Whyte notation

The Whyte notation for classifying steam and some internal combustion locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte,[2] and came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels, then the number of driving wheels, and finally the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes.[3] Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French, Turkish and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels.

In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles (four wheels) in front, then three driving axles (six wheels) and then one trailing axle (two wheels) is classified as 4-6-2, and is commonly known as a Pacific.

Method

Articulated locomotives

Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are effectively two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of the engines. Thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used even when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies. They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge (carrying the boiler) that links the two engines.

Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels. Typically, the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; four leading wheels, one group of eight driving wheels, another group of eight driving wheels, and then four trailing wheels.

Duplex locomotives

This numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame.

Suffixes

A number of standard suffixes can be used to extend the Whyte notation:[4]

Internal combustion locomotives

The wheel arrangement of small diesel and petrol locomotives can be classified using the same notation as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts (rather than side rods) or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are generally used. Suffixes specific to internal combustion locomotives include:[4]

Thus 4w PM indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with mechanical transmission and 0-6-0 DE indicates a six-wheeled diesel locomotive with side rods and an electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used.

Naming

In American (and to a lesser extent British) practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built. For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. (This naming convention is similar to the naming of warship classes.)

Common wheel arrangements

The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left.

Arrangement
(locomotive front is to the left)
Whyte classificationNameNo. of units produced
Non-articulated locomotives
0-2-2Northumbrian
2-2-0Planet
2-2-2Single,[2] Jenny Lind
2-2-4Aerolite
4-2-0Jervis[5]
4-2-2Bicycle
4-2-4Huntington
6-2-0Crampton[6]
0-4-0Four-coupled
0-4-0+4Four-coupled as used on railmotors
0-4-2Olomana
0-4-4Forney[1]
2-4-0Porter, 'Old English'[7]
2-4-2Columbia[1]
2-4-4Boston
4-4-0American,[1][8] eight-wheeler
4-4-2Atlantic[1][9]
4-4-4Reading, Jubilee (Canada)[10]
0-3-0(one driving wheel per axle; used on Patiala State Monorail Trainways and also on the Listowel and Ballybunion Railway)
0-6-0Six-coupled,[1] Bourbonnais (France), USRA 0-6-0 (United States)
0-6-2Branchliner, Webb
0-6-4Forney six-coupled[1]
0-6-6
2-6-0Mogul[1][11]11,000
2-6-2Prairie[1][2]
2-6-4Adriatic
2-6-6Suburban
4-6-0Ten-wheeler[1][12] (not Britain)[13]
4-6-2Pacific[1][2][14][15]6,800
4-6-4Hudson,[16] Baltic[2]
0-8-0Eight-coupled,[1] USRA 0-8-0 (United States)
0-8-2Kado  [17]
0-8-4London
2-8-0Consolidation[1][2][18]35,000
2-8-2Mikado,[1][2] Mike, MacArthur[19][20]
2-8-4Berkshire, Kanawha[21][22]
2-8-6Used only on four Mason Bogie locomotives
4-8-0Twelve-wheeler[1]
4-8-2Mountain,[2][23] Mohawk (NYC)[24]
4-8-4Northern, Niagara, Confederation, Dixie, Greenbrier, Pocono, Potomac, Golden State (Southern Pacific),[25] Western, Laurentian (Delaware & Hudson Railroad), General, Wyoming (Lehigh Valley[26]), Governor, Big Apple, GS Series "Daylight" (Southern Pacific)[25]
4-8-6Proposed by Lima, never built
6-8-6(PRR S2 steam turbine locomotive)[27]
0-10-0Ten-coupled,[1][28] (rarely) Decapod
0-10-2Union[28]
2-10-0Decapod,[1][29] Russian Decapod
2-10-2Santa Fe,[1] Central, Decapod (only on the Southern Pacific)
2-10-4Texas, Colorado (CB&Q), Selkirk (Canada)[30]
4-10-0Mastodon,[1] Gobernador (in honor of El Gobernador)
4-10-2Reid Tenwheeler,[31][32] Southern Pacific, Overland[33]
0-12-0Twelve-coupled
2-12-0Centipede[1]
2-12-2Javanic
2-12-4Bulgaria
2-12-6Proposed by Lima, never built
4-12-2Union Pacific[34]
4-14-4AA20[35]
Duplex locomotives
4-4-4-4(PRR T1)[36]
6-4-4-6(PRR S1)[37]
4-4-6-4(PRR Q2)[38]
4-6-4-4(PRR Q1)
Articulated locomotives (simple and compound)
0-4-4-0Bavarian BB II [39]
2-4-4-0Vivarais
0-4-4-2Swiss
2-4-4-2Skookum
4-4-6-2AT&SF[40]
0-6-6-0Erie
2-6-6-0Denver & Salt Lake
2-6-6-2C&O/N&W. C&O Class H-2 thru H-5. Alco 1912.
2-6-6-4Norfolk & Western
2-6-6-6Allegheny,[41] Blue Ridge68
4-6-6-2(Southern Pacific class AM-2)[42]
4-6-6-4Challenger[43]252
2-6-8-0(Southern Railway, Great Northern Railway)[44]
0-8-8-0Angus
2-8-8-0Bull Moose
2-8-8-2Chesapeake, Norfolk & Western
2-8-8-4Yellowstone[45]
4-8-8-2Southern Pacific cab forward classes AC-4 through AC-12 (except AC-9)[42]
4-8-8-4Big Boy[46]25[47]
2-10-10-2(Santa Fe and Virginian railroads)[44]
2-8-8-8-2Triplex (Erie RR)
2-8-8-8-4Triplex (Virginian RR)[48]
Garratt articulated locomotives
0-4-0+0-4-0Welsh Highland
0-6-0+0-6-0Kitson Meyer
2-4-0+0-4-2Double Porter
2-4-2+2-4-2Double Columbia
2-6-0+0-6-2Double Mogul
2-6-2+2-6-2Double Prairie
2-8-0+0-8-2Double Consolidation
2-8-2+2-8-2Double Mikado
4-4-2+2-4-4Double Atlantic
4-6-0+0-6-4Mogyana
4-6-2+2-6-4Double Pacific
4-6-4+4-6-4Double Baltic, Double Hudson
4-8-0+0-8-4Double Mastodon
4-8-2+2-8-4Double Mountain
4-8-4+4-8-4Double Northern

See also

References

  1. Colvin, Fred H. (1906). The railroad pocket-book: a quick reference cyclopedia of railroad information. New York, Derry-Collard; London, Locomotive Publishing Company (US-UK co-edition). p. L‑9.
  2. "Steam Locomotive Glossary". Railway Technical Web Pages. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  3. Thompson, Keith (1 May 2006). "Builder's plates: A locomotive's birth certificate". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  4. Industrial Locomotives: including preserved and minor railway locomotives. 17EL. Melton Mowbray: Industrial Railway Society. 2015. ISBN 978 1 901556 88 9.
  5. White, John H., Jr. (1968). A History of the American Locomotive - Its Development: 1830-1880. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-23818-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link), p. 33.
  6. Adams, Bob (December 1968). "The Crampton Type Locomotive on the Camden & Amboy Railroad". NMRA Bulletin. National Model Railroad Association.
  7. Ellis, C Hamilton, Some Classic Locomotives, Allen & Unwin, 1949.173 p.
  8. White (1968), p. 46.
  9. Marsden, Richard (2008). "The LNER 4-4-2 Atlantic Locomotives". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  10. "Canadian Pacific Railway No. 2929". Steamtown NHS Special History Study. United States National Park Service. 14 February 2002. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  11. White (1968), p 62-65.
  12. White (1968), p. 57.
  13. Marsden, Richard (2008). "LNER 4-6-0 Locomotives". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  14. Marsden, Richard (2008). "LNER 4-6-2 Pacific Locomotives". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  15. "Pacifics". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  16. "Hudsons". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  17. Marsden, Richard (2008). "The Ivatt R1 0-8-2 Tank Locomotives". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  18. White (1968), p. 65.
  19. "Glossary Of Common Railroad Terms: M". Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  20. "The Mikado Type Locomotive". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  21. Farrell, Jack W. (1989). North American steam locomotives: The Berkshire and Texas types. Edmonds, WA: Pacific Fast Mail. ISBN 0-915713-15-2.
  22. "Berkshires & Kanawhas". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  23. "Mountains". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  24. Taylor, Frank (January 1941). "New York Central Dual-service Mohawk". Model Railroader. Kalmbach Publishing.
  25. "Northerns". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 August 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. Staufer, Alvin F.; Pennypacker, Bert (1962). Pennsy Power: Steam and Electric Locomotives of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1900-1957. Research by Martin Flattley. Carollton, OH: Alvin F. Staufer. ISBN 978-0-9445-1304-0. LCCN 62020878. OCLC 602543182.
  28. Carlson, Neil (3 July 2006). "Steam locomotive profile: 0-10-0". Classic Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  29. "Glossary Of Common Railroad Terms: D". Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  30. "The Texas Type Locomotive". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  31. Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 31. ISBN 0869772112.
  32. Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 92–95, 123–124, 134–135. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0.
  33. Westing, Frederick (April 1954). "Baldwin's barnstorming behemoth". Trains.
  34. Westcott, Linn H. (1960). Model Railroader Cyclopedia - Volume 1: Steam Locomotives. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 0-89024-001-9.
  35. "Russian Reforms". 6 October 2001. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  36. Russ, David (July 1943). "Riding the Pennsy T1". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing.
  37. Morgan, David P. (May 1965). "They called her the big engine". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing.
  38. Herring, S. E. & Morgan, David P. (June 1966). "Instead of a 4-10-4". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing.
  39. Barry, Frank (June 1963). "Mexico's inside-and-outside-framed 0-4-4-0s". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing.
  40. "The Jointed-Boiler Locomotives," Trains magazine, February 1945
  41. "The Allegheny Type Locomotive". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  42. Diebert, Timothy S. & Strapac, Joseph A. (1987). Southern Pacific Company Steam Locomotive Conpendium. Shade Tree Books. ISBN 0-930742-12-5.
  43. "The Challenger Type Locomotive". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  44. Carlson, Neil (15 June 2006). "Steam locomotive profile: 2-8-8-2". Classic Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  45. "The Yellowstone Type Locomotive". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2003. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  46. "Union Pacific Big Boys". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  47. "Union Pacific Big Boy: The rebirth of a legend". Trains. 23 August 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  48. "Virginian Class XA Locomotives". SteamLocomotive.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.