In the 14th century King Edward III (1327–1377) commanded that his Lord Chancellor whilst in council should sit on a wool bale, now known as "The Woolsack", in order to symbolise the central nature and huge importance of the wool trade to the economy of England in the Middle Ages. Indeed, it was largely to protect the vital English wool trade routes with continental Europe that the Battle of Crécy was fought with the French in 1346. From the Middle Ages until 2006, the presiding officer in the House of Lords was the Lord Chancellor and the Woolsack was usually mentioned in association with the office of Lord Chancellor. In July 2006, the function of Lord Speaker was split from that of Lord Chancellor pursuant to the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, with the former now sitting in the Woolsack.
The Woolsack is a large, wool-stuffed cushion or seat covered with red cloth; it has neither a back nor arms, though in the centre of the Woolsack there is a back-rest. The Lords' Mace is placed on the rear part of the Woolsack.
In 1938, it was discovered that the Woolsack was, in fact, stuffed with horsehair. When the Woolsack was remade it was re-stuffed with wool from all over the Commonwealth as a symbol of unity.
The Lord Speaker may speak from the Woolsack when speaking in his or her capacity as Speaker of the House, but must, if he or she seeks to debate, deliver his or her remarks either from the left side of the Woolsack, or from the normal seats of the Lords.
If a Deputy Speaker presides in the absence of the Lord Speaker, then that individual uses the Woolsack. However, when the House meets in the "Committee of the Whole", the Woolsack remains unoccupied, and the presiding officer, the Chairman or Deputy Chairman, occupies a Chair at the front of the table of the House.
In front of the Woolsack is an even larger cushion known as the Judges' Woolsack. During the State Opening of Parliament, the Judges' Woolsack was historically occupied by the Law Lords. Now the Attorney General, the Solicitor General, the Lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, the President of the Family Division, the Vice-Chancellor, Justices of the Supreme Court, the Lords Justices of Appeal and the Justices of the High Court only attend Parliament for the State Opening.
- "Glossary: Woolsack". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
- Friar 2004, pp. 480–481
- Sumption 1991, pp. 188–189
- Gay 2003, p. 16
- "The Lords Chamber". UK Parliament. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- Great Britain Parliament House of Lords 2010, pp. 38–41
- "The Lord Speaker's Role". Parliament.uk. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- Great Britain Parliament House of Lords 2013, pp. 30–31 - Plan of the chamber including location of Judges Woolsack
- Great Britain Parliament House of Lords 2013, pp. 17–18
- Friar, Stephen (2004). The Sutton Companion to Local History. Sparkford, England: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-2723-2.
- "Woolsack contents questioned". Courier Mail, Brisbane. 1938. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Great Britain Parliament House of Lords (2013). "Companion to the Standing Orders and Guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords (House of Lords Papers)" (PDF). London: Stationery Office. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "The Woolsack". UK Parliament website. Woolsack. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- The Judges' Woolsack at the UK Parliament site. URL accessed 30 April 2011
- The Interior of the House of Lords at an archived version of the Explore Parliament website. URL accessed 28 February 2011. See also the image at full resolution. The woolsacks are the large, low, rectangular objects in front of the throne, surrounded by ropes. *
- Great Britain Parliament House of Lords (2010). Companion to the Standing Orders and Guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords (House of Lords Papers). London: Stationery Office Books; 25th edition. ISBN 0-1084-7241-8.
- Gay, Oonagh (2003). "Roll of the Lord Chancellor. Standard Note: SN/PC/2105" (PDF). Parliament and Constitution Centre. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Sumption, Jonathan (1991). The Hundred Years War I: Trial by Battle. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1655-5.