Winnie Madikizela-Mandela – 2 April 2018), also known as Winnie Mandela, was a South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, and the second wife of Nelson Mandela. She served as a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 2003, and from 2009 until her death, and was a deputy minister of arts and culture from 1994 to 1996. A member of the African National Congress (ANC) political party, she served on the ANC's National Executive Committee and headed its Women's League. Madikizela-Mandela was known to her supporters as the "Mother of the Nation".(born Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela; 26 September 1936
|First Lady of South Africa|
10 May 1994 – 1 March 1996
|Preceded by||Marike de Klerk|
|Succeeded by||Graça Machel|
|Member of the Parliament of South Africa|
9 May 2009 – 2 April 2018
|Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology|
|Preceded by||Position established|
Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela
26 September 1936
Mbizana, Pondoland, South Africa
|Died||2 April 2018 81) (aged|
Johannesburg, South Africa
|Cause of death||Diabetes|
|Resting place||Fourways Memorial Park Cemetery|
|Political party||African National Congress|
(m. 1958; div. 1996)
|Part of a series on|
Born to a Mpondo family in Bizana, and a qualified social worker, she married anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg in 1958; they remained married for 38 years and had two children together. In 1963, after Mandela was imprisoned following the Rivonia Trial; she became his public face during the 27 years he spent in jail. During that period, she rose to prominence within the domestic anti-apartheid movement. She was detained by apartheid state security services on various occasions, tortured, subjected to banning orders, banished to a rural town, and spent several months in solitary confinement.
In the mid-1980s Madikizela-Mandela was implicated in violence in Soweto, which led to condemnation by the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, and a rebuke by the ANC in exile. During this period, her home was burned down by residents of Soweto. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) established by Nelson Mandela's government to investigate human rights abuses found Madikizela-Mandela to have been "politically and morally accountable for the gross violations of human rights committed by the "Mandela United Football Club", her security detail. Madikizela-Mandela was accused of endorsing the necklacing of alleged police informers and apartheid government collaborators, and her security detail carried out kidnapping, torture, and murder, most notoriously the killing of 14-year-old Stompie Sepei whose kidnapping she was convicted of.
Nelson Mandela was released from prison on 11 February 1990, and the couple separated in 1992; their divorce was finalised in March 1996. She visited him during his final illness. As a senior ANC figure, she took part in the post-apartheid ANC government, although she was dismissed from her post amid allegations of corruption. In 2003, she was convicted of theft and fraud. She temporarily withdrew from active politics before returning several years later.
Madikizela-Mandela's Xhosa name was Nomzamo ("She who tries"). She was born in the village of Mbongweni, Bizana, Pondoland, in what is now the Eastern Cape province. She was the fifth of nine children, seven sisters and a brother. Her parents, Columbus and Gertrude, who had a white father and Xhosa mother, were both teachers. Columbus was a history teacher and a headmaster, and Gertrude was a domestic science teacher. Gertrude died when Winnie was nine years old, resulting in the break-up of her family when the siblings were sent to live with different relatives. Madikizela-Mandela went on to become the head girl at her high school in Bizana.
Upon leaving school, she went to Johannesburg to study social work at the Jan Hofmeyr School of Social Work. She earned a degree in social work in 1956, and several years later earned a bachelor's degree in international relations from the University of the Witwatersrand. She held a number of jobs in various parts of what was then the Bantustan of Transkei; including with the Transkei government, living at various points of time at Bizana, Shawbury and Johannesburg. Her first job was as a social worker at Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto.
Marriage to Nelson Mandela
She met the lawyer and anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela in 1957, when he was still married to Evelyn Mase.
She was 22 years old and standing at a bus stop in Soweto when Mandela first saw her and charmed her, securing a lunch date the following week. The couple married in 1958 and had two daughters, Zenani (born 1958) and Zindziwa (born 1960). Mandela was arrested and jailed in 1963, and was not released until 1990.
The couple separated in 1992. They finalised their divorce in March 1996 with an unspecified out-of-court settlement. During the divorce hearing, Nelson Mandela rejected Madikizela-Mandela's assertion that arbitration could salvage the marriage, and cited her infidelity as a cause of the divorce, saying "... I am determined to get rid of the marriage". Her attempt to obtain a settlement up to US$5million (R70 million) — half of what she claimed her ex-husband was worth — was dismissed when she failed to appear in court for a settlement hearing.
When asked in a 1994 interview about the possibility of reconciliation, she said: "I am not fighting to be the country's First Lady. In fact, I am not the sort of person to carry beautiful flowers and be an ornament to everyone."
Madikizela-Mandela was involved in a lawsuit at the time of her death, claiming that she was entitled to Mandela's homestead in Qunu, through customary law, despite her divorce from Nelson Mandela in 1996. Her case was dismissed by the Mthatha High Court in 2016, and she was reportedly preparing to appeal to the Constitutional Court at the time of her death, after failing at the Supreme Court of Appeal in January 2018.
Winnie Mandela emerged as a leading opponent of apartheid during the latter part of her husband's imprisonment. Due to her political activities, she was regularly detained by the National Party government. She was subjected to house arrest, kept under surveillance, imprisoned, and banished to the remote town of Brandfort.
Her longest jailing was for 491 days (as noted in her account 491 Days: Prisoner Number 1323/69), beginning on May 12, 1969, at Pretoria Central Prison, where she spent months in solitary confinement, and was tortured and beaten. By her own account, Winnie Mandela's experience in prison "hardened" her.
From 1977 to 1985, she was banished to the town of Brandfort in the Orange Free State and confined to the area, except for when she was allowed to visit her husband at Robben Island. It was at this time that Winnie Mandela became well known in the Western world. She organised a creche with an NGO, Operation Hunger and a clinic in Brandfort with Dr Abu Baker Asvat, her personal physician, campaigned actively for equal rights and was promoted by the ANC as a symbol of their struggle against apartheid. While in exile in Brandfort, she, and those who attempted to assist her, were harassed by the apartheid police.
In a leaked letter to Jacob Zuma in October 2008, outgoing President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki alluded to the role the ANC had created for Nelson and Winnie Mandela, as representative symbols of the brutality of apartheid:
In the context of the global struggle for the release of political prisoners in our country, our movement took a deliberate decision to profile Nelson Mandela as the representative personality of these prisoners, and therefore to use his personal political biography, including the persecution of his then wife, Winnie Mandela, dramatically to present to the world and the South African community the brutality of the apartheid system.
Violence and criminal proceedings
During a speech in Munsieville on 13 April 1986, Winnie Mandela endorsed the practice of necklacing (burning people alive using tyres and petrol) by saying: "With our boxes of matches and our necklaces we shall liberate this country." Further tarnishing her reputation were accusations by her bodyguard, Jerry Musivuzi Richardson, and others, at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, that she had ordered kidnapping and murder during the second half of the 1980s.
Return to Soweto and Mandela United Football Club: 1986–1989
Winnie Mandela returned to Soweto from Brandfort in late 1985, in defiance of a banning order. During Winnie Mandela's banishment, the United Democratic Front (UDF) and Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) had formed a mass-movement against apartheid. The new organisations relied more heavily on collective decision-making structures, rather than on individual charisma. She took a more militaristic approach, eschewing the approach of the newer bodies, and began dressing in military garb, and surrounding herself with bodyguards: the Mandela United Football Club (MUFC). Living in Winnie Mandela's home, the putative "soccer team" began hearing family disputes; delivering "judgments" and "sentences" and eventually became associated with kidnapping, torture and murder. She was implicated in at least 15 deaths during this time period.
In 1988, Winnie Mandela's home was burned by high school students in Soweto, in retaliation for the actions of the Mandela United Football Club. By 1989, after appeals from local residents, and after the Seipei kidnapping, the UDF (in the guise of the Mass Democratic Movement, or MDM), "disowned" her for "violating human rights ... in the name of the struggle against apartheid". The ANC in exile issued a statement criticising her judgment, after she refused to heed instructions, issued from prison by Nelson Mandela, to dissociate herself from the Football Club, and after attempts at mediation by an ANC crisis committee failed.
Lolo Sono and Siboniso Shabalala
In November 1988, 21-year-old Lolo Sono, and his 19-year-old friend Siboniso Shabalala, disappeared in Soweto. Sono's father said he saw his son in a kombi with Winnie Mandela, and that his son had been badly beaten. Sono’s mother claimed that Winnie Mandela had labelled her son a spy, and had said she was "taking him away". At the subsequent Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings, Sono's stepmother said, "I am pleading with Mrs Mandela today, in front of the whole world, that please, Mrs Mandela, give us our son back. Even if he is dead, let Mrs Mandela give us the remains of our son, so that we must bury him decently." Sono and Shabalala's bodies were exhumed from pauper's graves in Soweto's Avalon Cemetery in 2013, by the National Prosecuting Authority's Missing People's Task Team, having been stabbed soon after their abductions.
Seipei and Asvat killings
On 29 December 1988, Jerry Richardson, who was coach of the Mandela United Football Club, abducted 14-year-old James Seipei (also known as Stompie Sepei) and three other youths from the home of Methodist minister Rev. Paul Verryn, with Richardson claiming that Winnie Mandela had the youths taken to her home because she suspected the reverend was sexually abusing them (allegations that were baseless). The four were beaten to get them to admit to having had sex with the minister. Negotiations that lasted 10 days, by senior ANC and community leaders to get the kidnapped boys released by Winnie Mandela failed. Seipei was accused of being an informer, and his body later found in a field with stab wounds to the throat on 6 January 1989.
In 1991, Mrs Mandela was acquitted of all but the kidnapping of Sepei. A key witness, Katiza Cebekhulu, who was going to testify that Madikizela-Mandela had killed Sepei, had been tortured and kidnapped to Zambia by her supporters, prior to the trial, to prevent him testifying against her. Her six-year jail sentence was reduced to a fine on appeal.
In 1992, she was accused of ordering the murder of Dr. Abu Baker Asvat, a family friend, and prominent Soweto doctor, who had examined Seipei at Mandela's house, after Seipei had been abducted, but before he had been killed. Mandela's role in the Asvat killing was later probed as part of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings, in 1997. Asvat's murderer testified that she paid the equivalent of $8,000 and supplied the firearm used in the killing, which took place on 27 January 1989. The hearings were later adjourned amid claims that witnesses were being intimidated on Winnie Mandela's orders.
In a 2017 documentary about the life and activism of Winnie Mandela, former Soweto police officer Henk Heslinga alleged that former safety minister Sydney Mufamadi had instructed him to re-open the investigation into the death of Moeketsi, as well as all other cases made against Winnie Mandela, for the purpose of charging Winnie with murder. According to Heslinga, Richardson admitted during an interview that Moeketsi discovered he was an informant, and that he killed the child to cover his tracks. However, at a press conference a few days after Madikizela-Mandela's funeral, Mufamadi denied the allegations in the documentary, stating that Helsinga's statements were false. The documentary had previously been described by in a review by Vanity Fair as "unabashedly one-sided" and "overwhelmingly defensive". Commentator Max du Preez, called the decision by television station eNCA to broadcast the documentary in the week prior to Madikizela-Mandela's funeral without context a "serious mistake", and he described it as making "outrageous claims", while former TRC commissioner Dumisa Ntsebeza questioned the motives of the documentary maker.
In January 2018, ANC MP Mandla Mandela, Nelson Mandela's grandson by his first wife, Evelyn Mase, called for Winnie Mandela's role in the Asvat and Sepei murders to be probed. In October 2018 a new biography of Madikizela-Mandela concluded that she had been responsible for the murder of Asvat.
In April 2018, Joyce Seipei, the mother of Stompie Seipei, told media that she did not believe that Winnie Madikizela-Mandela was involved in her son’s murder. In a subsequent interview with the UK Independent, Joyce Seipei said that she had forgiven Madikizela-Mandela, and that during the TRC hearings, Madikizela-Mandela had told her, in the context of her son Stompie's murder: "...may God forgive me". After the TRC hearings, Madikizela-Mandela had provided financial support to Joyce Sepei's family, and Seipei's home was furnished by the ANC.
The final report of the Truth and Reconciliation commission (TRC), issued in 1998, found "Ms Winnie Madikizela Mandela politically and morally accountable for the gross violations of human rights committed by the Mandela United Football Club" and that she "was responsible, by omission, for the commission of gross violations of human rights." The TRC report also stated that Sepei trial witness Katiza Cebekhulu's abduction to Zambia, where he was detained without trial for almost 3 years by the Kenneth Kaunda government, before moving to the UK was done by the ANC, and in the "interests" of Madikizela-Mandela. The TRC found allegations against Methodist minister Paul Verryn to be "unfounded and without any merit" and that "Madikizela-Mandela deliberately and maliciously slandered Verryn...in an attempt to divert attention away from herself and [her] associates...". The TRC also found that she was responsible for the abduction of, and assaults on, Stompie Sepei, and that she had attempted to cover up his death by claiming he had fled to Botswana. She was found by the TRC to be responsible for the 1988 disappearance of Lolo Sono and Siboniso Shabalala.
Transition to democracy: 1990–2003
During South Africa's transition to multi-racial democracy, she adopted a far less conciliatory attitude than her husband did towards white South Africans. She was seen on her husband's arm when he was released in February 1990, the first time the couple had been seen in public for nearly 30 years.
However, their 38-year marriage ended in April 1992 after rumours of unfaithfulness. Their divorce was finalised in March 1996. She then adopted the surname "Madikizela-Mandela". Also in 1992, she lost her position as the head of the ANC social welfare department, amid allegations of corruption.
Madikizela-Mandela actively campaigned for the ANC in South Africa's first non-racial elections. Appointed Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology in May 1994, she was dismissed 11 months later following allegations of corruption.
In 1995, multiple prominent members of the ANC Women's League, including Adelaide Tambo resigned from the National Executive Committee of that body because of disagreement with Madikizela-Mandela's leadership of the body, and amid a controversy about a large donation from Pakistani politician Benazir Bhutto that was not handed over to the League by Madikizela-Mandela.
She remained extremely popular amongst many ANC supporters. In December 1993 and April 1997, she was elected president of the ANC Women's League, although she withdrew her candidacy for ANC Deputy President at the movement's Mafikeng conference in December 1997. Earlier in 1997, she appeared before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Archbishop Desmond Tutu as chairman of the commission recognised her importance in the anti-apartheid struggle, but exhorted her to apologise and to admit her mistakes. In a guarded response, she admitted "things went horribly wrong".
In 2002, Madikizela-Mandela was found guilty by a Parliamentary ethics committee of failing to disclose donations and financial interests. Madikizela Mandela was often absent from Parliament, sometimes for months at a time, and was ordered by Parliament to account for her absences in 2003.
Legal problems and withdrawal from South African politics: 2003–2007
In 2003, Madikizela-Mandela offered to act as a human shield prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Also in 2003, she helped defuse a hostage situation at Wits University, where a student who was in arrears with fees took a staff member hostage at knifepoint.
Fraud and theft case
On 24 April 2003, Winnie Mandela was convicted on 43 counts of fraud and 25 of theft, and her broker, Addy Moolman, was convicted on 58 counts of fraud and 25 of theft. Both had pleaded not guilty. The charges related to money taken from loan applicants' accounts for a funeral fund, but from which the applicants did not benefit. Madikizela-Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Shortly after the conviction, she resigned from all leadership positions in the ANC, including her parliamentary seat and the presidency of the ANC Women's League.
In July 2004, an appeal judge of the Pretoria High Court ruled that "the crimes were not committed for personal gain". The judge overturned the conviction for theft, but upheld the one for fraud, handing her a three years and six months suspended sentence.
Return to politics
Madikizela-Mandela criticised the anti-immigrant violence in May–June 2008 that began in Johannesburg and spread throughout the country, and blamed the government's lack of suitable housing provisions for the sentiments behind the riots. She apologised to the victims of the riots and visited the Alexandra township. She offered her home as shelter for an immigrant family from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. She warned that the perpetrators of the violence could strike at the Gauteng train system.
Madikizela-Mandela secured fifth place on the ANC's electoral list for the 2009 general election, behind party president Jacob Zuma, President of South Africa Kgalema Motlanthe, Deputy President Baleka Mbete, and Finance Minister Trevor Manuel. An article in The Observer suggested her position near the top of the list indicated that the party's leadership saw her as a valuable asset in the election with regard to solidifying support among the party's grassroots and the poor.
Madkizela-Mandela was largely sidelined by the ANC in the post-apartheid period,. and, despite her status as an ANC MP over much of that period, she largely associated with non-ANC figures including Bantu Holomisa and Julius Malema. Madikizela-Mandela was a political patron of Malema, who quit the ANC to form his own party, the Economic Freedom Fighters.
Death and funeral
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela died at the Netcare Milpark Hospital in Johannesburg on 2 April 2018 at the age of 81. She suffered from diabetes and had recently undergone several major surgeries. She "had been in and out of hospital since the start of the year".
In the lead-up to Madikizela Mandela's funeral, in a politically fraught environment soon after the ouster of former president Jacob Zuma, Jessie Duarte, a senior ANC leader, warned critics to "sit down and shut up", with Economic Freedom Fighters leader Julius Malema saying that "anyone who accuses Mama Winnie of any crime is guilty of treason".
Madikizela-Mandela was granted a "Special Official Funeral" by the South African government. Her public funeral service was held at Orlando Stadium on 14 April 2018. Planning for Madikizela Mandela's funeral was largely handled by her daughters and Julius Malema, and the ANC reportedly had to "fight for space" on the programme. At the public service, ANC and South African President Cyril Ramaphosa "acknowledged" that the ANC failed to stand by Madikizela-Mandela's side during her legal troubles. Julius Malema, delivered an impassioned speech in which he criticised the United Democratic Front for distancing themselves from Madikizela-Mandela in the 1980s. Malema also criticised members of the National Executive Committee of the ANC Women's League for resigning in 1995, because they regarded Madikizela-Mandela as a "criminal". Madikizela-Mandela's daughter Zenani attacked those who "vilified" her mother, calling them hypocrites. After the public service, her body was interred at a cemetery in Fourways in the north of Johannesburg during a private memorial service.
In popular culture
Mandela was portrayed by Alfre Woodard in the 1987 HBO TV movie, Mandela. Woodard earned both a CableACE Award and an NAACP Image Award for her performance, as did costar Danny Glover, who portrayed Nelson Mandela.
Jennifer Hudson played her in Winnie Mandela, directed by Darrell Roodt, released in Canada by D Films on 16 September 2011. Roodt, Andre Pieterse, and Paul L. Johnson based the film's script on Anne Marie du Preez Bezdrob's biography, Winnie Mandela: A Life. The Creative Workers Union of South Africa opposed the choice of Hudson in the title role, saying the use of foreign actors to tell the country's stories undermined efforts to develop the national film industry.
Mandela was again portrayed in the 2013 film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom by actress Naomie Harris (British actor Idris Elba played Nelson Mandela). On viewing the film, Madikizela-Mandela told Harris it was "the first time she felt her story had been captured on film". Gugulethu okaMseleku, writing in The Guardian, stated that the film had returned Winnie Mandela to her rightful place, recognising her role in "the struggle" that, "for South African women ... was more fundamental than her husband's."
Honours and awards
In 1985, Mrs. Mandela won the Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award along with fellow activists Allan Boesak and Beyers Naudé for their human rights work in South Africa. She received a Candace Award for Distinguished Service from the National Coalition of 100 Black Women in 1988.
On October 25, 1997, at the request of the founder of the original Million Woman March (MWM) Sis. Empress Phile' Chionesu. Mrs. Winnie Mandela spoke in front of an approximated 2.5 million participants (primarily Black/African females) in Philadelphia, PA. The 1997 Million Woman March is the largest gathering in the whole world of women anywhere ever, in one location during the 20th century and the first grassroots mass assembly specifically for women and girls of African descent and to produce over a million attendees. In recognition and appreciation of her work and legacy, the Founding and National Offices of MWM has declared the "Mother of the Nation" the title of "Queen Mother Winnie Mandela" and official MWM Universal Movements "Sistah Saint".
In January 2018, the University Council and University Senate of Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, approved the award of an honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD) degree to Winnie Nomzamo Madikizela-Mandela, in recognition of her fight against apartheid in South Africa.
- Winnie Mandela. nndb.com
- "Anti-apartheid campaigner Winnie Mandela dies, aged 81". Sky News. 2 April 2018.
- Butcher, Tim (25 April 2003). "Winnie Mandela given five-year jail sentence". The Telegraph – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "Jacob Zuma set for presidency". Brandsouthafrica.com. 7 May 2009.
- "From 'Mother of the Nation' to 'mugger': The turbulent life of South Africa's Winnie Mandela". The Independent. 2 April 2018.
- "'Winnie was born Mpondo princess from an important Eastern Cape family'". 702.
- Beresford, David; Vat, Dan van der (2 April 2018). "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela obituary". the Guardian.
- "OPINION - The conscience of a nation that has forgotten apartheid". The Mercury.
- "Has truth become a casualty of Winnie's rejection of accountability?". Business Day.
- Pillay, Verashni. "Five times Winnie Mandela has let us down". Mail and Guardian.
- KRAFT, SCOTT (17 February 1989). "S. Africa Black Group Disowns Winnie Mandela". Articles.latimes.com.
- "Isolating Madikizela-Mandela was not my decision alone‚ says Mufamadi". Times Live.
- kyle (22 February 2016). "Statement by Mass Democratic Movement on Winnie Mandela". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- Times, John D. Battersby and Special To the New York. "Winnie Mandela Agrees to Shed Guards". New York Times.
- "What ANC said about Winnie, MUFC and Stompie at the time - DOCUMENTS". Politicsweb.co.za.
- "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela and the ghosts of crimes past - NEWS & ANALYSIS". Politicsweb.co.za.
- "Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, Volume Two, Chapter 6 (pp. 543–82): Special Investigation: Mandela United Football Club" (PDF). 29 October 1998. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- Trewhela, Paul. "The moral problem of Winnie Mandela - Daily Maverick". Dailymaverick.co.za.
- "Bodies exhumed in ANC 'murder' case linked to Winnie Mandela". independent.co.uk. 12 March 2013.
- Wet, Phillip De. "Bodies probably won't bury Winnie". mg.co.za.
- Malone, Andrew (27 April 2003). "Rough justice for Winnie's victims". the Guardian.
- Cropley, Ed. "Winnie Mandela, tarnished 'Mother' of post-apartheid South Africa". Reuters.
- Smith, David (6 December 2013). "Nelson and Winnie Mandela's marriage ended, but the bond was never broken". The Guardian.
- Madikizela-Mandela profile. Sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- French, Mary Ann (30 April 1994). "THE RESURRECTED WINNIE MANDELA". Washingtonpost.com.
- "Winnie Mandela died on April 2nd". The Economist.
- Jagarnath, Vashna. "Nomzamo from Bizana: remembering Winnie Madikizela as a young woman". The Conversation.
- Van Wyk, Chris (2003). Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. Awareness Publishing. pp. 5–9. ISBN 1-919910-12-3.
- "Winnie graduates after 38yrs". News24.
- Preez Bezdrob, Anné Mariè (15 July 2015). Winnie Mandela: A Life. South Africa: Penguin Random House. ISBN 978-1868729265.
- Staff (2 April 2018). "Obituary: Winnie Madikizela-Mandela of South Africa". BBC News Online. BBC. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Jr, Cleve R. Wootson (2 April 2018). "Winnie and Nelson Mandela's marriage survived three decades of prison — but not freedom". Washingtonpost.com.
- "Mandela: Winnie made me the loneliest man". The Independent. 19 March 1996.
- "Nelson and Winnie Mandela divorce; Winnie fails to win $5 million settlement". Jet. 8 April 1996. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012.
- Pereira, Derwin (22 June 1994). "'Invest to rebuild S. Africa' call by Winnie Mandela". Pretoria. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014.
- Agency. "Winnie loses court battle over Mandela Qunu home". Mail and Guardian.
- "Winnie loses appeal in battle for Madiba's Qunu homestead". News24.
- Hlatshaneni, Simnikiwe. "Mama Winnie's dying wish". The Citizen.
- "#WinnieMandela bodyguard reveals her final moments". The Star.
- "Nomzamo Nobandla Winnifred MADIKIZELA-MANDELA". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
In 1969, she became one of the first detainees under Section 6 of the notorious Terrorism Act. She was detained for eighteen months in solitary confinement in the condemned cell at Pretoria Central Prison before being charged under the Suppression of Communism Act 1950.
- "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, anti-apartheid leader, 1936-2018". Financial Times.
- "Exile in dust: Madikizela-Mandela left her mark on Brandfort". Sunday Times.
- "Operation Hunger founder dies". South African Press Association (SAPA).
- "Dr. Abu Baker Asvat | South African History Online". sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "The Winnie Mandela Trial". BBC. 29 November 1997.
- "YUNUS MOMONIAT: Winnie and SA deserve an honest assessment". Business Day.
- "Thabo Mbeki's letter to Jacob Zuma". Politicsweb. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- "We both loved Winnie, Nelson Mandela and I". Toronto Star.
- "Row over 'mother of the nation' Winnie Mandela". The Guardian. UK. 27 January 1989.
- "Winnie says evidence against her is 'ludicrous'". BBC News. 4 December 1997. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
- Johannesburg, Our correspondent in (30 November 1999). "Winnie Mandela accused of ordering love rival's murder". the Guardian.
- Cowell, Alan. "WINNIE MANDELA JAILED FOR RETURN TO SOWETO HOME". New York Times.
- Jacobs, Sean. "How do we write about Winnie's life sympathetically?". Mail and Guardian.
- "Winnie's death captured by populist politics". News24.
- "Winnie Mandela funeral: 30 years on, murdered schoolboy remains at heart of her legacy". The Independent. 13 April 2018.
- sahoboss (16 March 2011). "Winnie Mandela's Soweto home reported burnt down". South African History Online. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "EDITORIAL: Framed from the grave". Business Day.
- sahoboss (16 March 2011). "UDF Disowns Winnie Mandela". South African History Online.
- "The beautiful, brave but arrogant Winnie Mandela I knew". The Independent. 2 April 2018.
- "Bishop Paul Verryn on how his and Madikizela-Mandela's lives were 'intricately intertwined'". News24.
- "Ex-leaders link Winnie Mandela to murder". Irish Times.
- Wren, Christopher S. (26 May 1990). "Winnie Mandela Aide Guilty of Murder". The New York Times.
- Bodies probably won't bury Winnie M&G. 15 March 2013.
- sahoboss (16 March 2011). "Former member of the Mandela United Football Club, Katiza Cebekhulu appears before the TRC". South African History Online.
- "Alive, well - and still determined to nail Winnie". The Independent. 7 December 1997.
- Staff and agencies (24 April 2003). "Winnie Mandela found guilty of fraud". The Guardian.
- michelle (25 May 2012). "Dr. Abu Baker Asvat". South African History Online.
- "South Africa Police Order Full Probe Of Mandela Charge", The Christian Science Monitor, 9 April 1992.
- "Winnie may face fresh murder charge", The Independent, 28 November 1997.
- "Panel Hears Evidence Winnie Mandela Sought Doctor's Death", The New York Times, 2 December 1997.
- Winnie hearing adjourned after intimidation claims, BBC.co.uk, 1 December 1997.
- "Why Winnie Mandela could not be forgiven - Macleans.ca". Macleans.ca. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "#SydneyMufamadi denies allegations in #Winnie documentary". IOL News.
- "AS IT HAPPENED: Investigations into Winnie 'took place at behest of Tony Leon' - Mufamadi". News24.
- Lodge, Guy (30 January 2017). "Sundance Film Review: 'Winnie'". Variety.
- "Dumisa Ntsebeza accuses Winnie documentary maker of having 'no regard for our people'". News24.
- Nthakoana Ngatane (20 January 2018). "EFF accuses Mandla Mandela of vindictiveness - SABC News - Breaking news, special reports, world, business, sport coverage of all South African current events. Africa's news leader". SABC News. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- "Mandla Mandela wants inquest into deaths of Stompie Seipie, Dr Asvat". Enca.com.
- The assassination of Dr Asvat, Fred Brigland, City Press, 7 October 2018
- Motau, Koketšo. "Stompie Seipei's mother: I don't believe Madikizela-Mandela involved in murder". Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "The Day Nelson Mandela Walked Out Of Prison". NPR.
- "Letter to lover spells trouble for Winnie". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "ANC Ranks Deeply Divided On Winnie Mandela Affair". Christian Science Monitor. 13 April 1992.
- "Winnie's past a dark cloud". Dispatchlive.co.za. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- Bridgland, Fred (26 April 2003). "Winnie Mandela's fall from grace". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
- Keller, Bill. "Winnie Mandela Out of Cabinet For Defying Presidential Orders". New York Times.
- "Mandela says he will not stand a second term". The Independent. 16 February 1995.
- Bendile, Dineo. "How the ANC betrayed Winnie". Mail and Guardian.
- Reporter, Staff. "When Thabo came to Winnie's rescue". Mail and Guardian.
- "Winnie considers suing Mufamadi". Mail and Guardian.
- "Winnie saves face at conference". South African Press Association (SAPA). 17 December 1997.
- "Facing the Past". PBS NewsHour. 4 December 1997.
- Leibovich-Dar, Sara (12 July 2001). "Winnie Mandela and the Ramat Amidar Gang". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018.
- QUINTAL, ANGELA. "Winnie found guilty by ethics committee". Mail and Guardian.
- "Parliament fed up with Winnie's hide and seek". IOL News.
- "Truant Winnie asked to explain absence from parliament". Times of India.
- "Nomzamo Winfred Madikizela-Mandela". People's Assembly.
- "Winnie Mandela - Iraqi 'human shield'". Bbc.co.uk. 19 February 2003.
- "Winnie wins over Wits hostage-taker". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "Student arrested as Wits hostage drama ends". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "Winnie Mandela saves the day". News.bbc.co.uk. 6 February 2003. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "ANC: We won't dump Winnie". Sunday Times. South Africa. 27 April 2003.
- "Winnie Mandela resigns ANC posts". CNN. 25 April 2003.
- "Winnie: No personal gain". News24. 7 May 2004. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
- Newly-elected National Executive Committee Archived 25 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, ANC Website. Retrieved 21 December 2007
- Winnie Mandela tops ANC election list Archived 2 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 21 December 2007
- "Winnie speaks out on SA's issues". Iol.co.za (30 May 2008). Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Hawley, Caroline. (16 May 2008) Refugees flee South Africa attacks. BBC News. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- Winnie set for shock comeback to ANC politics, The Guardian; retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "ANC's attempts to honour Winnie just don't wash".
- Cowell, Alan (2 April 2018). "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela Is Dead at 81; Fought Apartheid". Nytimes.com.
- Toit, Christelle du. "EXPLAINER: What does an official funeral in SA entail?". Enca.com.
- "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela's funeral rift".
- "WATCH: #WinnieMandela taken to her final resting place". IOL News.
- Hlatshaneni, Simnikiwe. "'They are here' – Malema rails against Winnie's 'traitors' at funeral". The Citizen.
- News, Eyewitness. "'Praising Mama Winnie now that she's gone shows what hypocrites you are'". Eyewitness News.
- "ANC calls for restraint over #Winnie allegations - The Star".
- Haithman, Diane (18 September 1987). "'MANDELA' TACKLES APARTHEID ISSUE : Glover and Woodard Are Passionate About Roles". Los Angeles Times.
- Dowell, Ben (11 March 2009). "BBC commissions Winnie Mandela drama". The Guardian. UK.
- Fleming, Michael. (17 November 2009) "Jennifer Hudson to star in 'Winnie'". Variety.
- Tartaglione, Nancy. (7 December 2009) South African Actors Up In Arms over Hudson Casting | Movie News. Hollywood.com.
- "Jennifer Hudson should not star in Mandela film, South African actors say". Daily Telegraph. 7 December 2009.
- "Winnie Mandela denied entry to Canada for arts gala". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
- "Long Walk to Freedom returns Winnie Mandela to her rightful place". The Guardian. 5 January 2014.
- "Robert F Kennedy Center Laureates". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- "CANDACE AWARD RECIPIENTS 1982–1990, Page 2". National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from the original on 14 March 2003.
- News Agencies (4 January 2018). "Makerere to award Winnie Mandela with Honorary Doctorate". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- Kizza, Joseph (19 January 2018). "Makerere awards Winnie Mandela honorary degree". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.|
- Winnie Madikizela-Mandela on IMDb
- Winnie Mandela (Character) on IMDb
- "Fall of Winnie Mandela Began Nearly 2 Years Ago; Erratic Behavior Preceded Recent Violence", The Washington Post, 18 February 1989
- "Winnie Mandela on bank fraud charges", Telegraph, 15 October 2001
- "Mrs Mandela defies accusers", Telegraph, 5 December 1997
- "Winnie Mandela 'had hand in boy's murder'", Telegraph, 9 December 1997
- "Special Investigation into the Mandela United Football Club"
- The Lady: the life and times of Winnie Mandela by Emma Gilbey. London: Vintage, 1994. ISBN 0-09-938801-4
- NEC statement on Mandela Football Club, 19 February 1989
- "Winnie Madikizela-Mandela Biography Summary"
- "Winnie Mandela and the Moffies"
- Report on Winnie Mandela on Japan Today News
- Can Winnie Mandela's Heroism Outshine her Crimes? by BBC News, 25 January 2010
| Rector of the University of Glasgow