World Agudath Israel
World Agudath Israel (Hebrew: אגודת ישראל), usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. It succeeded Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel (Union of Faithful Jewry) in 1912. Its base of support was located in Eastern Europe before the Second World War but, due to the revival of the Hasidic movement, it included Orthodox Jews throughout Europe.
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World Agudath Israel was established by Jewish religious leaders at a conference held at Kattowitz (Katowice) in 1912. They were concerned that the Tenth Zionist Congress had defeated a motion by the Torah Nationalists Mizrachi movement for funding religious schools. The aim of World Agudath Israel was to strengthen Orthodox institutions independent of the Zionist movement and Mizrachi organization. The advent of the First World War delayed development of the organisation, however.
World War I
During the First World War, Rabbi Dr. Pinchas Kohn and Rabbi Dr. Emmanuel Carlebach (both from Germany), were appointed as the rabbinical advisors to the German occupying forces in Poland. In this position, they worked closely with the Grand Rabbi of Ger, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter. As a result of this collaboration, they formed Agudath Israel, whose aim was to unify Eastern European and Western European Orthodox Judaism.
Agudath Israel gained a significant following, particularly among Hasidic Jews. It had representatives running in the Polish elections after the First World War, and they won seats in that country's parliament (Sejm). Among the elected representatives were Alexander Zusia Friedman, Rabbi Meir Shapiro, Rabbi Yosef Nechemya Kornitzer of Kraków, and Rabbi Aharon Lewin of Reysha.
Prominent Torah scholars who led Agudath Yisroel included the Gerrer Rebbe, the Radziner Rebbe, Rabbi Mordechai Yosef Elazar Leiner, and the Chafetz Chaim. In Latvia between 1922-1934, members of the Agudath Israel faction, led by Mordechai Dubin, were elected to Saeima (The Parliament). Another prominent member of Agudath Israel was Michoel Ber Weissmandl.
In the United Kingdom, the Agudath Israel movement was represented by the Adath Israel Synagogue, formed in 1909, and the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations, formed in 1926. By 1943 Agudath Israel represented approximately 5000 families and was led by Rabbi Dr Solomon Schonfeld. The British secretary of the Agudath Israel World Organization, the political wing of the movement, was Harry Goodman, publisher and editor of Jewish Weekly. He played a key part in maintaining the Agudath Israel organization through World War II.
Prior to World War II and the Holocaust, Agudath Israel operated a number of Jewish educational institutions throughout Europe. After the war, it has continued to operate such institutions in the United States as Agudath Israel of America, and in Israel. Agudath Israel is guided by its Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah (Council of Sages) in Israel and the USA.
Post World War II
In the post-War period, Agudath Israel reached a modus vivendi with the State of Israel, which was predominantly led by secularists. It helped secure an agreement between Ashkenazi Rabbinical leaders and David Ben-Gurion which ensured Ashkenazi rabbinical co-ordination with the state, as well as the implementation of such guarantees as public observance consistent with the laws of the Sabbath and Kashrut. It has established itself as an Israeli political party winning seats in the Knesset either as the Agudat Israel or in coalition with other Orthodox groups running under the name United Torah Judaism.
The Great Congress
The World Agudath Israel federation held international conferences and Torah congressional meetings known as HaKnessia HaGedolah (Hebrew: הכנסייה הגדולה, lit. 'The Great Congress'), which included many of its spiritual and political leaders, from Israel and around the world. To date, six congresses have been held, the last of which was in 1980.
- "Haredi Judaism".
- "The "Aguddat Israel" Movement". www.ucalgary.ca. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "The legal publishers of this new daily were the German rabbis Pinchas Kohn and Emmanuel Carlebach of the FVIOJ..."Kalman Weiser (2011). Jewish People, Yiddish Nation: Noah Prylucki and the Folkists in Poland. ISBN 1442662107.
- Schoenburg, Nancy; Schoenburg, ?Stuart (1996). Lithuanian Jewish Communities. p. Page 192. ISBN 1461629381.
- "At the wedding of Rav Emmanuel Carlebach zt"l of Cologne, all the married women (in the picture) wore shaitels." "The Ashkenaz Forum :: Topic: Shaitel vs. Tichel".
- "Agudath Israel... In time it became a political party represented in the Sejm (Polish Parliament)." Roberto Perin (2017). The Many Rooms of this House: Diversity. ISBN 1487510616.
- "... between the wars, none was more effective than the Agudath Israel. ... in the Polish government and was represented in the Sejm (Polish Parliament)." William B. Helmreich (2000). The World of the Yeshiva: An Intimate Portrait of Orthodox Jewry. ISBN 0881256412.
- "Agudas Yisroel succeeded in electing deputies to the Polish Sejm." "Agudas Yisroel".
- Pamela Shatzkes (2002) Holocaust and Rescue: Impotent or Indifferent? Anglo-Jewry 1938-1945 Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 13-14
- "... list made up of the ultra-Orthodox parties Agudat Israel and Degel HaTorah ... United Torah Judaism (UTJ) promotes the interests of the Haredi community ..." "United Torah Judaism - The Israel Democracy Institute".
- Agudat Israel article from the Jewish Virtual Library
- Gershon C.Bacon, The Politics of Tradition: Agudat Israel in Poland, 1916-1939, The Magnes Press, Jerusalem, 1996, ISBN 965-223-962-3