Worship service (evangelicalism)

In Evangelical christianity, a worship service or service is a time when believers meet to praise, worship, pray to God and receive a teaching (sermon) based on the Bible. It can take place with the church or with the family. Meetings can be held on weekdays, but Sundays have a special connotation.

Origin

The worship service is a practice of Christian life that has its origins in the Jewish worship.[1] Jesus Christ and Paul of Tarsus taught a new form of worship of God.[2] In Scripture, Jesus meet together with His disciples to share teachings, discuss topics,[3] pray, and sing hymns;[4] in the "Acts of the Apostles", we read that the early Christians also had this habit. In the first letter to the Corinthians, Paul of Tarsus made clear the principal elements of the Christian worship, namely praise, sermon, offering, the Lord's Supper.[5]

Form

Worship service in Evangelical churches is seen as an act of God's worship.[6] There is no liturgy, the conception of worship service is more informal.[7] It is usually run by a Christian pastor. It usually contains two main parts, the praise (Christian music) and the sermon, with periodically the Lord's Supper. [8] [9] [10][11]

With the 1960s' charismatic movement, a new conception of praise in worship, such as clapping and raising hands as a sign of worship, took place in many evangelical denominations.[12]

In the 1980s and 1990s, contemporary Christian music, including a wide variety of musical styles, such as Christian Christian Rock and Christian Hip Hop, appeared in the praise. [13][14] [15]

In the 2000s and 2010s, digital technologies were integrated into worship services, such as the video projectors for broadcasting praise lyrics or video, on big screens. [16][17] The use of social media such as YouTube and Facebook to retransmit live or delayed worship services, by Internet, has also spread. [18] The offering via Internet has become a common practice in several churches. [19][20]

In some churches, a special moment is reserved for faith healing with laying on of hands during worship services. [21] Faith healing or divine healing is considered a legacy of Jesus acquired by his death and resurrection. [22]

Places of worship

Places of worship are usually called "church building" or "temples".[23][24][25][26] In some megachurches, the building is called "campus".[27][28] For evangelicals, the building is not sacred.[29] Some services take place in auditoriums or multipurpose rooms with few religious symbols.[30][31][32] Because of their understanding of the second of the Ten Commandments, evangelicals do not have religious material representations such as statutes, icons, or paintings in their places of worship. [33] The latin cross is one of the only spiritual symbols that can usually be seen on a building or in the auditorium of an evangelical church. [34] In some buildings we can find a baptistery on the stage of the auditorium (also called sanctuary) or in a separate room, for the baptisms by immersion. [35][36]

House church

House church meetings have also spread to parts of the world.[37] In China, there were 52 million such people in 2010.[38] The worship services broadcast by Internet have accentuated this trend.[39]

Megachurches

Worship services take on impressive proportions in the megachurches (churches where more than 2,000 people gather every Sunday. In some of these megachurches, more than 10,000 people gather every Sunday. The term gigachurch is sometimes used.[40][41] For example, Lakewood Church (United States) or Yoido Full Gospel Church (South Korea).[42]

Groups

IFES are groups of Evangelical students coming together on campuses in 150 countries around the world to share their ideas on the Bible.[43]

Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International meetings are held in restaurants or hotels and Christian businessmen talk about their faith.[44]

Threats

In some Muslim or Communist countries, it is difficult or even forbidden for Christians to gather publicly. Only a few churches approved by the government can gather legally.[45][46][47] The persecution leads to the development of house churches, as in China, with the movement of Evangelical House churches in China.[48]

The meetings take place in private homes, in secret and in "illegality". Open Doors, an evangelical NGO, claims that this is the case for hundreds of millions of Christians in the world.[49] Each year, It publishes the "World Watch List of Christian Persecution" and testifies to the hardships of some believers.

Controversies

A particularly controversial doctrine in the Evangelical Churches is that of the prosperity theology, which spread in the 1970s and 1980s in the United States, mainly through televangelism. [50] This doctrine is centered on the teaching of Christian faith as a means to enrich oneself financially and materially, through a "positive confession" and a contribution to Christian ministries. [51] Promises of divine healing and prosperity are guaranteed in exchange for certain amounts of donations. [52] [53] [54] Fidelity in the tithe would allow one to avoid the curses of God, the attacks of the devil, and poverty. [55][56] [57] The offerings and the tithe occupies a lot of time in the worship services. [58] Often associated with the tithe mandatory, this doctrine is sometimes compared to a religious business. [59][60][61][62] It is criticized by pastors and church unions, such as the National Council of Evangelicals of France.[63][64]

See also

References

  1. BBC, Christian worship, bbc.co.uk, UK, June 23, 2009
  2. Geoffrey Wainwright, The Oxford History of Christian Worship, Oxford University Press , USA, 2006, p. 465
  3. Amy-Jill Levine, Dale C. Allison Jr., John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context, Princeton University Press, USA, 2009, p. 2
  4. Mark 14.26, Matthew 26.30; see John J. Pilch, "A Cultural Handbook to the Bible", Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, USA, 2012, p. 263
  5. John Paul Heil, The Letters of Paul as Rituals of Worship, Casemate Publishers, USA, 2012, p. 38, 41
  6. Gerald R. McDermott, The Oxford Handbook of Evangelical Theology, Oxford University Press, UK, 2013, p. 311
  7. Roger E. Olson, The Westminster Handbook to Evangelical Theology, Westminster John Knox Press , UK, 2004, p. 284
  8. Bruce E. Shields, David Alan Butzu, Generations of Praise: The History of Worship, College Press, USA, 2006, p. 307-308
  9. Robert Dusek, Facing the Music, Xulon Press, USA, 2008, p. 65
  10. Flora Genoux, Comment l'Église évangélique conquiert les Français, lemonde.fr, France, February 02, 2012
  11. Rémy Chhem, Marc-André Morency, Le culte du dimanche à l'Église évangélique baptiste de Québec, IPIR, Canada, December 13, 2011
  12. Robert H. Krapohl, Charles H. Lippy, The Evangelicals: A Historical, Thematic, and Biographical Guide, Greenwood Publishing Group, USA, 1999, p. 171
  13. Suzel Ana Reily, Jonathan M. Dueck, The Oxford Handbook of Music and World Christianities, Oxford University Press, USA, 2016, p. 443
  14. Mathew Guest, Evangelical Identity and Contemporary Culture: A Congregational Study in Innovation, Wipf and Stock Publishers, USA, 2007, p. 42
  15. Don Cusic, Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music: Pop, Rock, and Worship: Pop, Rock, and Worship, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2009, p. 85-86
  16. Christina L. Baade, James Andrew Deaville, Music and the Broadcast Experience: Performance, Production, and Audience, Oxford University Press, USA, 2016, p. 300
  17. AARON RANDLE, Bucking a trend, these churches figured out how to bring millennials back to worship, kansascity.com, USA, December 10, 2017
  18. Mark Ward Sr., The Electronic Church in the Digital Age: Cultural Impacts of Evangelical Mass, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2015, p. 78
  19. Michael Gryboski, Millennial-Majority Churches Detail Challenges, Success Stories in Growth and Finances, christianpost.com, USA, June 18, 2018
  20. Ghana News Agency, Asoriba launches church management software, businessghana.com, Ghana, February 3, 2017
  21. Cecil M. Robeck, Jr, Amos Yong, The Cambridge Companion to Pentecostalism, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014, p. 138
  22. Randall Herbert Balmer, Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism: Revised and expanded edition, Baylor University Press, USA, 2004, p. 212
  23. D. A. Carson, Worship: Adoration and Action: Adoration and Action, Wipf and Stock Publishers, USA, 2002, p. 161
  24. Jörg Stolz, Olivier Favre, Caroline Gachet, Emmanuelle Buchard, Le phénomène évangélique: analyses d'un milieu compétitif, Labor et Fides, Switzerland, 2013, p. 99
  25. Anne C. Loveland, Otis B. Wheeler, From Meetinghouse to Megachurch: A Material and Cultural History, University of Missouri Press, USA, 2003, p. 149
  26. Harold W. Turner, From Temple to Meeting House: The Phenomenology and Theology of Places of Worship, Walter de Gruyter, Germany, 1979, p.258
  27. Justin G. Wilford, Sacred Subdivisions: The Postsuburban Transformation of American Evangelicalism, NYU Press, USA, 2012, p. 78
  28. Anne C. Loveland, Otis B. Wheeler, From Meetinghouse to Megachurch: A Material and Cultural History, University of Missouri Press, USA, 2003, p. 2
  29. Marie-Claude Malboeuf, Au pays des églises invisibles, lapresse.ca, Canada, June 23, 2011
  30. Jörg Stolz, Olivier Favre, Caroline Gachet, Emmanuelle Buchard, Le phénomène évangélique: analyses d'un milieu compétitif, Labor et Fides, Switzerland, 2013, p. 104
  31. Jeanne Halgren Kilde, Sacred Power, Sacred Space: An Introduction to Christian Architecture and Worship, Oxford University Press, USA, 2008, p. 193
  32. Keith A. Roberts, David Yamane, Religion in Sociological Perspective, SAGE , USA, 2011, p. 209
  33. Cameron J. Anderson, The Faithful Artist: A Vision for Evangelicalism and the Arts, InterVarsity Press, USA, 2016, p. 124
  34. Doug Jones, Sound of Worship, Taylor & Francis, USA, 2013, p. 90
  35. William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of the Baptists, Scarecrow Press, USA, 2009, p. 61
  36. Wade Clark Roof, Contemporary American Religion, Volume 1, Macmillan, UK, 2000, p. 49
  37. Allan Heaton Anderson, " An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity", Cambridge University Press, UK, 2013, p. 104
  38. Allan Heaton Anderson, " An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity", Cambridge University Press, UK, 2013, p. 147
  39. Candy Gunther Brown, Mark Silk, The Future of Evangelicalism in America, Columbia University Press, USA, 2016, p. 78
  40. Sam Hey, Megachurches: Origins, Ministry, and Prospects, Wipf and Stock Publishers, USA, 2013, p. 265
  41. Ed Stetzer, Megachurch Research - Terminology, christianitytoday.com, USA, October 9, 2008
  42. Alicia Budich, From Megachurch to "Gigachurch", cbsnews.com, USA, April 6, 2012
  43. IFES, OUR PEOPLE, ifesworld.org, UK, accessed January 27, 2018
  44. Vinson Synan, Amos Yong, Global Renewal Christianity: Europe and North America Spirit-Empowered Movements: Past, Present and Future, Charisma Media, USA, 2017, p. 26
  45. Ali Amar, Le calvaire des Marocains chrétiens, slateafrique.com, France, April 21, 2011
  46. Farid Alilat, Jésus-Christ en terre d'Algérie, jeuneafrique.com, France, May 16, 2005
  47. Le Monde.fr with Reuters, Arrestations de chrétiens au Tibet par les autorités chinoises, lemonde.fr, France, December 13, 2011
  48. Brian Stiller, Evangelicals Around the World: A Global Handbook for the 21st Century, Thomas Nelson, USA, 2015, p. 328
  49. Le Figaro, Plus de 2000 chrétiens sont morts persécutés en 2013, lefigaro.fr France, January 08, 2014
  50. Randall Herbert Balmer, Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism: Revised and expanded edition, Baylor University Press, USA, 2004, p. 562
  51. Kate Bowler, Blessed: A History of the American Prosperity Gospel, OUP USA, USA, 2013, p. 59
  52. Laure Atmann, Au nom de Dieu et… du fric!, notreafrik.com, Belgium, July 26, 2015
  53. Bob Smietana, Prosperity Gospel Taught to 4 in 10 Evangelical Churchgoers, christianitytoday.com, USA, July 31, 2018
  54. Gina Meeks, Megachurch Pastor Ed Young Promises to Refund Tithe if God Doesn't Open the Windows of Heaven, charismanews.com, USA, June 16, 2014
  55. John Blake, How passing the plate becomes the 'Sunday morning stickup', cnn.com, USA, June 14, 2015
  56. Raoul Mbog, Le juteux business du pasteur évangélique Dieunedort Kamdem, lemonde.fr, France, December 25, 2015
  57. Venance Konan, Églises évangéliques d’Abidjan - Au nom du père, du fils et... du business, koffi.net, Ivory Coast, May 10, 2007
  58. Marie-Claude Malboeuf and Jean-Christophe Laurence, Églises indépendantes: le culte de l'argent, lapresse.ca, Canada, November 17, 2010
  59. Laurie Goodstein, Believers Invest in the Gospel of Getting Rich, nytimes.com, USA, August 15, 2009
  60. Jean-Christophe Laurence, Le business religieux, lapresse.ca, Canada, November 17, 2010
  61. Trésor Kibangula, RDC : pasteur, un job en or, jeuneafrique.com, France, February 06, 2014
  62. Raoul Mbog, Le juteux business du pasteur évangélique Dieunedort Kamdem, lemonde.fr, France, December 25, 2015
  63. Henrik Lindell, Théologie de la prospérité : quand Dieu devient un distributeur de miracles, lavie.fr, France, August 8, 2012
  64. AFP, Le ruineux Evangile des "théologiens de la prospérité", lepoint.fr, France, March 26, 2013

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