Wilson Barrett (born William Henry Barrett; 18 February 1846 – 22 July 1904) was an English manager, actor, and playwright. With his company, Barrett is credited with attracting the largest crowds of English theatregoers ever because of his success with melodrama, an instance being his production of The Silver King (1882) at the Princess's Theatre of London. The historical tragedy The Sign of the Cross (1895) was Barrett's most successful play, both in England and in the United States.
William Henry Barrett
18 February 1846
|Died||22 July 1904 58) (aged|
|Occupation||Actor-manager, actor, playwright|
|Spouse(s)||Caroline Heath (m. 1866)|
Barrett was born into a farming family in Essex. He is remembered as an actor of handsome appearance (despite his small stature) and with a powerful voice. He made his first appearance on the stage at Halifax in 1864, and then played in the provinces alone and with his wife, Caroline Heath, in East Lynne. They married in 1866, having two sons, Frank and Alfred, and three daughters, Ellen, Katherine and Dorothea (Dollie).
Barrett capitalized on his early success as an actor to start a career as a producer. After managerial experience at the Grand Theatre Leeds and elsewhere, in 1879 he took over the management of the Old Court theatre, where in the following year he introduced Madame Helena Modjeska to London in an adaptation of Maria Stuart (by Schiller), together with productions of Adrienne Lecouvreur, La Dame aux camélias and other plays.
In 1881, Wilson Barrett took over the recently refurbished Princess's Theatre, where his melodramatic productions enjoyed great success (if not quite as much as before), with attendance being the highest ever for this theatre. There Barrett presented The Lights o' London, and then The Silver King, regarded as the most successful melodrama of the 19th century in England. It debuted on 16 November 1882, with Barrett as Wilfred Denver. He played this part for three hundred nights without a break, and repeated its success in W. G. Wills's Claudian.
In 1885 he and Henry Arthur Jones produced Hoodman Blind and in 1886 co-operated with Clement Scott in Sister Mary. In 1886 Barrett left the Princess's Theatre, and in this same year he made a visit to America, repeated in later years.
Though Barrett had occasional seasons in London he acted chiefly in the provinces, with his company being one of the most successful of the decade, receiving a £2,000 average yearly profit just from the Grand Theatre Leeds. His brother and his nephew were part of the company, and his grandson would join them eventually.
His productions were not immune to accident. His melodrama Romany Rye was scheduled to open at the Theatre Royal, Exeter on 5 September 1887. In the middle of the performance, gas lighting ignited some gauze, fire broke out backstage, and then the curtain collapsed.
1890s: The Sign of the Cross
By the 1890s, the London stage was already coming under new influences, and Wilson Barrett's vogue in melodrama had waned, leaving him in financial difficulties. From 1894 he toured the United States, including the American and Knickerbocker theatres of Broadway.
Still there in 1895, Barrett found fortune again with a production which would effectively become his most successful, the historical tragedy The Sign of the Cross—which was originally produced in the United States at the Grand Opera House, St. Louis, Missouri on 28 March 1895; in the United Kingdom, at the Grand Theatre, Leeds, on 26 August 1895; in London, at the Lyric Theatre, London on 4 January 1896; and in Australia, at Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney on 8 May 1897—in which Barrett played Marcus Superbus, an old Roman patrician of the years of Nero, who falls in love with a young woman, Mercia (originally played by Maud Jeffries) and converts to Christianity for her, both sacrificing their lives in the arena to the lions. The plot in some ways strongly resembles the contemporary novel Quo Vadis, and it may have been an unofficial adaptation of it, though Barrett never acknowledged this.
The theatre was crowded with audiences largely composed of people outside the ordinary circle of playgoers, shepherded by enthusiastic local clergymen. Barrett tried to repeat this success with more plays of a religious type, though not with equal effect, and several of his later attempts were failures.
At the turn of the century he co-founded the company which became Waddingtons, originally as a theatre-focused printing firm.
Wilson Barrett died at Liverpool, on 22 July 1904. Thanks largely to the success of the Sign of the Cross, he left £57,000, even after periods of relative failure, mainly during his later years managing the Old Court Theatre. His grandson, also named Wilson Barrett, became an actor director with the Brandon-Thomas Company before starting his own repertory in 1939, the Wilson Barrett Company, which based itself in Edinburgh's Lyceum, Glasgow at the Alhambra Theatre Glasgow and for a time in Aberdeen. It also performed on television, at the Edinburgh International Festival and, by invitation, in South Africa.The company was retired in 1954.
Barrett's descendants placed the majority of Wilson Barrett's papers at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Over thirty boxes of materials include manuscript works by Barrett, business and personal correspondence, extensive financial records and legal agreements, as well as photographs, playbills and programs relating to Barrett's productions, and Barrett and Heath family papers. Additional Wilson Barrett materials at the Ransom Center include letters by Barrett located in the literary manuscript collections of Richard Le Gallienne, John Ruskin, William Winter, and Robert Lee Wolff. The B. J. Simmons Co. costume design records include the company's renderings for The Sign of the Cross. A marked script of Barrett's The Manxman can be found in the Playscripts and Promptbooks Collection.
The British Library, the Folger Shakespeare Library, and the University of Leeds Special Collections Library each have a substantial number of letters by Wilson Barrett. The Victoria & Albert Museum Theatre and Performance Archives holds designs by Edward William Godwin for Barrett's productions of Juana, Claudian, Hamlet, Junius, and Clito. The papers of Wilson Barrett the younger (1900-1981), a grandson of Wilson Barrett who was also an actor-manager and toured with his own Wilson Barrett Company, are located in the Scottish Theatre Archive at the University of Glasgow.
In 1932, Cecil B. DeMille produced and directed a highly successful film version of The Sign of the Cross, starring Fredric March as centurion Marcus Superbus, Claudette Colbert as Poppea, Charles Laughton as Nero, and Elissa Landi as Mercia, the Christian woman with whom Marcus falls in love.
- The Silver King (1882)
- Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello
- The Sign of the Cross (1895)
- Theatre study on Victorian Theatre, from the University of Glasgow
- Wilman, George (1882), "Wilson Barrett", Sketches of living celebrities, London: Griffith and Farran, p. 42
- "The Royal Princess's Theatre, 73 Oxford street, London". www.arthurlloyd.co.uk. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Hoppen, K. Theodore (6 June 2000). "The Mid-Victorian Generation, 1846-1886". Clarendon Press. Retrieved 6 June 2019 – via Google Books.
- Anderson, David (2002). The Exeter Theatre Fire. Entertainment Technology Press.
- London's lost theatres, at Google Books
- Wilson Barrett’s New Play, Kansas City Daily Journal, (Friday, 29 March 1895), p.2.
- "The Sign of the Cross", The Era, (31 August 1895), p.11.
- Lyric Theatre: "The Sign of the Cross", The (London) Sunday Times, (Sunday, 4 January 1896), p.5.
- Before the Curtain, The (Sydney) Sunday Times, (Sunday, 9 May 1897), p.2.
- David Thornton, Leeds: A Historical Dictionary of People, Places and Events (Huddersfield: Northern Heritage Publications, 2013), s.v. WADDINGTONS.
- "Wilson Barrett: An Inventory of His Collection at the Harry Ransom Center". norman.hrc.utexas.edu. Barrett, Caroline, 1835-1887., Barrett, Wilson, 1846-1904., Barrett, Wilson, 1900-1981., Caine, Hall, Sir, 1853-1931., French, Samuel, 1821-1898., Greet, William, 1851-1914. Retrieved 3 November 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Wilson Barrett's Arrival: Proposed New Productions: Story of a Famous Play, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 6 December 1897), pp.5-6.
- R.W.B., "Stage Prejudice Broken: Wilson Barrett's 'Sign of the Cross'", The Age Literary Section, (Saturday, 24 January 1948), p.6.
- Barrett, W. The Sign of the Cross, J.B. Lippincott Company, (Philadelphia), 1896: Barrett's novelized version of his play.
- Barrett, W., The Wilson Barrett Birthday Book: Illustrated, W. & D. Downey, (London), 1899.
- Mr. Wilson Barrett's Farewell to Melbourne (Souvenir Theatre Programme), Princess Theatre, Melbourne, 21 May 1898.
- Disher, M.W., "Sex and Salvation: The Sign Of The Cross", pp.115-124 in Disher, M.W., Melodrama: Plots that Thrilled, The Macmillan Company, (New York), 1954.
- Shaw, G.B., "Mainly About Shakespeare", The Saturday Review, Vol.83, No.2170, (29 May 1897), pp.603-605..
- Thomas, J., "Wilson Barrett's New School 'Othello'", The Library Chronicle of the University of Texas at Austin, New Series No.22, (1983), pp.66-87.
- Thomas, J.M., The Art of the Actor-Manager: Wilson Barrett and the Victorian Theatre, UMI Research Press, (Ann Arbor), 1984. ISBN 978-0-8357-1492-1