The XFL is a planned professional American football league owned by Vince McMahon's Alpha Entertainment, and is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut. It is the successor to the original XFL, which was controlled by the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) and NBC, and ran for a single season in 2001. The league will follow a similar structure as the original XFL did in 2001, with eight teams, centrally owned and operated by the league (as opposed to the franchise model, with each team having different ownership groups) and spread across the United States in markets currently or recently represented by a National Football League (NFL) franchise, competing in a ten-game season and a two-week postseason in the winter and spring months, after Super Bowl LIV.
|Upcoming season or competition:|
|Inaugural season||2020 (planned)|
|Owner(s)||Alpha Entertainment LLC|
|No. of teams||8|
In announcing the reformed XFL, McMahon stated that while it would share its name and trademark with the previous incarnation, it will not rely on professional wrestling-inspired features and entertainment elements as its predecessor did, instead aiming to create a league with fewer off-field controversies and faster, simpler play compared to the NFL.
The XFL originally ran for a single season in 2001, as a joint venture between WWF and NBC spearheaded by Vince McMahon and NBC executive Dick Ebersol. The league attempted to be a competitor to the National Football League—the predominant professional league of American football in the United States (and where NBC had lost its broadcast rights to CBS three years earlier), running during the late winter and early spring to take advantage of lingering desire for football after the end of the NFL season. It featured various modifications to the rules of football in order to increase its intensity, as well as on-air innovations such as Skycams, placing microphones on players, and in-game interviews with players. The league was ultimately criticized for relying too heavily on "sports entertainment" gimmicks similar to professional wrestling (including emphasizing violence and sex appeal as part of its identity), and for the lack of high-level talent among its players. Despite strong ratings for its first games, viewership eventually nosedived, and the league folded after the conclusion of the inaugural season. Both partners lost $35 million on the XFL, and McMahon eventually conceded that the league was a "colossal failure".
In the 2017 ESPN documentary This Was the XFL, McMahon openly mused about reviving the XFL, noting that changes would need to be made compared to 2001 in order to make it viable and relevant in the modern era. (The director of This Was the XFL, Charlie Ebersol, would go on to announce the Alliance of American Football (AAF) in March 2018, hoping to beat the revived XFL to play. While the league was able to launch a year before the XFL's first season, it went bankrupt before its first season finished after it twice lost its major investors.) On December 15, 2017, Bleacher Report columnist Brad Shepard reported that McMahon was seriously considering a revival of the XFL, with an expected announcement on January 25, 2018. In a statement to Deadspin, WWE did not confirm or deny the rumors, but did state that McMahon was establishing a new company known as Alpha Entertainment, which would "explore investment opportunities across the sports and entertainment landscapes, including professional football." On December 21, 2017, WWE issued a filing to the Securities and Exchange Commission, stating that McMahon had sold $100 million worth of WWE stock to fund Alpha Entertainment. Alpha Entertainment is headquartered next door to WWE headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.
On January 25, 2018, Alpha Entertainment announced a new incarnation of the XFL, which would begin with a 10-week inaugural season beginning in January or February 2020. In a press conference, McMahon stated that the new XFL would be dissimilar to its previous incarnation, stating that "There's only so many things that have 'FL' on the end of them and those are already taken. But we aren't going to have much of what the original XFL had." McMahon stated that the league would feature eight teams as a single entity owned by Alpha (the previous XFL was also a single-entity league), which had been revealed in 2019. Alpha Entertainment was established in order to keep the league's management and operations separate from that of WWE. McMahon is prepared to invest as much as $500 million, five times as much as his investment in the 2001 XFL. The XFL's decision to nix cheerleaders is in part due to changing attitudes regarding women's participation in entertaining sports fans. He liquidated an additional $270 million in WWE stock (representing a 4% stake in WWE) in March 2019 to provide additional funding for the league.
The XFL will discourage political gestures by players during games such as, for example, taking a knee in protest. McMahon also originally planned to forbid any player with a criminal record from participating (Commissioner Oliver Luck later walked back the latter decision, noting that the policy had not yet been finalized, and stated in April 2019 that it would allow its teams to sign Johnny Manziel, who was convicted of domestic violence in 2016. Manziel nonetheless was excluded from the inaugural draft and player allocations, with the league later stating that it had "no interest" in him.) Felony convictions will still be a disqualification. McMahon justified his intentions by stating that the XFL would be "evaluating a player based on many things, including the quality of human being they are", and that "people don't want social and political issues coming into play when they are trying to be entertained". He suggested that players who wish to express political opinions should do so on their personal time. Luck stated in October 2018 that the ban on protesting during the national anthem will be written into player contracts as a condition of employment and that that stipulation was McMahon's idea; Luck agreed that the league aimed to be as non-political as possible. Players will not be barred from using cannabis or be tested for the drug.
McMahon did not initially reveal any specific details on rule changes that the new XFL would feature but did state that he aimed to reduce the length of games to around two hours (in contrast to the current standard in American football, which generally runs slightly over three hours). The league later revised this to a two-and-a-half-hour target length. Later, when announcing new changes to overtime rules, it was implied that television broadcasts would have three-hour time slots, into which the entire game and overtime would fit. Test games resulted in an average game time of 2 hours and 40 minutes with a comparable number of plays to an NFL game. He also noted that by announcing it two years in advance (unlike the original XFL, which was only announced one year in advance), there would also be more time to prepare the league in order to deliver a more desirable product.
McMahon denied that the timing of the announcement was meant to coincide with a recent ratings downturn being experienced by the NFL, explaining, "What has happened there is their business, and I'm not going to knock those guys, but I am going to learn from their mistakes as anyone would if they were tasked with reimagining a new football league."
On June 5, 2018, Oliver Luck was named the league's commissioner and chief executive officer. Luck left his previous positions with the NCAA to take over the operations of the XFL. Doug Whaley, most recently general manager of the Buffalo Bills, was hired as the league's senior vice president of football operations on November 8, 2018. On January 22, 2019 Jeffrey Pollack was named the president and chief operating officer, coming from his previous role as the chief marketing and strategy officer and special advisor for the Los Angeles Chargers.
The league commissioner announced the eight host cities and stadiums for the first franchises on December 5, 2018, and also announced the starting date of February 8, 2020, the weekend after Super Bowl LIV. Its first head coach and general manager, Dallas's Bob Stoops, was announced February 7, 2019, with the coaches for Seattle (Jim Zorn), Washington (Pep Hamilton), and Tampa Bay (Marc Trestman) following later in the month. The last of the inaugural head coaches, Houston's June Jones, was hired May 13 and unveiled May 20.
McMahon stated that he wanted to play in existing NFL markets but did not identify potential cities specifically and did not rule out any specific cities. McMahon also did not rule out playing on artificial turf. The original XFL avoided artificial playing surfaces (as most such surfaces then were more carpet-like); the technology, however, has advanced considerably since 2001, with modern artificial turfs mimicking real grass more closely. John Shumway from KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh and local media from Orlando and San Diego both inquired about potential teams in their respective cities, but McMahon (while stating that "I love Pittsburgh") declined to name any cities for teams. McMahon also stated that teams would have new identities compared to recycling old identities from the old league. The league sent solicitations to thirty metropolitan areas as potential locations for a team. The league commissioner announced the eight host cities and stadiums for the first franchises on December 5, 2018. The emergence of the Alliance of American Football created issues selecting cities to host XFL teams, as many potential candidates became home to AAF teams (notably Orlando, the next largest city without an NFL team and an acceptable stadium. Orlando was also one of the original XFL's most successful markets and second in attendance for the 2019 AAF season). Not wanting teams to compete against other spring football teams in the same market, the XFL chose different cities than the AAF.
The league chose to focus on placing teams in large media markets, selecting five of the top seven largest media markets in the U.S.; based on 2017 census bureau estimates, all eight XFL markets have over 2.9 million residents each (the smallest being St. Louis). This was seen as a stark contrast to the other emerging spring football league, the Alliance of American Football, which primarily chose markets without NFL teams, seen as a decision to avoid competing with existing fan bases; three of the AAF's markets (Birmingham, Memphis, and Salt Lake, the first two of which had teams in the old XFL) had populations less than half that of St. Louis's. The only XFL market which does not host an NFL team is St. Louis, which in 2015 saw its NFL team depart for Southern California.
In May 2019, the XFL placed a bid on some of the AAF's former assets as part of that league's bankruptcy proceedings. The league was ultimately outbid by former Arena Football League executive Jerry Kurz.
The league signed its first player, quarterback Landry Jones, on August 15, 2019. The XFL revealed team names and logos on August 21, 2019. Players were assigned to each team in the 2020 XFL Draft from October 15 to 16, with schedules released October 22 and ticket sales opening to the general public October 24. Uniforms were revealed December 3. The XFL will not hold a preseason.
The XFL is running test games with community colleges in Mississippi, as well as with Your Call Football and with The Spring League during their spring 2019 seasons, to experiment with rule changes. Among the proposed rule changes:
These are rule changes the league have officially tested in The Spring League and plan on using in the 2020 season:
- Fair catches will not be recognized, and the kicking team must give the returner five yards of space to recover and return the ball. (This rule is a carryover from the original XFL and is also in use in the CFL; breaching this space will result in a penalty, called no yards in the CFL.)
- The league has an active interest in reviving the kickoffs as an element of the game. (This is in contrast to the AAF, which eliminated kickoffs outright, and the NFL and college football, both of which imposed rules minimizing the impact of the kickoff in the mid-2010s to improve player safety). Many of these kickoff rules were adapted from rules created by The Spring League's predecessor, the Fall Experimental Football League.
- Kickoffs will be attempted with teams separated by only five yards, with the two teams not allowed to cross the neutral zone until the returning team touches the ball.
- The spot of the kickoff will likely be moved back to the kicking team's 15-yard line, to make touchbacks all but impossible. (The NFL and college standard is the 35-yard line.) In the implausible event that a touchback happens, the ball would be taken to the 35-yard line, to discourage kickers from kicking the ball that far. (The NFL and college football take touchbacks to the 25-yard line and high school football takes touchbacks on kickoffs to the on kickoffs and the 20 in all other situations; in high school, all touchbacks advance to the 20-yard line.
- Kickoffs that go out of bounds will come to the kicking team's 45-yard. (In the NFL and college football, these kicks come out to the receiving team's 40-yard line and in high school, to the receiving team's 35-yard line.)
- Teams will be allowed to option for a typical onside kick, though surprise onside kicks will no longer be possible under the new kickoff rules.
- According to Cardale Jones, the XFL will not allow gunners; all players on a punting team must remain on or behind the line of scrimmage until the ball is kicked. (This is a carryover from the original XFL, although that league had scrapped the rule midway through its only season. In contrast to the previous XFL, Jones initially stated that the coffin corner punt would not be penalized, but the XFL later denied this, stating that such kicks would be treated as touchbacks and brought to the 35-yard line.) The attempts to neutralize punt coverage are made with the intention of encouraging more fourth-down conversions.
Points after touchdown
The extra point kick will be replaced with a scrimmage play, varying in point value depending on how far the touchdown-scoring team chooses to take the snap from the goal line: a two-yard attempt would score a single point, a five-yard attempt two points, and a ten-yard attempt three points. (This rule is also a carryover from the original XFL, which added the rule only for the playoffs. The Stars Football League also used the rule during its existence.)
Overtime will be decided by a multiple-round shootout of one-point conversions (though the attempts will take place from the 5-yard line rather than the 2-yard line) similar to a penalty shootout in soccer; in April 2019, the NCAA adopted a similar concept for games that reach a 5th overtime starting with the 2019 FBS season. There will be five rounds of the shootout, where the offense can score a point by converting in the end zone, while the defense can score a point by forcing a turnover (should a turnover occur, the play would be dead). To speed up the overtime process, both teams' offense and defense will be on the field at the appropriate end zone. Once one team's offense has completed its round of the shootout, the other team's offense plays its round from the opposite end zone. These overtime rules ensure that both teams have an opportunity to win the game, provide a way for defense to make a greater impact on the outcome of overtime, and would limit overtime to 5 or 6 minutes. What happens if both teams remain tied after five rounds has not yet been explained, though Luck has not ruled out the possibility of a regular season tie. However, in postseason, multiple rounds of conversions will be played until one team succeeds.
- Outside of the two-minute warning, the clock will run continuously. During this time, the clock would only stop during a change of possession. This will reverse after the two-minute warning (which the XFL will use), after which the clock will stop after all plays from scrimmage. (Arena football has long used a continuous clock with even fewer stoppages; Canadian football does not use a continuous clock, but stops the clock after all plays from scrimmage following that code's three-minute warning.)
- The play clock will be 25 seconds long measured from the end of the previous play, the shortest of any U.S. league. (The original XFL, as well as the defunct AAF, used a 35-second clock, arena football uses a 32-second clock, and the NFL and college football use 40 seconds; the CFL uses a 20-second clock but times it from the spotting of the ball, which in practice can add up to 15 seconds between plays.)
- Instant replay reviews will be limited to 25 seconds.
- A specialized ball judge will be added to the officiating team to speed up the placement of the ball, bringing the number of on-field officials to eight.
- A new rule proposal would add a new "tap penalty", imposed on individual players instead of entire teams. Players who commit a foul which is not serious enough to warrant a penalty flag will be sent off the field for one play. This type of enforcement will keep the game moving quickly without allowing players to break the rules. Unlike the almost-analogous power play used in ice hockey, the offending team would be allowed to substitute another player.
- The defunct Alliance of American Football introduced the sky judge, an additional official in the press booth for the sole purpose of reviewing on-field decisions. Luck had said he thought this was a great innovation to the game and, in December 2019, confirmed the XFL would use a sky judge.
- Penalty enforcement will place priority on fouls that pose a threat to player safety, with less emphasis on procedural violations so as not to slow down the game with unnecessary penalty calls. Officials would also have access to both teams' play calls. The sky judge would also have full access to the officials' microphones.
The football used in XFL games will be the traditional brown color used in most other leagues; a unique feature is that each ball will have the team's name and matching colors. (This is in contrast to the black ball with red adornments used by the original XFL.) The distinguishing mark will be at each end of the ball, where a two-tone X in the home team's colors will adorn each point and run through the middle of each panel of the ball, intended for the receivers to track the ball easily. Five balls, each with a different texture of leather, were tested during the Summer Showcases and The Spring League. The winning texture, a custom patent-pending design known as "X-Pebble," was released November 25, 2019. The design was created and will be manufactured by Team Issue of Dallas, Texas, their first professional football contract.
- In a June 2019 interview, Luck stated that the league would likely use the amateur football (high school and college) and CFL standard of one foot in bounds for a complete forward pass.
- Whereas most American football leagues limit forward passes to one per play, the XFL has no such limit. A ball can be passed forward as many times as a team desires, so long as the passer remains behind the line of scrimmage.
These are rule changes which the league has considered using, though they were either not officially tested or were discarded in preseason testing:
- The original proposal for the multiple forward pass rule would have treated any pass behind the line of scrimmage as a lateral pass. Luck stated that this would also have the added benefit of simplifying officiating, as he surmised it would be easier to judge whether a person was behind a fixed line of scrimmage compared to whether a pass thrown by a moving player was traveling along a parallel line. The XFL ran test plays with double forward passes during its rules testing in Mississippi. Under this rule, all players behind the line of scrimmage would have been an eligible receiver, including those on the offensive line, and thus it would eliminate the "illegal touching of a forward pass" penalty at other levels of the game. Offensive linemen would still have been prohibited from advancing downfield before a forward pass that crosses the line of scrimmage is in the air. (McMahon had proposed a similar but broader rule change during the run of the original XFL, which would have made all players eligible receivers, but the league's coaches rejected the proposal as too radical of a change to make mid-season.) It also would have had the intended consequence of providing employment to utility players who play multiple positions and have a broader range of skills. In November 2019, an ESPN.com article noted that the rule had been thrown out before the season began, and that offensive linemen would still not be allowed to touch forward passes, regardless of where the ball was.
- The league proposed using a wider one-yard neutral zone used by the CFL. (The NFL, college, and high school standard is the length of the football, approximately 11 inches.) This rule became less likely after testing, as the league feared it would make short-yardage situations too easy to convert for the offensive team.
- The original XFL allowed for forward motion by a single backfield player (normally, American football allows for only lateral or backward motion, and the CFL allows ALL backfielders to move wherever they desire). The XFL had briefly mentioned they may use this rule again.
- During the announcement of the league, Vince suggested the XFL may eliminate halftime.
- A proposed rule would prohibit offensive linemen (excluding the snapper) from putting their hand on the ground, outlawing the three-point stance used at all other levels of the game.
Names and logos for the XFL teams were to be revealed in early June but were delayed over two months from that date. The XFL filed trademarks for five potential team names for its Seattle-based franchise in late June, including one for the eventually chosen name Seattle Dragons, but not for any of the other seven teams. The names, logos and colors for all eight teams were revealed on August 21, 2019 in a livestreamed special. The 2020 XFL Draft was held on October 15 and 16, 2019. Training camps will begin in November. In addition to the eight competitive teams, the XFL will also operate a centralized practice squad and farm team, which will operate as a full team with a coaching staff and roster but will not play any on-the-record games against the other eight teams. The team will share practice facilities with the Dallas Renegades and is internally known as "Team 9."
|Dallas Renegades||Arlington, Texas||Globe Life Park in Arlington||Grass||25,000||Bob Stoops|
|Houston Roughnecks||Houston, Texas||TDECU Stadium||Turf||40,000||June Jones|
|Los Angeles Wildcats||Carson, California||Dignity Health Sports Park||Grass||27,000||Winston Moss|
|Seattle Dragons||Seattle, Washington||CenturyLink Field||Turf||69,000
|DC Defenders||Washington, D.C.||Audi Field||Grass||20,000||Pep Hamilton|
|New York Guardians||East Rutherford, New Jersey||MetLife Stadium||Turf||82,500
|St. Louis BattleHawks||St. Louis, Missouri||The Dome at America's Center||Turf||66,965
|Tampa Bay Vipers||Tampa, Florida||Raymond James Stadium||Grass||65,618
|"Team 9"||Dallas, Texas||None|
The inaugural draft took place on October 15, 2019 with the second part of the draft taking place the following day. A supplemental draft was held November 22 of that same year.
The XFL is planned to have a 10-week regular season, with each team hosting 5 home games, and no bye week. This will be followed by a two-week post-season, featuring the top two teams in each conference competing in a single elimination bracket. The league will be split into two conferences of four teams. Each team will play all three teams in their conference twice, once each of home and road. Each team would also then play the remaining teams in the league once. This is the same schedule model used by the original XFL and by the AAF. Both leagues followed an Eastern/Western conference, which the XFL also confirmed during its Summer Showcase in Dallas. The XFL East includes New York, DC, Tampa and St. Louis while the West includes Seattle, Los Angeles, Dallas and Houston.
Four games will be played per-week during the regular season, consisting mainly of afternoon/primetime doubleheaders played on Saturdays and Sundays. One game per-week in the final two weeks of the regular season is tentatively scheduled to be played on Thursday night instead of Saturday. The first regular season games are planned for February 8, 2020, the weekend after Super Bowl LIV. The playoffs, despite initial reports stating they would use the same crossover approach used by the 2001 XFL, with each division's regular-season winner facing the other conference's runner-up, will instead use a division championship model, with the top two teams in the division playing each other. The site of the 2020 XFL Championship Game, which will be played April 26, has not been announced.
Luck has denied any plans to move the schedule to the fall and does not intend to either compete with the NFL in the fall (as the USFL attempted to do), or attempt to fill any void that a potential lockout might cause in 2021 (as the United Football League attempted to do).
Players and compensation
The XFL will use a standard form contract paying $2,725 per week for each player on the active roster, $1,040 of which is guaranteed. A $2,222 victory bonus will also be paid to the players on each game's winning team; this feature is a carryover from the original XFL. The contracts expire at the end of the season, freeing players to sign with any other league. Players will also be paid $1,040 per week during the preseason and through the playoffs if their team does not qualify. Starting quarterbacks will make an annual salary of up to $495,000, with the average XFL quarterback expected to earn $125,000. 52 players will be on each team's regular-season roster, far more than the 38 in the original XFL and comparable to the size of the 53-man NFL rosters; 46 of those 52 may be active on any given game day.
Plans were for the league to offer contracts between one and three years in length. Signing for a longer-term would make the player eligible for a loyalty bonus above and beyond their tiered salary; in return, the player would not be allowed to play in any other league during the spring, summer or autumn months, nor is the contract guaranteed. The overall salary cap will be approximately $4,000,000 per team. The XFL chose a more flexible salary structure so as not to overpay for the lower ends of the roster and to be more competitive for better starting quarterbacks.
Head coaches will be eligible for up to a $500,000 salary, with each team having a football operations staff of 25 people. The XFL explicitly wants to avoid any minor league developmental partnership with the NFL or any other league, so as not to lose control of its personnel decisions. In contrast to the original XFL, players' health insurance will be covered by the league. League officials anticipate the players will not have formed a labor union, by the time play commences, thus league policies will not be subject to collective bargaining, which could help prevent work stoppage like a lockout or strike.
The XFL does not employ separate general managers for each team; instead, each team's head coach doubles as his team's respective general manager. Each team is assigned a team president.
Luck has suggested that the XFL will not have the same eligibility requirements for player as the NFL. Currently the NFL requires all players to be at least 3 years removed from high school to be eligible for a team's roster. Almost all prospects then participate in NCAA football for the 3-year waiting period. This eligibility requirement is an agreement between the NCAA and the NFL, in exchange for not signing young players who would ordinarily play in the NCAA the NFL is allowed nearly unlimited access to scout and recruit college players. With the XFL not using the same set of requirements for players, there is the possibility the league will sign players who are less than 3 years out of high school. The XFL has also not ruled out signing players who play college football in 2019, something the NFL has not done since 1925, which Luck says will be considered on a case-by-case basis; the league's primary target for players will be veteran backups (such as the kind Luck developed in his time in NFL Europe, citing Kurt Warner, Brad Johnson and Jake Delhomme as examples) who may not be getting the repetitions needed to develop properly on NFL scout teams and practice squads. Due to budget concerns and an unwillingness to antagonize the NFL, it does not intend to get into bidding wars for marquee players.
As McMahon owns a minority stake in DraftKings, the XFL aims to run its official fantasy football and betting operations through that service, if legal hurdles can be cleared. Oliver Luck has stated he anticipates mobile sports betting to be legal in many states by the 2020 launch date, much like it is in New Jersey, and hopes to integrate legal sports betting as part of the XFL. Every state hosting an XFL team, except Florida which has an existing law banning sports betting, has either introduced or passed legislation for the legalization of sports betting. "California also has a pending voter referendum that could legalize sports betting." In December 2019, Luck stated he was cooperating with the Las Vegas sportsbooks in providing official information for betting purposes.
In January 2019, Sports Business Journal reported that the XFL was desiring that the majority of games air on broadcast television, and was in preliminary talks with ABC/ESPN and Fox Sports as potential broadcast partners. The XFL officially confirmed these arrangements on May 6, 2019, under a three-year deal. XFL games will be split among ABC, Fox, ESPN, and Fox Sports 1 (with a small number of games tentatively scheduled for ESPN2 and Fox Sports 2). ESPN will hold rights to the championship game. The Wall Street Journal reported via inside sources that neither the broadcasters or the league are making any upfront payments, but that the XFL will sell the in-game sponsorship inventory. The networks will cover the production costs, hold the digital rights to their telecasts, and the right to sell the conventional commercial inventory during their games. Though the networks will have ultimate control over the game presentation, McMahon and his longtime media man Joe Cohen would like to bring back many of the features from the original XFL such as the skycam and the on-field "Bubba Cams," along with some innovations introduced in the AAF.
Upon the announcement of the new XFL, McMahon stated that he aimed to leverage digital streaming as part of broadcasting arrangements, and argued that fans wanted "totally different ways" to see the game, rather than having digital streams be only a straight simulcast of the television broadcast. The XFL will not consider viewership to be a metric of its success; McMahon argued that "to me the landscape has changed in so many different ways. Just look at technology and companies like Facebook and Amazon bidding for sports rights. Even if ratings go down, there's no denying that live sports rights continue to be valuable and continue to deliver." Luck stated that broadcasts would not feature the same sports entertainment gimmicks as the original XFL, explaining that "in football, you don't need that bravado and swagger and flair, because it's always there."
Curt Menefee (host of Fox NFL Sunday) and Joel Klatt will serve as Fox's lead XFL broadcast team. Fox also auditioned Greg Olsen for the second XFL broadcast team in October 2019 by having him call play-by-play for an NFL contest during his bye week from the Carolina Panthers. ESPN and ABC's top team will feature Steve Levy, Greg McElroy, Tom Luginbill, and Dianna Russini, and their second team will be Tom Hart, Joey Galloway, and Pat McAfee.
- ""This Was The XFL" Director Charlie Ebersol On Why The XFL Failed–But Might Work Now". Fast Company. February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Will the XFL actually be making a return? WWE is not exactly denying the rumors". CBSSports.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL stops going to extremes". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL ends ratings slide – just barely". ESPN. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Monday Night Wrong: Vince McMahon fumbles with the XFL". Sporting News. December 21, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "XFL Is Down for the Count". ABC News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Johnson, Mike (May 16, 2013). "5/16 This day in history". PWInsider. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Draper, Kevin (2018). "Vince McMahon Says He Will Revive the X.F.L., With a Very Different Look". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Holloway, Daniel (February 3, 2017). "'This Was the XFL' Director on Vince McMahon, Concussions and Whether League Could Make a Comeback". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Eight-Team XFL Competitor Plans to Launch in February 2019, Dan Gartland, Sports Illustrated, March 20, 2018
- "AAF operations suspended, future of Alliance in doubt with two weeks left in inaugural regular season". CBSSports.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Vince McMahon sells $100 million of WWE stock as XFL reboot plan continues". ProFootballTalk. NBC Sports. December 21, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- "411MANIA". XFL CEO Recalls First Meeting With Vince McMahon, Says XFL Won’t Compete With NFL.
- "McMahon: Gimmick-free XFL to return in 2020". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "McMahon expects to spend $500M on XFL". ESPN.com. June 29, 2018.
- "Form 8-K". Securities and Exchange Commission. March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Oliver Luck leaves XFL door open for John Manziel". Pro Football Talk. April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (November 21, 2019). "Can the XFL really make spring football work? How its draft showed the way". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
Several more radical ideas were shelved, including one that would have made every offensive player an eligible receiver.
- Greene, Dan (May 6, 2019). "The XFL: A Second-Chance League and Its Not-My-First-Rodeo Commish". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
- Florio, Mike (May 7, 2019). "XFL may not test for marijuana". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
- We've got a need for speed. XFL official Facebook page (December 21, 2018). Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "274: Oliver Luck, XFL Commissioner". ART19. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Maese, Rick (May 10, 2019). "The XFL doesn't just want to avoid the AAF's fate. It wants to change football". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
- "Source: WWE's McMahon eyes football league". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Oliver Luck leaving NCAA to be XFL commish". Retrieved June 5, 2018.
- "Former Bills GM Whaley hired as XFL senior VP". WIVB-TV. Nexstar Media Group. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "Jeffrey Pollack Named XFL President & COO". XFL.com. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Baysinger, Tim (December 5, 2018). "LA Among the 8 Cities to Launch Vince McMahon's New XFL League". www.thewrap.com. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "Bob Stoops will coach the Dallas XFL team". WFAA. February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- McClain, John (May 13, 2019). "June Jones to coach Houston's XFL team". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- XFL. "Official XFL Announcement with Vince McMahon" – via YouTube.
- "Oliver Luck Q&A: On the XFL, changing football and Houston - HoustonChronicle.com". www.houstonchronicle.com. June 6, 2018.
- Konuwa, Alfred. "WWE's Vince McMahon, Commissioner Oliver Luck Officially Announce 8 XFL Cities". Forbes. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "What is the AAF? Notable players, coaches, teams, schedule for new Alliance of American Football league". CBSSports.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Nocera, Joe (January 15, 2016). "In Losing the Rams, St. Louis Wins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Danner, Patrick (May 23, 2019). "XFL wants to score bankrupt football league's assets stored in San Antonio warehouse". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Danner, Patrick (July 3, 2019). "Bankrupt football league's gear sold at San Antonio court auction". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "XFL SCORES FIRST QUARTERBACK". XFL.com. August 15, 2019.
- "XFL reveals names, logos for its eight teams". ESPN. August 21, 2019.
- XFL sends team to Mississippi to explore potential rule changes and What rule changes might be in store for the #XFL2020? YouTube official XFL account (December 6, 2018). Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "XFL Hoping Time To Prepare Is A Benefit". Associated Press. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (October 8, 2014). "Inside slant: FXFL set to debut, ready or not". ESPN.com. ESPN. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- Traina, Patricia. "Why Former Giants Offensive Coordinator Kevin Gilbride Joined The XFL". Forbes.
- Rachuk, Stephan (April 24, 2019). "Oliver Luck talks TV deals, Draft and XFL's "Team 9" | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- McAfee, Pat. The #XFL said they’re going to reimagine football.. @CJ1two breaks down some of the changes #PatMcAfeeShowLIVE. November 21, 2019.
- Florio, Mike (April 8, 2019). "XFL to use one-, two-, three-point conversions". ProFootballTalk. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Florio, Mike (April 7, 2019). "Spring League returns with revolutionary overtime idea". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- Johnson, Greg. "Targeting protocols approved for football". NCAA. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "XFL to have 3-point tries, 2-point OT shootouts". ESPN.com. April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephan (April 12, 2019). "WWE issues fan survey asking fans what they would like to see in the XFL | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Bassinger, Thomas (July 1, 2019). "How the XFL will be different from the NFL". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
- "Can XFL 2.0 succeed where the AAF couldn't? Why it already has a jump start". ESPN.com. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "XFL QB Oliver Luck on lessons learned, Colin Kaepernick and sports betting". Tampa Bay Times. December 12, 2019. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
- "Spring League tests XFL "tap" rule that sends players to sideline". sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Hoyt, Joseph (November 26, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved December 16, 2019.
Each of the eight teams in the XFL will have their own custom footballs, but they’ll all have one thing in common. The official game balls, revealed by the XFL on Monday, were created by Team Issue, a football manufacturer in Dallas. Each team will have their own custom balls, featuring the team’s name and a color scheme that matches their logo.
- XFL Testing New Footballs That Look Noticeably Different From NFL Balls, FanDuel, June 9, 2019
- "XFL'S OFFICIAL FOOTBALL ARRIVES WITH 8 CUSTOM LOOKS". XFL. November 25, 2019. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
- Hoyt, Joseph (November 25, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
- @XFLShow (June 23, 2019). "On this week's episode, @OliverLuckXFL confirms conference alignment as well as XFL goals for players invited to NFL camps after 2020" (Tweet). Retrieved June 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
- Abdeldaiem, Alaa (April 12, 2019). "XFL Considering Allowing Multiple Forward Passes Per Play". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- X Years After. Sports Business Journal (May 16, 2011). Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Rachuk, Stephan. Dallas XFL Summer Showcase recap. XFL2K.com. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "XFL League - XFL.com - Official home of the XFL". www.xfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Details on XFL Schedule and Financial Arrangement With Fox and Disney". The Big Lead. May 6, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Garafolo, Mike (October 11, 2019). "The @xfl2020 sent a memo to agents of prospective players. Players will be paid on a bi-weekly basis at $2,080 per paycheck starting in December. There are activation fees (i.e. game checks) during the season of $1,685 and victory bonuses of $2,222".
- Manza-Young, Shalise (October 11, 2019). XFL quarterbacks will make 10 times the salary of their teammates. Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- Seifert, Kevin (November 22, 2019). "Veteran backup Josh Johnson among three QBs signed by XFL". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "Exclusive: XFL Could Target 2019 NFL Rookies With Six-Figure Bonuses | The Action Network". Action Network. February 28, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephen (February 2, 2019). A quick recap of Oliver Luck on radio row. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- "XFL restates it's not restricted by eligibility rules". SI.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "The rules of the NFL Draft | NFL Football Operations". operations.nfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- Rachuk, Stephan (December 19, 2018). "Oliver Luck Talks Locations, Coaches, QB's, Rule Changes and more | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
- Cheddar (December 10, 2018), The XFL is Coming Back, The CEO Details Their New Strategy, retrieved February 15, 2019
- "How close is my state to legalizing sports betting?". ESPN.com. June 26, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Networks seek leagues' content". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Steinberg, Brian (May 6, 2019). "XFL Strikes TV-Rights Deal With Fox, Disney". Variety. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- "XFL to broadcast games on ABC, ESPN, Fox". SI.com. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- Hoffarth, Tom (June 16, 2019). "Joe Cohen's expertise helped the WWE succeed. He hopes to do the same for the XFL". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Marchand, Andrew (October 8, 2019). "ESPN, Fox finalize top XFL broadcast teams". New York Post. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Hofheimer, Bill (November 6, 2019). "ABC and ESPN Announce Commentator Teams for XFL 2020 Season". ESPNPressRoom.com. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for American Football.|