Wiggers diagram

A Wiggers diagram, named after its developer, Carl Wiggers, is a standard diagram that is used in teaching cardiac physiology.[1] In the Wiggers diagram, the X-axis is used to plot time, while the Y-axis contains all of the following on a single grid:

The Wiggers diagram clearly illustrates the coordinated variation of these values as the heart beats, assisting one in understanding the entire cardiac cycle.


PhaseEKGHeart soundsSemilunar valvesAtrioventricular valves
AAtrial systolePS4*closedopen
BVentricular systole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic contractionQRSS1 ("lub")closedclosed
C1Ventricular systole - Ejection 1-openclosed
C2Ventricular systole - Ejection 2Topenclosed
DVentricular diastole - Isovolumetric/isovolumic relaxation-S2 ("dub")closedclosed
E1Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 1-S3*closedopen
E2Ventricular diastole - Ventricular filling 2-closedopen

Note that during isovolumetric/isovolumic contraction and relaxation, all the heart valves are closed. At no time are all the heart valves open.

  • S3 and S4 heart sounds are associated with pathologies and are not routinely heard.

See also


  1. Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr (2014-06-01). "Expanding application of the Wiggers diagram to teach cardiovascular physiology". Advances in Physiology Education. 38 (2): 170–175. doi:10.1152/advan.00123.2013. ISSN 1043-4046. PMC 4056172. PMID 24913453.

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