Yakutia or Yakutiya[10] (Russian: Якутия, tr. Yakutiya, IPA: [jɪˈkutʲɪjə]; Yakut: Саха Сирэ), officially known as Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (Russian: Республика Саха (Якутия), tr. Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə sɐˈxa jɪˈkutʲɪjə]; Yakut: Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, romanized: Sakha Öröspüübülükete, IPA: [saˈxa øɾøsˈpyːbylykete]), is a federal Russian republic.

Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
Республика Саха (Якутия)
Other transcription(s)
  YakutСаха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ


Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Sakha Republic
Coordinates: 66°24′N 129°10′E
Federal districtFar Eastern[1]
Economic regionFar Eastern[2]
EstablishedApril 27, 1922[3]
  BodyState Assembly (Il Tumen)[4]
  Head[4]Aysen Nikolayev
  Total3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
Area rank1st
 (2010 Census)[6]
964,330 (+0.6%)
  Density0.31/km2 (0.81/sq mi)
Time zonesee Time zones
ISO 3166 codeRU-SA
License plates14
OKTMO ID98000000
Official languagesRussian;[8] Yakut[9]

It had a population of 958,528 at the 2010 Census,[6] mainly ethnic Yakuts and Russians.

Comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi).[11] Its capital is the city of Yakutsk. It is also known for its extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, and regular winter averages commonly being below −35 °C (−31 °F) in Yakutsk. The hypercontinental tendencies also result in very warm summers for much of the republic.


Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Island in the far north and is washed by the Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas of the Arctic Ocean. These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the Northern Hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year. New Siberian Islands are a part of the republic's territory. After Nunavut was separated from Canada's Northwest Territories, Sakha became the largest subnational entity (statoid) in the world, with an area of 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi),[11] slightly smaller than the territory of India (3.3 million km2).

Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which greatly influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south. Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and almost 90% of the cover is larch.

The Sakha Republic is the site of Pleistocene Park, a project directed at recreating Pleistocene tundra grasslands by stimulating the growth of grass with the introduction of animals which thrived in the region during the late Pleistocene — early Holocene period.

In recent years, global warming has caused the melting of previously frozen soils. Thousands of homes are in danger of collapsing in the mud in summer, while northern villages are overwhelmed by floods.[12]

Time zones

Sakha Republic is the only subject of Russia which uses more than one time zone. Sakha spans three time zones (no Daylight Saving Time in summer)

  1. Yakutsk Time Zone (YAKT, UTC+9). Covers the republic's territory to the west of the Lena River as well as the territories of the districts located on both sides of the Lena River.
  2. Vladivostok Time Zone (VLAT, UTC+10). Covers most of the republic's territory located between 127°E and 140°E longitude. Districts: Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansky.[13]
  3. Magadan Time Zone (SRET, UTC+11). Covers most of the republic's territory located east of 140°E longitude. Districts: Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky.


The largest river is the navigable Lena River (4,400 km). As it moves northward, it includes hundreds of small tributaries located in the Verkhoyansk Range.


There are over 800,000 lakes in the republic.[14] Major lakes and reservoirs include:


Sakha's greatest mountain range, the Verkhoyansk Range, runs parallel and east of the Lena River, forming a great arc that begins in the Sea of Okhotsk and ends in the Laptev Sea.

The Chersky Range runs east of the Verkhoyansk Range and has the highest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda (3,147 m). The second highest peak is Peak Mus-Khaya reaching 3,011 m.

The Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the south.


The Republic's extensive coastline contains a number of peninsulas; from west to east the most prominent are:

  • Uryung-Tumus Peninsula
  • Nordvik Peninsula
  • Terpyay-Tumsa Peninsula
  • Bykovsky Peninsula
  • Buor-Khaya Peninsula
  • Manyko Peninsula
  • Shirokostan Peninsula
  • Merkushina Strelka Peninsula
  • Lopatka Peninsula


From west to east the main islands of Sakha are:

Natural resources

Sakha is well endowed with raw materials. The soil contains large reserves of oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold, silver, tin, tungsten and many others. Sakha produces 99% of all Russian diamonds and over 25% of the diamonds mined in the world.[15][16]


Sakha is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere. Some of the lowest natural temperatures ever recorded have been here. The Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold is at Verkhoyansk, where the temperatures reached as low as −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) in 1892, and at Oymyakon, where the temperatures reached as low as a merciless −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) in January 1924.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yakutiya Russia[17][18][19][20]
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

Average annual precipitation: 200 mm (central parts) to 700 mm (mountains of Eastern Sakha).

Administrative divisions



Siberia, and particularly Yakutia is of paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or permafrost. In 2015, the frozen bodies of Dina and Uyan the cave lion cubs were found. The region was also the location the bodies of Yuka and another Woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a Woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, and bison and horses from Yukagir.[21]

Ymyakhtakh culture (c. 2200–1300 BC) was a Late Neolithic culture of Siberia, with a very large archaeological horizon. Its origins were in Sakha, in the Lena river basin. From there it spread both to the east and to the west.[22]

Early history

The Turkic Sakha people or Yakuts probably settled in the area in the 13th and 14th centuries, migrating north from the Lake Baikal area to the middle Lena. From their new center along the middle Lena, they gradually expanded northeast and west beyond the Lena basin towards the Arctic Ocean.

The name Sakha is of Turkic origin, "saqa-saha" meaning "cue" or "bat". The term Yakut is a Turkic word, a corruption of zhaqut – yakut "precious stone", referring to the ruby. The Sakha displaced earlier, much smaller populations who lived on hunting and reindeer herding, introducing the pastoralist economy of Central Asia. The indigenous populations of Paleosiberian and Tungusic stock were mostly assimilated to the Sakha by the 17th century.[23]

Russian conquest

The Tsardom of Russia began its conquest of the region in the 17th century, moving east after the defeat of the Khanate of Sibir. Tygyn, a king of the Khangalassky Yakuts, granted territory for Russian settlement in return for a military pact that included war against indigenous rebels of all North Eastern Asia (Magadan, Chukotka, Kamchatka and Sakhalin). Kull, a king of the Megino-Khangalassky Yakuts, began a Sakha conspiracy by allowing the first stockade construction.

In August 1638, the Moscow Government formed a new administrative unit with the administrative center of Lensky Ostrog (Fort Lensky), the future city of Yakutsk, which had been founded by Pyotr Beketov in 1632.

The arrival of the Russian settlers at the remote Russkoye Ustye in the Indigirka delta likely also dates to the 17th century.[24] The Siberian Governorate was established as part of the Russian Tsardom in 1708.

Russian settlers began to form a community in the 18th century, which adopted certain Yakut customs and was often called Yakutyane (Якутя́не) or Lena Early Settlers (ленские старожилы). However, the influx of later settlers assimilated them into the Russian mainstream by the 20th century.

Russian Empire

In an administrative reform of 1782, Irkutsk Governorate was created. In 1805, Yakutsk Oblast was split from Irkutsk Governorate.

Yakutsk Oblast in the early 19th century marked the easternmost territory of the Russian Empire, including such Far Eastern (Pacific) territories as were acquired, known as Okhotsk Okrug within Yakutsk Oblast. With the formation of Primorskaya Oblast in 1856, the Russian territories of the Pacific were detached from Yakutia.

The Russians established agriculture in the Lena River basin. The members of religious groups who were exiled to Sakha in the second half of the 19th century began to grow wheat, oats, and potatoes. The fur trade established a cash economy. Industry and transport began to develop at the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the Soviet period. This was also the beginning of geological prospecting, mining, and local lead production. The first steam-powered ships and barges arrived.

Yakutia's remoteness, even compared to the rest of Siberia, made it a place of exile of choice for both Tsarist and Communist governments of Russia. Among the famous Tsarist-era exiles were the democratic writer Nikolay Chernyshevsky; Doukhobor conscientious objectors, whose story was told to Leo Tolstoy by Vasily Pozdnyakov; the Socialist Revolutionary and writer Vladimir Zenzinov, who left an interesting account of his Arctic experiences; and Polish socialist activist Wacław Sieroszewski, who pioneered in ethnographic research on Yakut people.

Soviet era

On April 27, 1922, former Yakutsk Oblast was proclaimed the Yakut ASSR, although in fact the eastern part of the territory, including the city of Yakutsk, was controlled by the White Russians (see Yakut revolt).

In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Yakutia was recognized in Moscow as the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.

Yakutia is historically part of Russian Siberia, but since the formation of the Far Eastern Federal District in 2000, it is administratively part of the Russian Far East.


Population: 958,528(2010 Census);[6] 949,280(2002 Census);[25] 1,081,408(1989 Census).[26] Population density is 0.31 per km2 (2019), which is one of the lowest between Russian districts. Urban population - 65,45% (2018). [27]


Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 674 13,899 5,700 8,199 20.6 8.5 12.2
1975 775 15,636 6,242 9,394 20.2 8.1 12.1
1980 887 18,132 7,501 10,631 20.4 8.5 12.0
1985 1,002 22,823 7,266 15,557 22.8 7.3 15.5
1990 1,115 21,662 7,470 14,192 19.4 6.7 12.7 2.46
1991 1,110 19,805 7,565 12,240 17.8 6.8 11.0 2.32
1992 1,090 17,796 8,710 9,086 16.3 8.0 8.3 2.17
1993 1,072 16,771 9,419 7,352 15.6 8.8 6.9 2.08
1994 1,051 16,434 10,371 6,063 15.6 9.9 5.8 2.07
1995 1,029 15,731 10,079 5,652 15.3 9.8 5.5 2.01
1996 1,015 14,584 9,638 4,946 14.4 9.5 4.9 1.88
1997 1,003 13,909 9,094 4,815 13.9 9.1 4.8 1.81
1998 986 13,640 8,856 4,784 13.8 9.0 4.9 1.80
1999 970 12,724 9,480 3,244 13.1 9.8 3.3 1.71
2000 960 13,147 9,325 3,822 13.7 9.7 4.0 1.77
2001 954 13,262 9,738 3,524 13.9 10.2 3.7 1.78
2002 950 13,887 9,700 4,187 14.6 10.2 4.4 1.85
2003 949 14,224 9,660 4,564 15.0 10.2 4.8 1.86
2004 950 14,716 9,692 5,024 15.5 10.2 5.3 1.91
2005 950 13,591 9,696 3,895 14.3 10.2 4.1 1.74
2006 950 13,713 9,245 4,468 14.4 9.7 4.7 1.73
2007 951 15,268 9,179 6,089 16.1 9.7 6.4 1.92
2008 953 15,363 9,579 5,784 16.1 10.1 6.1 1.92
2009 955 15,970 9,353 6,617 16.7 9.8 6.9 2.00
2010 958 16,109 9,402 6,707 16.8 9.8 7.0 2.02
2011 957 16,402 8,992 7,410 17.1 9.4 7.7 2.06
2012 956 16,998 8,918 8,080 17.8 9.3 8.5 2.17
2013 955 16,704 8,351 8,353 17.5 8.7 8.8 2.17
2014 956 17,010 8,209 8,801 17.8 8.6 9.2 2.25
2015 958 16,459 8,233 8,226 17.1 8.6 8.5 2.19
2016 961 15,424 8,052 7,372 16.0 8.4 7.6 2.08(e)
2017 963 13,954 7,817 6,137 14.5 8.1 6.4

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:[6]

Historical population figures are shown below:

1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Yakuts 235,926 81.6% 233,273 56.5% 226,053 46.4% 285,749 43.0% 313,917 36.9% 365,236 33.4% 432,290 45.5% 466,492 49.9%
Dolgans 0 0.0% 10 0.0% 64 0.0% 408 0.0% 1,272 0.1% 1,906 0.2%
Evenks 13,502 4.7% 10,432 2.5% 9,505 2.0% 9,097 1.4% 11,584 1.4% 14,428 1.3% 18,232 1.9% 21,008 2.2%
Evens 738 0.3% 3,133 0.8% 3,537 0.7% 6,471 1.0% 5,763 0.7% 8,668 0.8% 11,657 1.2% 15,071 1.6%
Yukaghir 396 0.1% 267 0.1% 285 0.1% 400 0.1% 526 0.1% 697 0.1% 1,097 0.1% 1,281 0.1%
Chukchis 1,298 0.4% 400 0.1% 325 0.1% 387 0.1% 377 0.0% 473 0.0% 602 0.1% 670 0.1%
Russians 30,156 10.4% 146,741 35.5% 215,328 44.2% 314,308 47.3% 429,588 50.4% 550,263 50.3% 390,671 41.2% 353,649 37.8%
Ukrainians 138 0.0% 4,229 1.0% 12,182 2.5% 20,253 3.0% 46,326 5.4% 77,114 7.0% 34,633 3.6% 20,341 2.2%
Tatars 1,671 0.6% 4,420 1.1% 5,172 1.1% 7,678 1.2% 10.976 1.3% 17,478 1.6% 10,768 1.1% 8,122 0.9%
Others 5,260 1.8% 10,303 2.5% 14,956 3.1% 19,770 3.0% 32,719 3.8% 59,300 5.4% 48,058 5.1% 46,124 4.9%
1 23,864 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[28]


The official languages are both Russian and Sakha, also known as Yakut, which is spoken by approximately 40% of the population. The Yakut language is a member of the Turkic language family.


Religion in Sakha Republic as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[29][30]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

Before the arrival of the Russian Empire, the majority of the local population was Tengrist, similar to the other Turkic people of Central Asia, or in Paleoasian indigenous shamanism with both 'light' (community leading) and 'dark' (healing through spirit journey) shamans. Under the Russians, the local population was converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and required to take Orthodox Christian names, but in practice generally continued to follow traditional religions. During the Soviet era, most or all of the shamans died without successors.

In the 1990s, a neopagan shamanist movement called aiyy yeurekhé was founded by the controversial journalist Ivan Ukhkhan and a philologist calling himself Téris.[31] This group and others cooperated to build a shaman temple in downtown Yakutsk in 2002.[32]

Currently, while Orthodox Christianity maintains a following (however, with very few priests willing to be stationed outside of Yakutsk), there is interest and activity toward renewing the traditional religions. As of 2008, Orthodox leaders described the worldview of the republic's indigenous population (or, rather, those among the population who are not completely indifferent to religion) as dvoyeverie (dual belief system), or a "tendency toward syncretism", as evidenced by the locals sometimes first inviting a shaman, and then an Orthodox priest to carry out their rites in connection with some event in their life.[33]

According to the Information Center under the President of Sakha Republic (Информационный центр при Президенте РС(Я)), the religious demography of the republic was as follows:[34] Orthodoxy: 44.9%, Shamanism: 26.2%, Non-religious: 23.0%, New religious movements: 2.4%, Islam: 1.2%, Buddhism: 1.0%, Protestantism: 0.9%, Catholicism: 0.4%.

According to a 2012 survey,[29] 37.8% of the population of Yakutia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 13% to Tengrism or Yakut shamanism, 2% to Islam, 1% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% to forms of Protestantism, and 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. In addition, 26% of the population deems itself atheist, 17% is "spiritual but not religious", and 1.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[29]


The head of government in Sakha is the Head (previously President). The first Head of the Sakha Republic was Mikhail Yefimovich Nikolayev.[35] As of 2010, the president is Yegor Borisov, who took office on May 31, 2010; his vice president is Yevgeniya Mikhaylova.

The supreme legislative body of state authority in Sakha is a unicameral State Assembly known as the Il Tumen. The government of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic is the executive body of state authority.

The republic fosters close cultural, political, economic, and industrial relations with the independent Turkic states through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council and the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture.[36][37][38]


Industry generates slightly above 50% of the gross national product of Sakha, stemming primarily from mineral exploitation. Industrial enterprises are concentrated in the capital Yakutsk, as well as in Aldan, Mirny, Neryungri, Pokrovsk, and Udachny. The diamond, gold, and tin ore mining industries are the major focus of the economy. Uranium ore is beginning to be mined. The Turkic-speaking Sakha people are engaged in politics, government, finance, economy, and cattle-breeding (horses and cows for milk and meat). The Paleoasian indigenous peoples are hunters, fishermen, and reindeer herders. As of 2008, Sakha Republic is the 19th most developed federal subject in Russia.

The largest companies in the region include Alrosa, Yakutugol, Yakutskenergo, Yakutia Airlines.[39]


Water transport ranks first for cargo turnover. There are six river ports, two seaports (Tiksi and Zelyony Mys). Four shipping companies, including the Arctic Sea Shipping Company, operate in the republic. The republic's main waterway is the Lena River, which links Yakutsk with the rail station of Ust-Kut in Irkutsk Oblast.

Air transport is the most important for transporting people. Airlines connect the republic with most regions of Russia. Yakutsk Airport has an international terminal.

Two federal roads pass the republic. They are Yakutsk–Skovorodino (A360 Lena highway) and Yakutsk–Magadan (M56 Kolyma Highway). However, due to the presence of permafrost, use of asphalt is not practical, and therefore the roads are made of clay. When heavy rains blow over the region, the roads often turn to mud, sometimes stranding hundreds of travelers in the process.[40]

The BerkakitTommot railroad is currently in operation. It links the Baikal Amur Mainline with the industrial centers in South Yakutia. Construction of the Amur Yakutsk Mainline continues northward; the railway was completed to Nizhny Bestyakh, across the river from Yakutsk, in 2013. Though this one track railroad from Tommot to Nizhny Bestyakh is under temporary operation (30% of its full capacity), the main customer – the Federal agency for railways declared that this railroad will be in full operation in fall of 2015. Also the private company is now constructing the transport and logistics center in Nizhny Bestyakh.


The most important facilities of higher education include North-Eastern Federal University (previously Yakutsk State University) and Yakutsk State Agricultural Academy.


The State Russian drama theatre named after A. S. Pushkin; the Sakha Theater named after P. A. Oiyunsky; the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named after D. K. Sivtsev; and Suorun Omoloon, Young Spectator's Theatre are all points of interest in the city.

There are a number of museums as well. These include the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha, the Museum of Local Lore and History named after E. Yaroslavsky, and the Khomus Museum and Museum of Permafrost.

National days

Notable people

See also



  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1630ff.
  4. Constitution of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic 53.1
  5. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  6. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. Constitution of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, Article 46
  10. "Sakha | republic, Russia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  11. Rosstat (Russian Statistical Service), 2010 Archived October 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (xls). Retrieved June 15, 2012.
  12. https://www.lemonde.fr/big-browser/article/2019/03/28/aux-etats-unis-des-centaines-de-villes-croulant-sous-leurs-dechets-ne-recyclent-plus_5442790_4832693.html
  13. New Russian Time Zones as of August 31, 2011 according to Decree 725 of the Government of the Russian Federation, World Time Zone, August 31, 2011.
  14. Archived January 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  15. Yakovleva, Natalia P. (2000). "Natural resource use in the Russian North: a case study of diamond mining in the Republic of Sakha". Environmental Management and Health. 11 (4): 318–336. doi:10.1108/09566160010372743. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  16. Bohlen, Celestine (1992). "Poor Region in Russia Lays Claim to Its Diamonds". New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  17. "CLIMATE Olyokminsk". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  18. "CLIMATE Oimjakon". pogodaikilmat.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  19. "CLIMATE Verkhoyansk". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  20. "CLIMATE Yakutsk". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  21. "Meet this extinct cave lion, at least 10,000 years old – world exclusive". siberiantimes.com. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  22. Kicki Näslund, Short summary of Siberian pre-history and cultures – Academia.edu
  23. "Scott Polar Research Institute — Republic of Sakha". Spri.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
  24. А. И. Гоголев. "История Якутии: (Обзор исторических событий до начала ХХ в.)". (A. I. Gogolev. History of Yakutia: Review of Historical Events to the beginning of the 20th century Archived May 27, 2005, at the Wayback Machine) Yakutsk, 1999.
  25. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  26. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
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  • Верховный Совет Республики Саха (Якутия). 4 апреля 1992 г. «Конституция (основной закон) Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Конституционного закона №581-З 53-IV от 22 июля 2008 г. (Supreme Council of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. April 4, 1992 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #581-Z 53-IV of July 22 2008. ).

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