WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication) is a free, open-source project that provides web browsers and mobile applications with real-time communication (RTC) via simple application programming interfaces (APIs). It allows audio and video communication to work inside web pages by allowing direct peer-to-peer communication, eliminating the need to install plugins or download native apps.[3] Supported by Apple, Google, Microsoft, Mozilla, and Opera, WebRTC is being standardized through the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[4]

Original author(s)Justin Uberti
Peter Thatcher
Initial release2011 (2011)
Stable release
1.0[1] / May 4, 2018 (2018-05-04)
Written inC++,[2] JavaScript
LicenseBSD license

Its mission is to "enable rich, high-quality RTC applications to be developed for the browser, mobile platforms, and IoT devices, and allow them all to communicate via a common set of protocols".[4] The reference implementation is released as free software under the terms of a BSD license. OpenWebRTC provides another free implementation based on the multimedia framework GStreamer. JavaScript inventor Brendan Eich called it a "new front in the long war for an open and unencumbered web".[5]


In May 2010, Google bought Global IP Solutions or GIPS, a VoIP and videoconferencing software company that had developed many components required for RTC, such as codecs and echo cancellation techniques. Google open-sourced the GIPS technology and engaged with relevant standards bodies at the IETF and W3C to ensure industry consensus.[6][7] In May 2011, Google released an open-source project for browser-based real-time communication known as WebRTC.[8] This has been followed by ongoing work to standardize the relevant protocols in the IETF[9] and browser APIs in the W3C.[10]

In May 2011, Ericsson Labs built the first implementation of WebRTC using a modified WebKit library.[11] In October 2011, the W3C published its first draft for the spec.[12] WebRTC milestones include the first cross-browser video call (February 2013), first cross-browser data transfers (February 2014), and as of July 2014 Google Hangouts was "kind of" using WebRTC.[13]

The W3C draft API was based on preliminary work done in the WHATWG.[14] It was referred to as the ConnectionPeer API, and a pre-standards concept implementation was created at Ericsson Labs.[15] The WebRTC Working Group expects this specification to evolve significantly based on:

  • Outcomes of ongoing exchanges in the companion RTCWEB group at IETF[16] to define the set of protocols that, together with this document, define real-time communications in web browsers. While no one signaling protocol is mandated, SIP over WebSockets (RFC 7118) is often used partially due to the applicability of SIP to most of the envisaged communication scenarios as well as the availability of open-source software such as JsSIP.
  • Privacy issues that arise when exposing local capabilities and local streams
  • Technical discussions within the group, on implementing data channels in particular[17]
  • Experience gained through early experimentation
  • Feedback from other groups and individuals

In November 2017, the WebRTC 1.0 specification transitioned from Working Draft to Candidate Recommendation.[18]



Major components of WebRTC include several JavaScript APIs:

  • getUserMedia acquires the audio and video media (e.g., by accessing a device's camera and microphone).[19]
  • RTCPeerConnection enables audio and video communication between peers. It performs signal processing, codec handling, peer-to-peer communication, security, and bandwidth management.[20]
  • RTCDataChannel allows bidirectional communication of arbitrary data between peers. It uses the same API as WebSockets and has very low latency.[21]

The WebRTC API also includes a statistics function:

  • getStats allows the web application to retrieve a set of statistics about WebRTC sessions. These statistics data are being described in a separate W3C document.[22]

RFC 7874 requires implementations to provide PCMA/PCMU (RFC 3551), Telephone Event as DTMF (RFC 4733), and Opus (RFC 6716) audio codecs as minimum capabilities. The PeerConnection, data channel and media capture browser APIs are detailed in the W3C.

W3C is developing ORTC (Object Real-Time Communications) for WebRTC.[23]


Although initially developed for web browsers, WebRTC has applications for non-browser devices, including mobile platforms and IoT devices. Examples include browser-based VoIP telephony, also called cloud phones or web phones, which allow calls to be made and received from within a web browser, replacing the requirement to download and install a softphone.[24]


WebRTC is supported by the following browsers:

Support was not included in Internet Explorer prior to its final feature release in October 2013,[30] but 3rd party plugins are available to add the support of WebRTC to Internet Explorer and Safari for macOS.[31][32] At WWDC 2017, Apple announced Safari would get WebRTC support in Safari 11,[27] and it was made available in release 32 of the Safari Technology Preview.[33]


In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported a serious security flaw in browsers that support WebRTC, saying that it compromised the security of VPN tunnels, by exposing the true IP address of a user.[34] The IP address read requests are not visible in the browser's developer console, and they are not blocked by most ad blocking/privacy/security add-ons, enabling online tracking by advertisers and other entities despite precautions[35] (however the uBlock Origin add-on can fix this problem). As of September 2019 this WebRTC flaw still surfaces on Firefox 69.x and still by default exposes your internal IP address to the web. [36]

See also


  1. "WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers". World Wide Web Consortium. 27 September 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  2. "Src/webrtc - Git at Google".
  3. How WebRTC Is Revolutionizing Telephony. Blogs.trilogy-lte.com (2014-02-21). Retrieved on 2014-04-11.
  4. "WebRTC". WebRTC. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  5. Justin Uberti; Sam Dutton. "WebRTC: Plugin-free realtime communication". Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  6. "Are the WebRTC components from Google's acquisition of Global IP Solutions?". WebRTC. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  7. Wauters, Robin (18 May 2010). "Google makes $68.2 million cash offer for Global IP Solutions". TechCrunch. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  8. Harald Alvestrand (2011-05-31). "Google release of WebRTC source code". public-webrtc@w3.org. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  9. Charter of the Real-Time Communication in WEB-browsers (rtcweb) working group
  10. "WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  11. Stefan Håkansson; Stefan Ålund (26 May 2011). "Beyond HTML5: Experiment with Real-Time Communication in a Browser". Ericsson Research blog. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  12. "WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers (W3C Working Draft 27 October 2011)". World Wide Web Consortium. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  13. Nowak, Szymon. "WebRTC: So Much More Than Videoconferencing". GitHub. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  14. "Introduction — HTML Standard". Whatwg.org. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  15. "Beyond HTML5: Peer-to-Peer Conversational Video". Labs.ericsson.com. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  16. "Rtcweb Status Pages". Tools.ietf.org. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  17. "draft-jesup-rtcweb-data-protocol-00 - WebRTC Data Channel Protocol". Tools.ietf.org. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  18. "WebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between Browsers (W3C Candidate Recommendation 02 November 2017)". 2 November 2017.
  19. "Media Capture and Streams: getUserMedia". W3C. 2013-09-03. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  20. "WebRTC: RTCPeerConnection Interface". W3C. 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  21. "WebRTC: RTCDataChannel". W3C. 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  22. "Identifiers for WebRTC's Statistics API". W3C. 2014-09-29.
  23. "W3C ORTC (Object Real-time Communications) Community Group".
  24. "Catch the Babelfish: Irish telco devises a new kind of cloud phone". November 2017.
  25. "ORTC API is now available in Microsoft Edge". Microsoft. 2015-09-18.
  26. Firefox Notes - Desktop. Mozilla.org (2013-06-25). Retrieved on 2014-04-11.
  27. "Safari 11.0". Apple Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  28. Opera News. blogs.opera.com (2013-11-19). Retrieved on 2015-09-17.
  29. Firefox Notes - Desktop. Mozilla.org (2013-09-17). Retrieved on 2014-08-04.
  30. "Internet Explorer Web Platform Status and Roadmap". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2015-05-04. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  31. "Priologic Releases First Open Source WebRTC Plugin for Internet Explorer". 2014-06-10. Archived from the original on 2014-06-26.
  32. Wilcox, Charles (2014-05-12). "Temasys Plugin Supports webRTC in Internet Explorer and Apple Safari, on Desktops" (Press release). Temasys Communications Pte Ltd. PRWeb.
  33. "Safari Technology Preview Release Notes". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  34. Huge Security Flaw Leaks VPN Users’ Real IP-addresses TorrentFreak.com (2015-01-30). Retrieved on 2015-02-21.
  35. STUN IP Address requests for WebRTC Retrieved on 2015-02-21.
  36. Raymond Hill (26 March 2016). "Prevent WebRTC from leaking local IP address". uBlock Origin documentation. Retrieved 1 Sep 2016.

Further reading

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