World Athletics Championships

The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics (formerly IAAF). The World Championships were started in 1976 in response to the International Olympic Committee dropping the men's 50 km walk from the Olympic programme for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, despite its constant presence at the games since 1932. The IAAF chose to host its own world championship event instead, a month and a half after the Olympics.[1][2] It was the first World Championships that the IAAF had hosted separate from the Olympic Games (traditionally the main championship for the sport). A second limited event was held in 1980, and the inaugural championships in 1983, with all the events, is considered the official start of the competition. Until 1980, the Olympic champions were considered as reigning World Champions. At their debut, these championhips were then held every four years, until 1991, when they switched to a two-year cycle since.

World Athletics Championships
Statusactive
GenreAthletics World championship
Date(s)varying
Frequencybiennial
Countryvarying
Inaugurated1983 (1983)
Next event2021
Organised byWorld Athletics
Websitewww.worldathletics.org
2019

History

The idea of having an Athletics World Championships was around well before the competition's first event in 1983. In 1913, the IAAF decided that the Olympic Games would serve as the World Championships for athletics. This was considered suitable for over 50 years until in the late 1960s the desire of many IAAF members to have their own World Championships began to grow. In 1976 at the IAAF Council Meeting in Puerto Rico an Athletics World Championships separate from the Olympic Games was approved.

Following bids from both Stuttgart, West Germany and Helsinki, Finland, the IAAF Council awarded the inaugural competition to Helsinki, to take place in 1983 and be held in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium (where the 1952 Summer Olympics had been held).

Two IAAF world championship events preceded the inaugural edition of the World Championships in Athletics in 1983. The 1976 World Championships had just one event – the men's 50 kilometres walk which was dropped from the Olympic programme for the 1976 Summer Olympics and the IAAF responded by setting up their own contest. Four years later, the 1980 World Championships contained only two newly approved women's events, (400 metres hurdles and 3000 metres), neither of which featured on the programme for the 1980 Summer Olympics.[3][4]

Over the years the competition has grown in size. In 1983 an estimated 1,300 athletes from 154 countries participated.[5] By the 2003 competition, in Paris, it had grown to 1,907 athletes from 203 countries with coverage being transmitted to 179 different countries.

There has also been a change in composition over the years, with several new events, all for women, being added. By 2005, the only differences were men's competition in the 50 km walk, and equivalent events in women's 100 m hurdles and heptathlon to men's 110 m hurdles and decathlon.

The following list shows when new events were added for the first time.

Championships

Edition Year City Country Date Venue Capacity Events Nations Athletes Top of the
medal table
1976 Malmö Sweden 18 Sep Malmö Stadion 30,000 1 20 42  Soviet Union
1980 Sittard Netherlands 14 – 16 Aug De Baandert 22,000 2 21 42  East Germany
1st 1983 Helsinki Finland 7 – 14 Aug Olympiastadion 50,000 41 153 1,333  East Germany
2nd 1987 Rome Italy 28 Aug – 6 Sep Stadio Olimpico 60,000 43 156 1,419  East Germany
3rd 1991 Tokyo Japan 23 Aug – 1 Sep Olympic Stadium 48,000 43 162 1,491  United States
4th 1993 Stuttgart Germany 13 – 22 Aug Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadion 70,000 44 187 1,630  United States
5th 1995 Gothenburg Sweden 5 – 13 Aug Ullevi 42,000 44 190 1,755  United States
6th 1997 Athens Greece 1 – 10 Aug Olympiako Stadio 75,000 44 197 1,785  United States
7th 1999 Seville Spain 20 – 29 Aug Estadio Olímpico 70,000 46 200 1,750  United States
8th 2001 Edmonton Canada 3 – 12 Aug Commonwealth Stadium 60,000 46 189 1,677  Russia
9th 2003 Saint-Denis France 23 – 31 Aug Stade de France 78,000 46 198 1,679  United States
10th 2005 Helsinki Finland 6 – 14 Aug Olympiastadion 45,000 47 191 1,688  United States
11th 2007 Osaka Japan 24 Aug – 2 Sep Nagai Stadium 45,000 47 197 1,800  United States
12th 2009 Berlin Germany 15 – 23 Aug Olympiastadion 74,000 47 200 1,895  United States
13th 2011 Daegu South Korea 27 Aug – 4 Sep Daegu Stadium 65,000 47 199 1,742  United States
14th 2013 Moscow Russia 10 – 18 Aug Luzhniki Stadium 78,000 47 203 1,784  United States
15th 2015 Beijing China 22 – 30 Aug Beijing National Stadium 80,000 47 205 1,761  Kenya
16th 2017 London Great Britain 4 – 13 Aug London Stadium 60,000 48 205 2,036  United States
17th 2019 Doha Qatar 27 Sep – 6 Oct Khalifa International Stadium 48,000 49 206 1,772  United States
18th 2021 Eugene United States 6 – 15 Aug Hayward Field 30,000 49
19th 2023 Budapest Hungary 26 Aug – 3 Sep National Athletics Centre 40,000

All-time medal table

Updated after the 2019 World Athletics Championships.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States17011794381
2 Kenya605041151
3 Russia435248143
4 Germany383647121
5 Jamaica354943127
6 Great Britain & Northern Ireland303638104
7 Ethiopia29302685
8 Soviet Union23272878
9 Cuba22241460
10 East Germany21191656
11 China19252367
12 Poland19152559
13 Czech Republic155525
14 France13182354
15 Australia12141036
16 South Africa127827
17 Italy11161744
18 Ukraine11131539
19 Morocco1012830
20 Belarus10111233
21 Sweden96621
22 Norway94417
23 Bahamas89825
24 Spain7181439
25 Finland78722
26 Bahrain73313
27 Canada6141636
28 Japan671629
29 Portugal67922
30 Algeria61310
31 New Zealand6118
32 Romania581124
33 Greece561122
34 Netherlands55919
35 Bulgaria53816
36 Czechoslovakia44311
37 Croatia4329
38 Qatar4239
39 Colombia4228
 Uganda4228
41 Ireland4206
42 Switzerland4048
 Authorised Neutral Athletes[1]38112
43 West Germany36312
44 Trinidad and Tobago35715
45 Mexico34714
46 Lithuania3216
47 Ecuador3115
 Mozambique3115
49 Denmark3014
50 Estonia26210
51 Dominican Republic2114
52 Tajikistan2103
53 Grenada2013
 Venezuela2013
55 Brazil16613
56 Namibia1416
57 Turkey1304
58 Belgium1258
59 Zambia1203
60 Slovenia1135
61 Tunisia1113
62 Botswana1102
 Eritrea1102
 Panama1102
65 Saint Kitts and Nevis1045
66 Slovakia1034
67 Syria1023
68 Senegal1012
 Somalia1012
70 Barbados1001
 North Korea1001
72 Hungary07714
73 Nigeria0459
74 Ivory Coast0415
75 Kazakhstan0358
76 Burundi0213
 Djibouti0213
 Israel0213
79 Cameroon0202
 Puerto Rico0202
81 Austria0134
82 Bosnia and Herzegovina0112
 Cyprus0112
 Ghana0112
 Latvia0112
 Sri Lanka0112
 Suriname0112
 Tanzania0112
89 Bermuda0101
 Egypt0101
 Sudan0101
92 Serbia0033
93 American Samoa0011
 Burkina Faso0011
 Cayman Islands0011
 Dominica0011
 Haiti0011
 India0011
 Iran0011
 Saudi Arabia0011
 South Korea0011
 Zimbabwe0011
Totals (102 nations)7797877812347
Notes

^[1]  ANA is the name, under which Russian athletes competed in the 2017 and 2019 Championships. Their medals were not included in the official medal table.[6]

All-time placing table

In the IAAF placing table the total score is obtained from assigning eight points to the first place and so on to one point for the eight placed finalists. Points are shared in situations where a tie occurs. However, the IAAF site shows all points rounded to the nearest integer.

Updated after the 2017 Championships[7]

RankCountry45678MedalsPoints
1 United States155106+1=88+2=64+5=79+3=66+3=6765+4=3523600
2 Germany[a]606160+2=74+2=64+1=59+1=51+5=42+1=1832246.5
3 Russia[b]4651+5=46+3=55+2=44+3=44+2=36+1=411511772
4 Kenya55483742352342161401517
5 Great Britain28333837+2=45+1=30+1=27+1=21991229
Notes

Multiple medalists

Multiple winners

Boldface denotes active athletes and highest medal count among all athletes (including these who not included in these tables) per type.

Men

All events

Rank Athlete Country Events From To Gold Silver Bronze Total
1Usain Bolt Jamaica100 m / 200 m / 4 × 100 m relay20072017112114
2LaShawn Merritt United States400 m / 4 × 400 m relay20052015* 8 *3* 11 *
3Carl Lewis United States100 m / 200 m / 4 × 100 m relay / Long jump1983199381110
4Michael Johnson United States200 m / 400 m / 4 × 400 m relay1991199988
5Mo Farah Great Britain5000 m / 10,000 m20112017628
6Sergey Bubka Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Pole vault1983199766
7Jeremy Wariner United States400 m / 4 × 400 m relay20052009516
8Kenenisa Bekele Ethiopia5000 m / 10,000 m20032009516
Lars Riedel GermanyDiscus throw19912001516
10Maurice Greene United States100 m / 200 m / 4 × 100 m relay1997200155

* including one medal in the relay event in which he participated in the heats only

Individual events

Rank Athlete Country Events From To Gold Silver Bronze Total
1Usain Bolt Jamaica100 m / 200 m200720177119
2Mo Farah Great Britain5000 m / 10,000 m20112017628
3Sergey Bubka Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Pole vault1983199766
Michael Johnson United States200 m / 400 m1991199966
5Carl Lewis United States100 m / 200 m / Long jump198319935117
6Kenenisa Bekele Ethiopia5000 m / 10,000 m20032009516
Lars Riedel GermanyDiscus throw19912001516
8Ezekiel Kemboi Kenya3000 m steeplechase20032015437
9Haile Gebrselassie Ethiopia5000 m / 10,000 m199320034217
10Hicham El Guerrouj Morocco1500 m / 5000 m19952003426

Women

All events

Rank Athlete Country Events From To Gold Silver Bronze Total
1Allyson Felix United States200 m / 400 m / 4 × 100 m relay / 4 × 400 m relay / 4 × 400 m mixed relay20052019* 13 *32* 18 *
2Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Jamaica100 m / 200 m / 4 × 100 m relay200720199* 2 ** 11 *
3Gail Devers United States100 m / 100 m hurdles / 4 × 100 m relay19912001538
4Sanya Richards-Ross United States400 m / 4 × 400 m relay20032015527
5Jessica Beard United States4 × 400 m relay / 4 × 400 m mixed relay20092019*** 5 **** 1 ***** 6 ****
Tirunesh Dibaba Ethiopia5000 m / 10,000 m20032017516
Natasha Hastings United States4 × 400 m relay20072017**** 5 ****1**** 6 ****
8Jearl Miles Clark United States400 m / 4 × 400 m relay199320034329
9Valerie Adams (Vili) New ZealandShot put20052013415
Vivian Cheruiyot Kenya5000 m / 10,000 m20072015415

* including one medal in the relay event in which she participated in the heats only
*** including three medals in the relay events in which she participated in the heats only
**** including four medals in the relay events in which she participated in the heats only

Individual events

Rank Athlete Country Events From To Gold Silver Bronze Total
1Tirunesh Dibaba Ethiopia5000 m / 10,000 m20032017516
2Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Jamaica100 m / 200 m2009201955
3Gail Devers United States100 m / 100 m hurdles19912001426
4Allyson Felix United States200 m / 400 m200520174127
5Valerie Adams (Vili) New ZealandShot put20052013415
Vivian Cheruiyot Kenya5000 m / 10,000 m20072015415
7Jackie Joyner-Kersee United StatesHeptathlon / Long jump1987199344
Brittney Reese United StatesLong jump2009201744
Anita Włodarczyk PolandHammer throw2009201744
10Liu Hong China20 km walk20092019325

Athletes with most appearances

There are 61 athletes that have competed in at least eight editions.[7]

App.NameCountryYears contestedEvents
13Jesús Ángel García Bragado Spain93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 1950 km walk
11Susana Feitor Portugal91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 1110 km walk / 20 km walk
João Vieira Portugal99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 1920 km walk / 50 km walk
10Franka Dietzsch Germany91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09Discus throw
Nicoleta Grasu Romania93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13Discus throw
Virgilijus Alekna Lithuania95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13Discus throw
Kim Collins Saint Kitts and Nevis95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 15100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
9Laverne Eve Bahamas87, 91, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07Javelin throw
Tim Berrett Canada91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 0720 km walk / 50 km walk
Jackie Edwards Bahamas91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07Long Jump / Triple Jump
Maria Mutola Mozambique91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07800 m
Elisângela Adriano Brazil91, 93, 97, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11Shot put / Discus throw
Venelina Veneva-Mateeva Bulgaria91, 95, 99, 01, 03, 05, 09, 11, 15High Jump
Danny McFarlane Jamaica93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09400 m / 400 m hurdles / 4x400 m
Hatem Ghoula Tunisia93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 1320 km walk
Debbie Ferguson-McKenzie Bahamas95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 07, 09, 11, 13100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Nicola Vizzoni Italy97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13Hammer throw
Chris Brown Bahamas99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15400 m / 4x400 m
Zhang Wenxiu China01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17Hammer throw
Inês Henriques Portugal01, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 1920 km walk / 50 km walk
Allyson Felix United States03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19200 m / 400 m / 4x100 m / 4x400 m / 4x400 m Mixed
Bat-Ochiryn Ser-Od Mongolia03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19Marathon
8Merlene Ottey Jamaica /  Slovenia83, 87, 91, 93, 95, 97, 03, 07100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Jan Železný Czechoslovakia /  Czech Republic87, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03Javelin throw
Yelena Nikolayeva Soviet Union /  Russia87, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 0510 km walk / 20 km walk
Fiona May Great Britain /  Italy91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05Long Jump
Beverly McDonald Jamaica91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Lars Riedel Germany91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05Discus throw
Dragutin Topić SFR Yugoslavia / IWP * /
 FR Yugoslavia /  Serbia and Montenegro /  Serbia
91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 05, 07, 09High Jump
Iryna Yatchenko Soviet Union /  Belarus91, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 07, 09Discus throw
Eunice Barber Sierra Leone /  France93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07Heptathlon / Long Jump / 100 m hurdles
Kevin Sullivan Canada93, 95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 071500 m
Manuel Martínez Spain93, 95, 97, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09Shot put
Steffi Nerius Germany93, 95, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09Javelin throw
Amy Acuff United States95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09High Jump
Chandra Sturrup Bahamas95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Aleksander Tammert Estonia95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09Discus throw
María Vasco Spain95, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 1110 km walk / 20 km walk
Koji Murofushi Japan95, 97, 99, 01, 03, 07, 11, 13Hammer throw
Szymon Ziółkowski Poland95, 99, 01, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13Hammer throw
Marlon Devonish Great Britain97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Nadine Kleinert Germany97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11Shot put
Sergey Makarov Russia97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11Javelin throw
Ēriks Rags Latvia97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11Javelin throw
Roman Šebrle Czech Republic97, 99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11Decathlon
Omar Zepeda Mexico97, 01, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 1720 km walk / 50 km walk
Mario Pestano Spain99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13Discus throw
Félix Sánchez Dominican Republic99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13400 m hurdles / 4x400 m
Bouabdellah Tahri France99, 01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 131500 m / 3000 m steeplechase
Zoltán Kővágó Hungary01, 03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 15, 17Discus throw
Mélina Robert-Michon France01, 03, 07, 09, 13, 15, 17, 19Discus throw
Ruth Beitia Spain03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17High Jump
Gerd Kanter Estonia03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17Discus throw
Ezekiel Kemboi Kenya03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 173000 m steeplechase
Churandy Martina Netherlands Antilles /  Netherlands03, 05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 19100 m / 200 m / 4x100 m
Zuzana Hejnová Czech Republic05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19400 m hurdles / 4x400 m
Horacio Nava Mexico05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 1920 km walk / 50 km walk
Krisztián Pars Hungary05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19Hammer throw
Martyn Rooney Great Britain05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19400 m / 4x400 m / 4x400 m Mixed
Levern Spencer Saint Lucia05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19High Jump
Dragana Tomašević Serbia and Montenegro /  Serbia05, 07, 09, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19Discus throw

* At the 1993 World Championships in Athletics in Stuttgart, Germany, Dragutin Topić completed as Individual World Championship Participant (IWP) as Athletic Federation of Yugoslavia was suspended by IAAF due to United Nations sanctions stemming from the Yugoslav wars.

World records

A total of 32 world records have been set or equalled at the competition, 17 by men, 13 by women and 2 – in the mixed relay.

The first world record to be set at the World Championships was by Jarmila Kratochvílová of Czechoslovakia, who ran 47.99 seconds to win the women's 400 m final.

A peak of five world records came at the 1993 World Championships in Athletics. The most recent world record was in the Women's 400 metres hurdles, which Dalilah Muhammad of the United States finished in 52.16 second in 2019. World records have become less common as the history of the event has expanded, with no world records set in the 1997, 2001, 2007 and 2013 editions.

American athletes have been the most successful with thirteen world records set by that nation in total, followed by Jamaica and Great Britain on four each. Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt has broken the most world records at the competition, at four, one more than American Carl Lewis. Jonathan Edwards holds the distinction of breaking the world record twice in one championships – improving upon his own newly-set world record in the 1995 men's triple jump final. The men's 4 × 100 metres relay has yielded the most world records, with five set between 1983 and 2011.

Ben Johnson's time of 9.83 seconds at the 1987 World Championships men's 100 m final was initially considered a world record, but this was later rescinded after Johnson admitted to steroid use between 1981 and 1988.

Also, a doping disqualification has led to a performance being retrospectively recognised as a world record: the 2009 Jamaican men's 4 × 100 metres relay team time of 37.31 seconds was taken as the world record after the team's time of 37.10 at the 2008 Beijing Olympics was rescinded due to the disqualification of Nesta Carter (not present in the World Championships team).

Sex Event Record Athlete Nation Date Year
Men4 × 100 metres relay37.86Emmit King
Willie Gault
Calvin Smith
Carl Lewis
 United States (USA)10 August1983
Women400 metres47.99Jarmila Kratochvílová Czechoslovakia (TCH)10 August1983
WomenHigh jump2.09 mStefka Kostadinova Bulgaria (BUL)30 August1987
Men100 metres9.86Carl Lewis United States (USA)25 August1991
MenLong jump8.95 mMike Powell United States (USA)30 August1991
Men4 × 100 metres relay37.50Andre Cason
Leroy Burrell
Dennis Mitchell
Carl Lewis
 United States (USA)1 September1991
Men110 metres hurdles12.91Colin Jackson Great Britain & N.I. (GBR)20 August1993
Men4 × 100 metres relay37.40Jon Drummond
Andre Cason
Dennis Mitchell
Leroy Burrell
 United States (USA)21 August1993
Men4 × 400 metres relay2:54.29Andrew Valmon
Quincy Watts
Butch Reynolds
Michael Johnson
 United States (USA)22 August1993
Women400 metres hurdles52.74Sally Gunnell Great Britain & N.I. (GBR)19 August1993
WomenTriple jump15.09 mAnna Biryukova Russia (RUS)21 August1993
MenTriple jump18.16 mJonathan Edwards Great Britain & N.I. (GBR)7 August1995
MenTriple jump18.29 mJonathan Edwards Great Britain & N.I. (GBR)7 August1995
Women400 metres hurdles52.61Kim Batten United States (USA)11 August1995
WomenTriple jump15.50 mInessa Kravets Ukraine (UKR)10 August1995
Men400 metres43.18Michael Johnson United States (USA)26 August1999
WomenPole vault4.60 mStacy Dragila United States (USA)21 August1999
Men20 kilometres race walk1:17:21Jefferson Pérez Ecuador (ECU)23 August2003
Men50 kilometres race walk3:36:03Robert Korzeniowski Poland (POL)27 August2003
WomenPole vault5.01 mYelena Isinbaeva Russia (RUS)12 August2005
WomenJavelin throw71.70 mOsleidys Menéndez Cuba (CUB)14 August2005
Women20 kilometres walk1:25:41Olimpiada Ivanova Russia (RUS)7 August2005
Men100 metres9.58Usain Bolt Jamaica (JAM)16 August2009
Men200 metres19.19Usain Bolt Jamaica (JAM)20 August2009
Men4 × 100 metres relay37.31Steve Mullings
Michael Frater
Usain Bolt
Asafa Powell
 Jamaica (JAM)22 August2009
WomenHammer throw77.96 mAnita Włodarczyk Poland (POL)22 August2009
Men4 × 100 metres relay37.04Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
 Jamaica (JAM)4 September2011
MenDecathlon9,045 ptsAshton Eaton United States (USA)29 August2015
Women50 kilometres race walk4:05:56Inês Henriques Portugal (POR)13 August2017
Mixed4 × 400 metres relay3:12.42Tyrell Richard
Jessica Beard
Jasmine Blocker
Obi Igbokwe
 United States (USA)28 September2019
Mixed4 × 400 metres relay3:09.34Wilbert London III
Allyson Felix
Courtney Okolo
Michael Cherry
 United States (USA)29 September2019
Women400 metres hurdles52.16Dalilah Muhammad United States (USA)4 October2019

See also

Notes and references

  1. Matthews, Peter (2012). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field (pg. 217). Scarecrow Press (eBook). Retrieved on 8 September 2013.
  2. IAAF Statistics Book Moscow 2013 (pg. 179). IAAF/AFTS (2013). Edited by Mark Butler. Retrieved on 9 September 2013.
  3. IAAF World Championships in Athletics. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 8 September 2013.
  4. Archive of Past Events. IAAF. Retrieved on 8 September 2013.
  5. "First World Outdoor Championships in Helsinki a landmark for track & field." Usatf.org. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  6. "IAAF: IAAF World Championships London 2017 Medal Table - iaaf.org". iaaf.org.
  7. "IAAF Statistics Book – IAAF World Championships Doha 2019". iaaf.org. p. 48. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
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