Warden of the Mint
Warden of the Mint was a high-ranking position at the Royal Mint in England from 1216–1829. The warden was responsible for a variety of minting procedures and acted as the immediate representative of the current monarch inside the mint. The role of warden changed greatly through history with the original task being the receiving, assay and payment for bullion, while later evolving into more of an administerial role.
The office received a yearly emolument of £500 and up until 1685 wardens were given tenure meaning many wardens died while in office. Although technically subordinate to the Master of the Mint whose jobs was act as a contractor to the crown many wardens advanced later on to become Master of the Mint with some wardens holding both offices at the same time.
The most illustrious holder of the office of Warden of the Mint was Isaac Newton, who was warranted to this position on the recommendation of his friend, Montagu, Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1698. In 1699 however, Newton undertook the office of Master of the Mint, which was far more lucrative, as well as potentially more technically challenging. After the death of the final warden Sir Walter James, 1st Baronet in 1829 the office was abolished having existed for 613 years.
Wardens of the Mint
|1193||Henry de Cornhill|
|1197||Odo Parvus and others|
|1203||Wido de Vou|
|1208||Nigel Ruffus and Odo Varvus|
|1216–1222||Hubert de Berg|
|1229||Riehard Reinger||London and Canterbury|
|1243||Otto Fitz William|
|1245||William Hardel||London and Canterbury|
|1247||Walter de Flemeng|
Walter de More
|London and Canterbury|
|1252||J. de Somercote|
|1258||William the King's Goldsmith||London and Canterbury|
|1266||B. de Castell and Richard de Geoffrey|
|1270–1279||Bartholomew de Castello|
|1279–1292||Gregory de Rokesley||Shared Role|
|1279–1281||Orlando di Poggio|
|1292–1296||William of Wymondham|
|1297–1298||Peter of Leicester|
|c1319||Augustine le Waleys|
|1331||Richard de Snowshill|
|c1337||John de Wyndsore|
|1343||George Kirkyn, Lotte Nicholyn|
|1334||William of Wakefield|
|1334||John of Fleet|
|1346||George Kirkyn, Lotte Nicholyn|
|1349||John Donati de Castello, Philip John de Neri, Benedict Isbari||(killed 1381)|
|1375–1376||Richard Lyons||Executed on 14 June 1381 during the Peasants' Revolt|
|1408–1411||David de Nigarellis of Lucca|
|1470–1471||John Langstrother||Joint Wardens both
executed Tewkesbury 1471
|1471-1471||Sir John Delves|
|1534–1536||Sir Thomas Pope|
|1560–1595||Sir Richard Martin||Acted as Master of the Mint from 1581-1617|
|1599–1609||Thomas Knyvet, 1st Baron Knyvet|
|1609–1621||Thomas Knyvet, 1st Baron Knyvet and Edmund Doubleday|
|1623||Sir Edward Villiers Sir William Parkhurst||died 1626|
|1629–1642||Sir William Parkhurst and Sir Anthony St Leger|
|1642–1645||Holland||(appointed by Parliament)|
|1645||John St John||(appointed by Parliament)|
|1660–1666||Sir William Parkhurst|
|1660–1680||Sir Anthony St Leger||died 1680|
|1681||Sir Thomas Wharton (died 1684) and son Philip Wharton|
|1685–1686||Sir Philip Lloyd|
|1696–1699||Sir Isaac Newton||Promoted to Master of the Mint in 1699|
|1700||Sir John Stanley, 1st Baronet|
|1708–1714||Craven Peyton||Appointed in April 1708 and removed from office in December 1714|
|1714||Sir Richard Sandford, 3rd Baronet|
|1727||Sir Andrew Fountaine|
|1754||Richard Herbert (died 1754)|
|1771||Sir Robert Pigot, 2nd Baronet|
|1796–1829||Sir Walter James, 1st Baronet (Last Warden, died 1829)|
- Craig 1953.
- "Wardens of the Mint 1572-1869". history.ac.uk. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Ruding, Rogers (1840). Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain and Its Dependencies. London. p. 26.
- Ruding 1840, p. 26-29.
- Challis 1992, p. 155.
- Sharpe 2016, p. 60.
- Clark 2014, p. 185.
- Clark 2014.
- Challis 1992, p. 176.
- Challis 1992, p. 181.
- "Sir Richard Martin: Treatise on the Reorganisation of the Mint". Cambridge University Library. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Challis 1989, p. 168.
- "The Life of Isaac Newton". Royal Mint. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- "PEYTON, Craven (c.1663-1738), of Stratton Street, Westminster". historyofparliamentonline.org. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- Craig, p. 206.
- Challis, C.E (1989). Mint Officials and Moneyers of the Stuart Period (PDF). British Numismatic Society.
- Craig, John (1953). The Mint: A History of the London Mint from A.D. 287 to 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521170772.
- Ruding, Rogers (1840). Annals of the coinage of Great Britain and its dependencies. pp. 26–29.
- Challis, C.E (1992). A New History of the Royal Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521240260.
- Galileo Project Biography of Newton
- Royal Mint Biography of Newton
- Institute of Historical Research – Wardens of the Mint