World Meteorological Organization
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 193 Member States and Territories. The President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is Gerhard Adrian as a successor of David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
|Formation||23 March 1950|
|Type||United Nations specialised agency|
|United Nations Economic and Social Council|
It followed on from the International Meteorological Organization, founded in 1873, a non-governmental organization. Reforms of status and structure were proposed from the 1930s, culminating in the World Meteorological Convention signed on 11 October 1947 which came into force on 23 March 1950. It formally became the World Meteorological Organization on 17 March 1951, and was designated as a specialized agency of the United Nations.
WMO has a membership of 193 Member States and Territories as of May 2019. The Convention of the World Meteorological Organization was signed 11 October 1947 and established upon ratification on 23 March 1950.
The WMO hierarchy:
- The World Meteorological Congress, the supreme body of the Organization, determines policy. Each member state and territory is represented by a Permanent Representative with WMO when Congress meets every four years. Congress elects the President and Vice-Presidents of the Organization and members of the Executive Council; and appoints the Secretary-General.
- The Executive Council (EC) implements Congress decisions.
- The Secretariat is an eight-department organization with a staff of 200 headed by a Secretary-General, who can serve a maximum of two four-year terms.
The annually published WMO Statements on the status of the World Climate provides details of global, regional and national temperatures and extreme weather events. It also provides information on long-term climate change indicators including atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, sea level rise, and sea ice extent. The year 2016 was the hottest year on record, with many weather and climate extremes, according to the most recent WMO report.
WMO Strategic Plan
- Disaster risk reduction
- The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS)
- The WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS)
- Aviation meteorological services
- Polar and high mountain regions
- Capacity development
In keeping with its mandate to promote the standardization of meteorological observations, the WMO maintains numerous code forms for the representation and exchange of meteorological, oceanographical, and hydrological data. The traditional code forms, such as SYNOP, CLIMAT and TEMP, are character-based and their coding is position-based. Newer WMO code forms are designed for portability, extensibility and universality. These are BUFR, CREX, and, for gridded geo-positioned data, GRIB.
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) jointly created by WMO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) received the Nobel Peace Prize "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about anthropogenic (man-made) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."
World Meteorological Day
The World Meteorological Day is held annually on 23 March.
Use of the International System of Units
WMO states that "the International System of Units (SI) should be used as the system of units for the evaluation of meteorological elements included in reports for international exchange." The following units, which include units which are not SI units, are recommended by the WMO for meteorological observations:
- Degrees Celsius (°C) for temperature, or alternatively Kelvin (K).
- Metres per second (m/s) for wind speed.
- Degrees clockwise from north (°) for wind direction, or alternatively on the scale 0-36, where 36 is the wind directly from north and 09 is the directly wind from east.
- Hectopascals (hPa) for atmospheric pressure.
- Percent (%) for relative humidity.
- Millimetres (mm) for precipitation (or the equivalent unit kilograms per square metre (kg/m2))
- Millimetres (mm) for evaporation.
- Millimetres per hour (mm/h) for precipitation intensity, or alternatively kilograms per square metre per second (kg/m2/s)
- Hours (h) for sunshine duration.
- Metres (m) for visibility.
- Metres (m) for cloud height.
- Geopotential metres (m¢) for geopotential.
- Kilograms per square metre (kg/m2) for snow water equivalent.
- Watts per square metre (W/m2) for irradiance.
- Joules per square metre (J/m2) for radiant exposure.
- Oktas for cloud cover.
Main public outreach materials
WMO awards and prizes
Ten United Nations member states are not members of WMO: Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and San Marino. Cook Islands and Niue are WMO Members but non-members of the United Nations. Vatican City and State of Palestine and the states with limited recognition are not members of either organization.
The six WMO Member Territories are the British Caribbean Territories (joint meteorological organisation and membership), French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Macau, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (joint meteorological service and membership) and New Caledonia. (List of all members with admission dates.)
Membership by regional associations
Region I (Africa)
Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Republic of the Congo Côte d'Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Eswatini Ethiopia France Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Portugal Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Spain Sudan Tanzania, United Republic of Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe
Region II (Asia)
Afghanistan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia People's Republic of China India Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Japan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal North Korea Oman Pakistan Qatar Russian Federation Saudi Arabia South Korea Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Viet Nam Yemen
The member territories are:
Region III (South America)
Region IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean)
Region IV consists of the states of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, including three European states with dependencies within the region. It has a total of 25 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:
Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador France Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Netherlands Nicaragua Panama Saint Lucia Trinidad and Tobago United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
The two member territories are:
Region V (South-West Pacific)
Australia Brunei Darussalam Cook Islands Fiji Indonesia Kiribati Malaysia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America Vanuatu
The member territories are:
Region VI (Europe)
Region VI consists consist of all the states in Europe as well as some Western Asia. It has 50 member states:
Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Jordan Kazakhstan Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Monaco Montenegro Netherlands North Macedonia Norway Poland Portugal Romania Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
States with membership in more than one region
A total of ten member states have membership in more than one region. Two nations are members to four different regions, while eight are members of two regions. These nations, with their regions, are as follows:
France (Regions I, III, IV, and VI) United Kingdom (Regions I, IV, V, and VI) Colombia (Regions III and IV) Kazakhstan (Regions II and VI) Netherlands (Regions IV and VI) Portugal (Regions I and VI) Russian Federation (Regions II and VI) Spain (Regions I and VI) United States of America (Regions IV and V) Venezuela (Regions III and IV)
- https://public.wmo.int/en/about-us/secretariat retrieved on 16.06.2019
- Adrian, Gerhard (2019). "President". WMO. World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- "Who we are". World Meteorological Organization. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "History of WMO". World Meteorological Organization. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- http://library.wmo.int/pmb_ged/wmo_1161_en.pdf WMO Strategic Plan Archived 10 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "IPCC Nobel Peace Prize". Nobel Prize Committee. 12 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
- "World Meteorological Day". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- World Meteorological Organization - Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation - Preliminary seventh edition - WMO-No. 8 - Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization – Geneva – Switzerland - 2006
- "International Meteorological Organization (IMO) Prize". World Meteorological Organization. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Professor Dr Vilho Väisälä Awards". World Meteorological Organization. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Norbert Gerbier-Mumm International Award". World Meteorological Organization. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "WMO Research Award for Young Scientists". World Meteorological Organization. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Professor Mariolopoulos Award". World Meteorological Organization. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "WMO - Members". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Members of Regional Association I (Africa)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- As Swaziland until 2018.
- "Members of Regional Association II (Asia)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Members of Regional Association III (South America)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Members of Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Members of Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- "Members of Regional Association IV (Europe)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Under the provisional designation "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" until 2019.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to World Meteorological Organization.|
- "Public website". WMO.
- "Severe World Weather website". WMO.
- Official website
(as of October 2018, this functions as a WMO Extranet for the WMO Community as an interim solution until a new WMO Community website can be launched)
- "International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships". International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS). 1999. Pub 47.
Including country codes
- "World Climate Conference-3 (WCC-3)". WMO. August 2009.