Weissberger's model

Weissberger’s modified exponential decay model, or simply, Weissberger’s model, is a radio wave propagation model that estimates the path loss due to the presence of one or more trees in a point-to-point telecommunication link. This model belongs to the category Foliage or Vegetation models.

Applicable to/under conditions

  • This model is applicable to the cases of line of sight propagation. Example is microwave transmission.
  • This model is only applicable when there is an obstruction made by some foliage in the link. i.e. In between the transmitter and receiver.
  • This model is ideal for application in the situation where the LOS path is blocked by dense, dry and leafy trees.


Frequency: 230 MHz to 95 GHz[1]

Depth of foliage: up to 400 m


Formulated in 1982, this model is a development of the ITU Model for Exponential Decay (MED).

Mathematical formulation

Weissberger’s model is formally expressed as


L = The loss due to foliage. Unit: decibels (dB)

f = The transmission frequency. Unit: gigahertz (GHz)

d = The depth of foliage ‘’’along’’’ the path. Unit: meters (m)

Points to note

  • The equation is scaled for frequency specified in GHz range.
  • Depth of foliage must be specified in meters (m).


  • This model is significant for frequency range 230 MHz to 95 GHz only, as pointed out by Blaunstein.
  • This model does not define the operation if the depth of vegetation is more than 400 m.
  • This model predicts the loss due to foliage. The path loss must be calculated with inclusion of the free space loss.[2]

See also


  1. Radio propagation in cellular networks, N. Blaunstein
  2. Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold

Further reading

  • Introduction to RF Propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
  • Radio Propagation in Cellular Networks, N. Blaunstein, 2000, Artech House
  • The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, J. D. Parsons, 2000, Wiley
  • Mark A. Weissberger (1982). "An initial critical summary of models for predicting the attenuation of radio waves by trees" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-01. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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