Waco 10

The Waco 10/GXE/Waco O series was a range of three-seat open-cockpit biplanes built by the Advance Aircraft Company, later the Waco Aircraft Company.

Waco 10
Waco 10 giving joy rides.
Role light passenger transport
Manufacturer Advance Aircraft
Waco Aircraft Company
Designer Charles Meyers
First flight 1927
Introduction 1927
Produced 1927–1933
Number built 1,623
Unit cost
$2,145 minus engine & prop

Design and development

The Waco 10 was a larger span development of the Waco 9, both single-engined three-seat single-bay biplanes constructed around steel-tube frames. The wing covering was fabric, and both upper and lower planes carried ailerons, which were strut linked. The two passengers sat side by side in a cockpit under the upper wing and ahead of the pilot, who had a separate cockpit. It had a split-axle fixed undercarriage and a tailwheel. The main undercarriage was fitted with hydraulic shock absorbers, unusual at the time on a light aircraft. The fin could be trimmed on the ground to offset engine torque, and the tailplane could be trimmed in flight. Initially it was powered by a Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled 90° V-8 engine producing 90 hp (67 kW).

Its first flight was in 1927. It was numerically the most important type to be built by Waco, with at least 1,623 built over a period of 7 years from 1927 to 1933 and was fitted with a very large variety of engines of radial and V configuration.

Operational history

The Waco 10 turned out to have excellent handling, and there was a ready supply of war-surplus Curtiss engines. It was widely used for the popularisation of aeronautics through barnstorming and joyrides, and was also much used as a trainer and by small operators for charter flights.


In 1928, after the Waco 10 had entered production, Waco changed its designation system so that the basic model 10, powered by a 90 hp (67 kW) Curtiss OX-5 engine became the GXE. The OX-5 was also used in the Waco 9, and this led to the confusing popular description of both aircraft as Waco 90, after the power.

Later aircraft used a three-letter designation, the first denoting the engine, the second, S or T meaning Straight or Tapered wing and the final O indicating it belongs to the Waco O series for open cockpit. An -A suffix indicated an armed variant intended for export.

Early namepost 1928 namePopular/
alternative name
enginepower (hp)power (kW)
10GXE90Curtiss OX-59067
10-WASO220-TWright J-5220164
ATOWright J-5220164
BSOBS-165Wright R-540A165123
BSO-AWright R-540A165123
CSOC-225Wright R-760225168
CTOWright R-760225168
10-HDSOHispano-Suiza 8A or E150/180112/134
HSOPackard DR-980 Diesel225168
HTOPackard DR-980 Diesel225168
JTOWright R-975300225
JYOWright R-975300225
KSOKinner K-510075
OSOKinner C-5210157
PSOJacobs LA-1140/170127/104
QSOContinental A-70165123
RSOWarner Scarab11082
240-AContinental W-670240179

Apart from the Curtiss and Hispano-Suiza, all of these engines were air-cooled radials.

Other engines were fitted experimentally, without unique designations, including Rausie, Siemans, and the 115 hp (86 kW) Milwaukee Tank engine. This was an air-cooled version of the Curtiss OX-5, and was intended as an aircraft engine.

Two mailplane derivatives from the O series (types JYM and JWM) were single seaters with a 14" stretch in the fuselage.

In the 1990s The WACO Aircraft Company of Quillayute Airport in Forks, Washington offered a kit version of the ATO model, featuring completely re-drawn plans, a book of plans for the small parts and an instruction manual.[1]

The WACO 240-A was a straight-wing fighter, built for export, powered by 240 hp Wright engine. At least six were bought by Cantonese Chinese aviation. They were armed with twin .30 Browning machine guns and had racks for five 25 lb or two 100 lb bombs.[2]

There was also an export model WACO Pursuit 300T-A, with 300 hp Wright or Wasp Jr engine.[2]

Surviving aircraft

YearModelSerial #RegistrationLocationReferences
1927GXE781N312DCGatlinburg–Pigeon Forge Airport, Tennessee
1928GXE1388N6675KHistoric Aircraft Restoration Museum, Maryland Heights, Missouri


1928GXE1521C-GAFDCanada Aviation and Space Museum, Ottawa, Ontario


1928GXE1554NC6974Eagles Mere Air Museum at Eagles Mere, Pennsylvania[5]
1928GXE1586NC5852privately owned and based at Covington, Ohio[6][7]
1928GXE1810N6513Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum[8]
1929GXE1869NC8529privately owned and based at Corning, Iowa[9][10]
1928ATOA-4NC5814EAA AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin


1928ATOA20N6714Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum[13]
1929ATOA-65CF-BPMReynolds-Alberta Museum, Wetaskiwin, Alberta, previously owned by Vintage Wings of Canada, Gatineau, Québec[14][15]
1929ATOA-103NC906HHistoric Aircraft Restoration Museum, Maryland Heights, Missouri


1929CTOA-118N13918WACO Aircraft Museum, Troy, Ohio[16]
1928CTOAT-3005N516MWestern Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum[17]
1930ATOD-3128NC663NHistoric Aircraft Restoration Museum, Maryland Heights, Missouri[18]
1929CSO1657N7662Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum[19]
1928GXE1464NC4899Ohio History Connection[20]
1930CSO3140N671NHistoric Aircraft Restoration Museum, Maryland Heights, Missouri


1932CTOA-3596NC280WHistoric Aircraft Restoration Museum, Maryland Heights, Missouri


1928GXE3065CF-AOIReynolds-Alberta Museum, Wetaskiwin, Alberta


1929DSO3006N605NWestern Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum[22]

Specifications (Waco GXE)

Data from Aerofiles[23]

General characteristics




  1. Purdy, Don: AeroCrafter - Homebuilt Aircraft Sourcebook, Fifth Edition, page 288. BAI Communications, 15 July 1998. ISBN 0-9636409-4-1
  2. Forman, Harrison. American warplanes in China, "Popular aviation" September 1934, pp.151-152
  3. "Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum". Fairchild24.com. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  4. "Waco 10 (GXE) – Canada Aviation and Space Museum". Aviation.technomuses.ca. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  5. "1928 Waco GXE Eagles Mere Air Museum". eaglesmereairmuseum.org/index.shtml. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
  6. Scott Rose, warbirdsresourcegroup.org (2002-03-18). "Vintage Registry - A Warbirds Resource Group Site - Waco". Vintage.warbirdregistry.org. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  7. Federal Aviation Administration (August 2012). "Make / Model Inquiry Results N5852". Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  8. "WACO GXE - Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum". Waaamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  9. Pilot, December 2011, p.49
  10. Federal Aviation Administration (August 2012). "Make / Model Inquiry Results N8529". Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  11. "Waco 10/ATO". Airventuremuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  12. "** Master Aircraft List **". Airventuremuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  13. "WACO ATO "Taperwing" - Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum". Waaamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  14. Transport Canada (August 2012). "Canadian Civil Aircraft Register". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  15. "WACO Taperwing A.T.O. > Vintage Wings of Canada". Vintagewings.ca. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  16. Federal Aviation Administration (August 2012). "Make / Model Inquiry Results N13918". Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  17. "WACO CTO "Taper Wing" - Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum". Waaamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  18. Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum, Museum Hangar 1, John Cournoyer's Wonderful Wacos, retrieved 5 August 2013
  19. "WACO CSO - Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum". Waaamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  20. "Where is it now. Collections from the Former Ohio History of Flight Museum". Ohio History Connection Blog. Ohio History Connection. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  21. Skaarup, Harold A. (2001). Canadian Warbird Survivors - A Handbook on where to find them. Nebraska: Writers Club Press. ISBN 978-059520668-1.
  22. "WACO DSO - Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum". Waaamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  23. Aerofiles (April 2009). "Waco". Retrieved 2009-06-10.


  • Aerofiles
  • Juptner, Joseph P. U.S. Civil Aircraft Vol. 1 Los Angeles, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1962. Library of Congress # 62-15967.
  • Brandly, Raymond H. Waco Aircraft Production 1923-1942 Troy, Ohio: Waco Aircraft Co., 1986 (2nd Edition). ISBN 0-9602734-5-X, ISBN 978-0-9602734-5-4
  • Kobernuss, Fred O. Waco - Symbol of Courage and Excellence unk : Mystic Bay Publisher, 1999. ISBN 1-887961-01-1.
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