Lolos. Although technically under the rule of the Yuan emperor, the Yi still had autonomy during the Yuan dynasty. The gulf between aristocrats and the common people increased during this time.

Beginning with the Ming dynasty the Chinese empire expedited its cultural assimilation policy in southwestern China, spreading the policy of gaitu guiliu (改土归流; 'replacing tusi') [local chieftains] with ′normal′ officials"[13]). The governing power of many Yi feudal lords had previously been expropriated by the successors of officials assigned by the central government. With the progress of gaitu guiliu, the Yi area was dismembered into many communities both large and small, and it was difficult for the communities to communicate with each other as there were often Han-ruled areas between them.

The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty defeated Wu Sangui and took over the land of Yunnan and established a provincial government there. When Ortai became the Viceroy of Yunnan and Guizhou during the era of Yongzheng Emperor, the policy of gaitu guiliu and cultural assimilation against Yi were strengthened. Under these policies, Yi who lived near Kunming were forced to abandon their convention of traditional cremation and adopt burial, a policy which triggered rebellions among the Yi. The Qing dynasty suppressed these rebellions.

After the Second Opium War (1856–1860), many Christian missionaries from France and Great Britain visited the area in which the Yi lived. Although some missionaries believed that Yi of some areas such as Liangshan were not under the ruling of Qing dynasty and should be independent, most aristocrats insisted that Yi was a part of China despite their resentment against Qing rule.

Long Yun, a Yi, was the military governor of Yunnan, during the Republic of China rule on mainland China.

The Fourth Front Army of the CCP encountered the Yi people during the Long March, and many Yi joined the communist forces.[14]

After the establishment of the PRC, several Yi autonomous administrative districts of prefecture or county level were set up in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou. With the development of automotive traffic and telecommunications, the communications among different Yi areas have been increasing sharply.

Language

The Chinese government recognizes six mutually unintelligible Yi languages, from various branches of the Loloish family:[15]

Northern Yi is the largest with some two million speakers, and is the basis of the literary language. It is an analytic language.[16] There are also ethnically Yi languages of Vietnam which use the Yi script, such as Mantsi.

Many Yi in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi know Standard Chinese, and code-switching between Yi and Chinese is common.

Distribution

By province

By county

County-level distribution of the Yi 2000 census in China.

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >1% of county population.)

county/cityYi %Yi populationTotal population
Longlingezu autonomous county1.033,563347,462
Sichuan province2.582,122,38982,348,296
Panzhihua city10.11110,3261,091,657
Dong district1.253,945315,707
Xi district1.843,148170,862
Renhe district19.0638,907204,170
Miyi county13.2127,381207,300
Yanbian county19.0836,945193,618
Leshan city3.53117,3553,324,139
Jinkouhe district10.155,37352,916
Ebian Yi autonomous county30.6543,269141,166
Mabian Yi autonomous county39.1566,723170,425
Pingshan county2.005,004250,620
Yaan city2.0431,0131,522,845
Hanyuan county4.5115,686347,471
Shimian county11.1713,769123,261
Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture2.5622,946897,239
Luding county4.403,42477,855
Jiulong county37.0118,80650,816
Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture44.431,813,6834,081,697
Xichang city16.48101,369615,212
Muli Tibetan autonomous county27.7134,489124,462
Yanyuan county47.67149,568313,765
Dechang county23.1843,810188,980
Huili county17.3375,064433,185
Huidong county6.9124,279351,310
Ningnan county21.8537,134169,962
Puge county76.55106,521139,156
Butuo county95.44132,285138,604
Jinyang county78.42109,813140,028
Zhaojue county96.75200,951207,712
Xide county85.74118,048137,676
Mianning county33.39108,289324,332
Yuexi county72.54172,505237,800
Ganluo county68.66120,445175,426
Meigu county97.81172,356176,214
Leibo county51.36106,757207,873
Guizhou province2.39843,55435,247,695
Baiyun district1.041,961187,695
Qingzhen city1.657,761471,305
Liupanshui city9.56262,3082,744,085
Zhongshan district5.6425,549453,293
Liuzhite district11.3261,319541,762
Shuicheng county11.7079,339678,228
Pan county8.9796,1011,070,802
Qianxi'nan Bouyei Miao autonomous prefecture2.0558,7662,864,920
Xingyi city2.0214,521719,605
Xingren county2.4410,372425,091
Puan county2.666,905259,881
Qinglong county6.7617,436258,031
Anlong county2.289,094399,384
Bijie prefecture7.41468,8006,327,471
Bijie city4.2648,0941,128,230
Dafang county10.8492,295851,729
Qianxi county8.6760,420697,075
Jinsha county4.1720,696496,063
Zhijin county3.8131,420825,350
Nayong county5.7237,840661,772
Weining Yi Hui Miao autonomous county9.0695,6291,056,009
Hezhang county13.4882,406611,243
Yunnan province11.114,705,65842,360,089
Kunming city6.65384,5315,781,294
Wuhua district2.5610,580413,420
Panlong district1.595,468344,754
Guandu district3.3847,3111,398,305
Xishan district5.0730,617603,363
Dongchuan district3.268,984275,564
Chenggong county1.222,202180,685
Jinning county7.6420,443267,739
Fumin county7.4410,422140,046
Yiliang county6.0624,051396,677
Shilin Yi autonomous county32.4972,779223,978
Luquan Yi Miao autonomous county22.4596,388429,355
Xundian Hui Yi autonomous county8.9142,934481,721
Anning city3.349,872295,173
Qujing city3.85210,3515,466,089
Qilin district2.1614,041648,956
Malong county3.416,326185,766
Shizong county6.2121,718349,770
Luoping county6.4433,159515,211
Fuyuan county7.1647,076657,474
Huize county2.0016,910844,485
Zhanyi county2.168,406389,838
Xuanwei city4.4657,7081,292,825
Yuxi city19.32400,4122,073,005
Hongta district9.0236,905409,044
Jiangchuan county5.4814,087257,078
Chengjiang county1.822,726149,748
Tonghai county5.8216,017275,063
Huaning county21.2941,844196,519
Yimen county26.7545,362169,581
Eshan Yi autonomous county52.3679,289151,426
Xinping Yi Dai autonomous county46.20122,259264,615
Yuanjiang Hani Yi Dai autonomous county20.9741,923199,931
Zhaotong prefecture3.23148,5214,592,388
Zhaotong city2.5818,758727,959
Ludian county2.518,686345,740
Qiaojia county2.8613,183461,034
Daguan county1.984,667235,802
Yongshan county4.7217,130362,943
Zhenxiong county5.7863,4631,097,093
Yiliang county4.2420,269477,811
Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture26.31668,9372,542,530
Chuxiong city19.0595,959503,682
Shuangbai county43.1066,110153,403
Mouding county22.0343,032195,322
Nanhua county36.0782,223227,970
Yaoan county25.3850,526199,071
Dayao county29.5282,620279,838
Yongren county49.4451,223103,606
Yuanmou county24.2549,179202,779
Wuding county30.1879,254262,601
Lufeng county16.6168,811414,258
Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture23.57973,7324,130,463
Gejiu city20.2791,902453,311
Kaiyuan city33.0996,647292,039
Mengzi county29.3899,917340,051
Pingbian Miao autonomous county18.5127,596149,088
Jianshui county29.02149,071513,712
Shiping county53.67148,987277,580
Mile county30.92153,235495,642
Luxi county7.9929,202365,585
Yuanyang county24.0187,137362,950
Honghe county14.2338,086267,627
Jinping Miao Yao Dai autonomous county11.9737,837316,171
Lüchun county4.929,894201,256
Hekou Yao autonomous county4.424,22195,451
Wenshan Zhuang Miao autonomous prefecture10.62347,1943,268,553
Wenshan county17.2874,255429,639
Yanshan county21.1192,356437,508
Xichou county3.959,332236,120
Malipo county2.256,036267,986
Maguan county9.1632,056350,002
Qiubei county18.0578,327434,009
Guangnan county5.8442,675730,376
Funing county3.1712,157382,913
Simao prefecture16.58411,1202,480,346
Simao city15.1234,904230,834
Puer Hani Yi autonomous county19.4536,589188,106
Mojiang Hani autonomous county9.2332,812355,364
Jingdong Yi autonomous county39.92140,556352,089
Jinggu Dai Yi autonomous county20.5959,476288,794
Zhenyuan Yi Hani Lahu autonomous county27.2856,119205,709
Jiangcheng Hani Yi autonomous county13.4713,503100,243
Menglian Dai Lahu Va autonomous county2.404,999208,593
Lancang Lahu autonomous county6.7431,255464,016
Ximeng Va autonomous county1.0590786,598
Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture5.6155,772993,397
Jinghong city5.5624,673443,672
Menghai county2.287,175314,068
Mengla county10.1523,924235,657
Dali Bai autonomous prefecture12.94426,6343,296,552
Dali city2.9515,385521,169
Yangbi Yi autonomous county46.0948,565105,380
Xiangyun county7.2631,733437,371
Binchuan county6.2720,332324,412
Midu county8.3524,791296,860
Nanjian Yi autonomous county47.2499,159209,887
Weishan Yi Hui autonomous county34.07100,879296,124
Yongping county26.5647,391178,438
Yunlong county5.4510,739196,978
Eryuan county3.009,443315,003
Jianchuan county2.884,771165,900
Heqing county5.4013,446249,030
Baoshan prefecture3.2375,8772,348,315
Baoshan city4.6139,025846,865
Shidian county3.6211,360314,187
Longling county1.834,758260,097
Changning county6.0420,123333,241
Lijiang prefecture18.68210,4311,126,646
Lijiang Naxi autonomous county2.428,871366,705
Yongsheng county12.4346,703375,769
Huaping county8.2612,808154,968
Ninglang Yi autonomous county61.97142,049229,204
Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture1.999,805491,824
Lushui county2.283,915171,974
Lanping Bai Pumi autonomous county2.915,727196,977
Diqing Tibetan autonomous prefecture3.2911,616353,518
Zhongdian county6.509,586147,416
Weixi Lisu autonomous county1.382,016146,017
Lincang prefecture15.77367,8802,332,570
Lincang county5.4315,478285,163
Fengqing county27.61117,883426,943
Yun county37.96158,099416,507
Yongde county8.6829,521339,918
Zhenkang county17.1931,334182,258
Shuangjiang Lahu Va Blang Dai autonomous county1.572,605165,982
Gengma Dai Va autonomous county3.5711,193313,220

Script

The Yi script was originally logosyllabic like Chinese, and dates to at least the 13th century. There were perhaps 10,000 characters, many of which were regional, since the script had never been standardized across the Yi peoples. A number of works of history, literature, and medicine, as well as genealogies of the ruling families, written in the Old Yi script are still in use, and there are Old Yi stone tablets and steles in the area.

Under the Communist government, the script was standardized as a syllabary. Syllabic Yi is widely used in books, newspapers, and street signs.

Culture

The Yi play a number of traditional musical instruments, including large plucked and bowed string instruments,[17] as well as wind instruments called bawu (巴乌) and mabu (马布). The Yi also play the hulu sheng, though unlike other minority groups in Yunnan, the Yi do not play the hulu sheng for courtship or love songs (aiqing). The kouxian, a small four-pronged instrument similar to the Jew's harp, is another commonly found instrument among the Liangshan Yi. Kouxian songs are most often improvised and are supposed to reflect the mood of the player or the surrounding environment. Kouxian songs can also occasionally function in the aiqing form. Yi dance is perhaps the most commonly recognized form of musical performance, as it is often performed during publicly sponsored holidays and/or festival events.

Yi people's son's given name is patronymic, based on the last one or two syllable of father's name.

Artist Colette Fu, great granddaughter of Long Yun has spent time from 1996 till present photographing the Yi community in Yunnan province. Her series of pop-up books, titled We are Tiger Dragon People, includes images of many Yi groups.[18][19]

Religion

Bimoism

Bimoism is the ethnic religion of the Yi. Shaman-priests of this faith are known as bimo, which means "master of scriptures". Bimo officiate at births, funerals, weddings and holidays. They are often seen along the street consulting ancient scripts. The Yi worship deified ancestors similarly to the Chinese traditional religion practitioners, besides gods of local nature: fire, hills, trees, rocks, water, earth, sky, wind, and forests.

Ritual performances play a major role in daily life through healing, exorcism, asking for rain, cursing enemies, blessing, divination and analysis of one's relationship with the gods. They believe dragons protect villages against bad spirits, and demons cause diseases. However, the Yi dragon is neither similar to dragon in Western culture nor the same as that in Han culture. After someone dies they sacrifice a pig or sheep at the doorway to maintain relationship with the deceased spirit. The Yi believe that bad spirits cause illness, poor harvests and other misfortunes and inhabit all material things. The Yi also believe in multiple souls. At death, one soul remains to watch the grave while the other is eventually reincarnated into some living form.

The Nosu form of Bimoism (the religion of the Nosu or Nuosu subgroup of the Yi) distinguishes two sorts of shamans: the bimo and the suni, respectively hereditary and ordained priests. One can become bimo by patrilineal descent after a time of apprenticeship or formally acknowledging an old bimo as the teacher, a suni must be elected. Bimo are the most revered, to the point that the Nosu religion is also called "bimo religion". Bimo can read Yi scripts while suni cannot. Both can perform rituals, but only bimo can perform rituals linked to death. For most cases, suni only perform some exorcism to cure diseases. Generally, suni can only be from humble civil birth while bimo can be of both aristocratic and humble families.

In recent decades the Bimoist faith has undergone a revival, with large temples built in the early 2010s.[20][21][22]

Other religions

In Yunnan, some of the Yi have adopted Buddhism as a result of exchanges with other predominantly Buddhist ethnic groups present in Yunnan, such as the Dai and the Tibetans. The most important god of Yi Buddhism is Mahākāla, a wrathful deity found in Vajrayana and Tibetan Buddhism. In the 20th century, some Yi people in China converted to Christianity, after the arrival of Gladstone Porteous in 1904 and, later, medical missionaries such as Alfred James Broomhall, Janet Broomhall, Ruth Dix and Joan Wales of the China Inland Mission. According to missionary organization OMF International, the exact number of Yi Christians is not known. In 1991 it was reported that there were as many as 1,500,000 Yi Christians in Yunnan Province, especially in Luquan County where there are more than 20 churches.[23]

Notable people

  • Zhang Liyin, (1989-) singer
  • Jike Junyi, (1988-) singer
  • Long Yun, (1884-1962) governor and warlord of Yunnan Province
  • Lu Han, (1895-1974) general and governor of Yunnan Province

See also

References

Citations

  1. "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. Nuosu: ꆈꌠ [nɔ̄sū]; Hanzi transcription: 诺苏; Nuòsū; Chinese: 彝族; pinyin: Yízú; Vietnamese: Lô Lô; Thai: โล-โล, Lo-Lo
  3. "Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn". china.org.cn. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  4. Some scholars, however, argue that the Nuosu-series appellations are from the word "black" instead (, Nuo).
  5. Ramsey, Robert S. (1987). The Languages of China, p. 160. Princeton University Press.
  6. Benedict, Paul K. (1987). "Autonyms: ought or ought not." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10: 188. Italics in original.
  7. Martin Schoenhals Intimate Exclusion: Race and Caste Turned Inside Out 2003- Page 26 "A non-slave-owning Black Yi, or a poor one, was nonetheless always higher in caste status than any White Yi, even a wealthy one or one owning slaves, and the Black Yi manifested this superiority by refusing to marry White Yi even if the latter ..."
  8. Barbara A. West Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania 2009 - Page 910 "Yi society prior to the revolution in 1949 was divided into four ranked classes or castes: Nuohuo, or Black Yi; Qunuo, or White Yi; Ajia; and Xiaxi. The Nuohuo, or Black Yi, was the highest and smallest caste at just about 7 percent of the ..."
  9. Yongming Zhou Anti-Drug Crusades in Twentieth-Century - China: Nationalism, ... - 1999 - Page 150 "The black Yi (about 7 percent of the population) made up the aristocratic ruling class, and the white Yi held subordinate status. Within the white Yi, however, there were three subgroups: Qunuo, Anjia, and Jiaxi. Qunuo (about 50 percent of the ...")
  10. S. Robert Ramsey The Languages of China 1987- Page 253 "The Black Yi looked down on farming, and all cultivation was traditionally done by White Yi and slaves. The Black Yi were responsible only for administration and military protection. Even so, however, they usually took great care to tend to their ..."
  11. Stevan Harrell Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China 2001 - Page 174 "One village is for Black Yi, who speak Black Yi language. One village is for White Yi, who speak White Yi language. One place is for Red Yi, who speak Red Yi language. One village is for Gan Yi, who speak Gan Yi language. One village is for ..."
  12. Daniel H. Bays Christianity in China: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present 1999- Page 144 "In the local hierarchy of ethnic groups, they ranked near the bottom, below the Chinese, the Yi aristocracy (Black Yi) and free men (White Yi), and the Hui, closer to the Yi slave caste."
  13. Ulrich Theobald, ChinaKnowledge.de: An Encyclopedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art, s.v. "gaitu guiliu", http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Terms/gaituguiliu.html
  14. Edgar, Snow. "Red Star Over China," 225. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1972.
  15. Andrew West, The Yi People and Language
  16. 向晓红; 曹幼南 (2006). "英语和彝语的语法比较研究". -西南民族大学学报(人文社科版). doi:10.3969/j.issn.1004-3926.2006.08.014.
  17. "彝族人网-中国彝族文化网络博物馆,创建最早,规模最大的彝族文化门户网站-网站地图". yizuren.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  18. Fu, Colette (2013). Yi costume festival. Colette Fu. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  19. Fu, Colette; Wasserman, Krystyna (2016). Wanderer/Wonderer: Pop-Ups by Colette Fu : October 14, 2016-February 26, 2017. National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  20. 彝族六祖分支.
  21. 彝族分支圣地,神奇乌蒙昭通.
  22. 2012年中华彝族祭祖节祭祖大典在南诏土主庙举行.
  23. "OMF International". Retrieved 18 February 2008.

Sources

  • Cheng Xiamin. A Survey of the Demographic Problems of the Yi Nationality in the Greater and Lesser Liang Mountains. Social Sciences in China. 3: Autumn 1984, 207–231.
  • Clements, Ronald. Point Me to the Skies: the amazing story of Joan Wales. (Monarch Publications, 2007), ISBN 978-0-8254-6157-6.
  • Dessaint, Alain Y. Minorities of Southwest China: An Introduction to the Yi (Lolo) and Related Peoples. (New Haven: HRAF Press, 1980).
  • Du Ruofu and Vip, Vincent F. Ethnic Groups in China. (Beijing: Science Press, 1993).
  • Goullart, Peter. Princes of the Black Bone. (John Murray, London, 1959).
  • Grimes, Barbara F. Ethnologue. (Dallas: Wycliffe Bible Translators, 1988).
  • Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers. The History of the History of the Yi. Edited by Stevan Harrell. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995).
  • Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China. Edited by Stevan Harrell. (Berkeley / Los Angeles / London: University of California Press, 2001), ISBN 0-520-21988-0.
  • China's Minority Nationalities. Edited by Ma Yin. (Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1994).
  • Zhang Weiwen and Zeng Qingnan. In Search of China's Minorities. (Beijing: New World Press).
  • Ritual for Expelling Ghosts: A religious Classic of the Yi nationality in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan (The Taipei Ricci Institute, Nov. 1998), ISBN 957-9185-60-3.

Bibliography

  • Benoît Vermander. L'enclos à moutons: un village nuosu du sud-ouest de la Chine. Paris: Les Indes savantes (2007).

Further reading

  • Ollone, Henri d', vicomte (1912) In Forbidden China: the d'Ollone mission, 1906–1909, China--Tibet--Mongolia; translated from the French of the second edition by Bernard Miall. Chapters II-V & VII. London: T. Fisher Unwin
  • Pollard, S. (1921) In Unknown China: Record of the Observations, Adventures and Experiences of a Pioneer Missionary During a Prolonged Sojourn Amongst the Wild and Unknown Nosu Tribe of Western China London, Seeley Service and Co. Limited
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