Vulkan is a low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and computing API. Vulkan targets high-performance realtime 3D graphics applications such as video games and interactive media across all platforms. Compared to OpenGL and Direct3D 11, and like Direct3D 12 and Metal, Vulkan is intended to offer higher performance and more balanced CPU/GPU usage. Other major differences from Direct3D 11 (and prior) and OpenGL are Vulkan being a considerably lower-level API and offering parallel tasking. Vulkan also has the ability to render 2D graphics applications. In addition to its lower CPU usage, Vulkan is also able to better distribute work among multiple CPU cores.
|Initial release||February 16, 2016|
|Stable release||1.1.130 (December 7, 2019) [±]|
|Operating system||Android, Linux, Windows, Nintendo Switch, Stadia, Tizen, macOS|
|Type||3D graphics and compute API|
Vulkan was first announced by the non-profit Khronos Group at GDC 2015. The Vulkan API was initially referred to as the "next generation OpenGL initiative", or "OpenGL next" by Khronos, but use of those names was discontinued when Vulkan was announced. Vulkan is derived from and built upon components of AMD's Mantle API, which was donated by AMD to Khronos with the intent of giving Khronos a foundation on which to begin developing a low-level API that they could standardize across the industry.
Vulkan is intended to provide a variety of advantages over other APIs as well as its predecessor, OpenGL. Vulkan offers lower overhead, more direct control over the GPU, and lower CPU usage. The overall concept and feature set of Vulkan is similar to Direct3D 12, Metal and Mantle.
Intended advantages of Vulkan over previous-generation APIs include:
- High-end graphics cards as well as for graphics hardware on mobile devices (OpenGL has a specific subset for mobile devices called OpenGL ES; it's still an alternative API in Vulkan supporting devices).
- Availability on multiple modern operating systems in contrast to Direct3D 12; like OpenGL, the Vulkan API is not locked to a single OS or device form factor. As of release, Vulkan runs on Android, Linux, Tizen, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 (freely licensed third-party support for iOS and macOS is also available)
- Reduced driver overhead, reducing CPU workloads.
- Reduced load on CPUs through the use of batching, leaving the CPU free to do more computation or rendering than otherwise.
- Better scaling on multi-core CPUs. Direct3D 11 and OpenGL 4 were initially designed for use with single-core CPUs and only received augmentation to be executed on multi-cores. Even when application developers use the augmentations, the API regularly does not scale well on multi-cores.
- OpenGL uses the high-level language GLSL for writing shaders which forces each OpenGL driver to implement its own compiler for GLSL that executes at application runtime to translate the program's shaders into the GPU's machine code. Instead, Vulkan drivers are supposed to ingest shaders already translated into an intermediate binary format called SPIR-V (Standard Portable Intermediate Representation), analogous to the binary format that HLSL shaders are compiled into in Direct3D. By allowing shader pre-compilation, application initialization speed is improved and a larger variety of shaders can be used per scene. A Vulkan driver only needs to do GPU specific optimization and code generation, resulting in easier driver maintenance, and eventually smaller driver packages (currently GPU vendors still have to include OpenGL/CL).
- Unified management of compute kernels and graphical shaders, eliminating the need to use a separate compute API in conjunction with a graphics API.
|One single global state machine||Object-based with no global state|
|State is tied to a single context||All state concepts are localized to a command buffer|
|Operations can only be executed sequentially||Multi-threaded programming is possible|
|GPU memory and synchronization are usually hidden||Explicit control over memory management and synchronization|
|Extensive error checking||Vulkan drivers do no error checking at runtime;|
there is a validation layer for developers
NVIDIA notes that OpenGL is still a great option for a lot of use cases, as it comes at a much lower complexity and maintenance burden than Vulkan, while in many cases still providing great overall performance.
AMD says that Vulkan supports close-to-metal control, enabling faster performance and better image quality across Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, and Linux. No other graphics API offers the same powerful combination of OS compatibility, rendering features, and hardware efficiency.
At SIGGRAPH 2016, Khronos announced that Vulkan would be getting support for automatic multi-GPU features, similar to what is offered by Direct3D 12. Multi-GPU support included in-API removes the need for SLI or Crossfire which requires graphics cards to be of the same model. API multi-GPU instead allows the API to intelligently split the workload among two or more completely different GPUs. For example, integrated GPUs included on the CPU can be used in conjunction with a high-end dedicated GPU for a slight performance boost.
On March 7, 2018, Vulkan 1.1 was released by the Khronos Group. This first major update to the API standardized several extensions, such as multi-view, device groups, cross-process and cross-API sharing, advanced compute functionality, HLSL support, and YCbCr support. At the same time, it also brought better compatibility with DirectX 12, explicit multi-GPU support, ray tracing support, and laid the groundwork for the next generation of GPUs. Alongside Vulkan 1.1, SPIR-V was updated to version 1.3.
When releasing OpenCL 2.2, the Khronos Group announced that OpenCL would converge where possible with Vulkan to enable OpenCL software deployment flexibility over both APIs. This has been now demonstrated by Adobe's Premiere Rush using the clspv open source compiler to compile significant amounts of OpenCL C kernel code to run on a Vulkan runtime for deployment on Android.
The Khronos Group began a project to create a next generation graphics API in July 2014 with a kickoff meeting at Valve. At SIGGRAPH 2014, the project was publicly announced with a call for participants.
Vulkan was formally named and announced at Game Developers Conference 2015, although speculation and rumors centered around a new API existed beforehand and referred to it as "glNext".
In early 2015, LunarG (funded by Valve) developed and showcased a Linux driver for Intel which enabled Vulkan compatibility on the HD 4000 series integrated graphics, despite the open-source Mesa drivers not being fully compatible with OpenGL 4.0 until later that year. There is still the possibility of Sandy Bridge support, since it supports compute through Direct3D11.
On August 10, 2015, Google announced that future versions of Android would support Vulkan. Android 7.x "Nougat" launched support for Vulkan on August 22, 2016. Android 8.0 "Oreo" has full support, but there are no news on making Vulkan available on Android 6.0.1 "Marshmallow".
On March 19, 2017, Cloud Imperium Games announced that Star Citizen would be using the Vulkan API instead of Direct3D.
On February 26, 2018, Khronos Group announced that the Vulkan API became available to all on macOS and iOS through the MoltenVK library, which enables Vulkan to run on top of Metal. Other new developments were shown at SIGGRAPH 2018. Previously MoltenVK was a proprietary and commercially licensed solution, but Valve made an arrangement with developer Brenwill Workshop Ltd to open-source MoltenVK under the Apache 2.0 license and as a result the library is now available on GitHub. Valve also announced that Dota 2 can as of 26 February 2018 run on macOS using the Vulkan API, which is based on MoltenVK.
On March 26, 2018, Khronos Group and GPUOpen announced project V-EZ. Short for "Easy Mode", it aims to reduce the complexity of the IDE syntax within the Vulkan API by implementing an additional library within the base SDK. In August 2018, AMD made the library open source.
GLOVE: OpenGL ES over Vulkan
Another middleware that allows legacy OpenGL ES applications to run on top of Vulkan was open-sourced by Think Silicon in August 2018. This software allows thinner Vulkan drivers to be used in the system instead of multiple OpenGL ES and Vulkan drivers. In addition with MoltenVK, GLOVE allows to use OpenGL ES on macOS/iOS devices.
On March 7, 2018, Vulkan 1.1 was released by the Khronos Group. This first major update to the API standardized several extensions, such as multi-view, device groups, cross-process and cross-API sharing, advanced compute functionality, HLSL support, and YCbCr support. At the same time, it also brought better compatibility with DirectX 12, explicit multi-GPU support, ray tracing support, and laid the groundwork for the next generation of GPUs. And new functionality such as protected content and subgroup operations. Alongside Vulkan 1.1, SPIR-V was updated to version 1.3.
Software that supports Vulkan
|Title||Original release date||Vulkan support since||Developer(s)||Publisher(s)||Platform||Notes|
|Aerofly FS 2||November 20, 2017||June 6, 2018||IPACS||IPACS||Support added in an update|
|Astrokill||May 27, 2016||October 23, 2017||Doomsday Games||Doomsday Games||Vulkan support available in the Linux version.|
|Quake||June 22, 1996||July 20, 2016||id Software||GT Interactive||Support added via vkQuake port. Support for Windows added in vkQuake 0.20 on July 30, 2016|
|Quake 2||December 9, 1997||December 20, 2018||id Software||Activision||MacOS||Support added via vkQuake2 port. Support for Windows added in the initial release. Support for Linux added on January 19, 2019. Support for MacOS added on February 9, 2019.|
|Quake II RTX||December 9, 1997||June 6, 2019||id Software, Nvidia Lightspeed Studios, Bethesda Softworks||Nvidia||Support added via q2vkpt port with major additions from Nvidia. Requires VK_NV_ray_tracing extension.|
|Quake III Arena||December 2, 1999||May 30, 2017||id Software||Activision||Support added in Kenny Edition project.|
|Roblox||2006||March 15, 2017||Roblox Corporation||Roblox Corporation||Support added in an update|
|Dota 2||July 9, 2013||May 23, 2016||Valve||Valve||MacOS||Support added in an update; macOS support added in 2018|
|The Talos Principle||September 11, 2014||February 17, 2016||Croteam||Devolver Digital||The first game with Vulkan rendering support. Support added in an update.|
|Vainglory||November 16, 2014||August 20, 2016||Super Evil Megacorp||Super Evil Megacorp|
|Score! Hero||August 6, 2015||September 16, 2016||First Touch Games||First Touch Games|
|Need for Speed: No Limits||September 30, 2015||August 20, 2016||Firemonkeys Studios||Electronic Arts|
|Heroes of Incredible Tales||November 18, 2015||August 20, 2016||NAT Games||Nexon|
|Dream League Soccer||February 26, 2016||October 14, 2016||First Touch Games||First Touch Games|
|Score! Match||February 22, 2018||February 22, 2018||First Touch Games||First Touch Games|
|Ashes of the Singularity||March 31, 2016||August 31, 2017||Oxide Games, Stardock Entertainment||Stardock Entertainment||Support added in an update|
|Olympus Rising||May 3, 2016||August 20, 2016||Flaregames||Flaregames|
|Doom3 BFG||October 2012||August 12, 2017||id Software||Bethesda Softworks||Support added via vkDOOM3 port.|
|Doom||May 13, 2016||July 11, 2016||id Software||Bethesda Softworks||Support added in an update|
|Mad Max||October 20, 2016||March 30, 2017||Avalanche Studios, Feral Interactive||Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, Feral Interactive||Support added in a public beta version of the game for Linux|
|Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore||December 8, 2016||May 18, 2017||Deep Silver||Deep Silver||Support added on Android release|
|Ballistic Overkill||March 28, 2017||May 16, 2017||Aquiris Game Studio||Aquiris Game Studio||Support added in an update|
|Serious Sam VR: The First Encounter||March 30, 2017||February 8, 2017||Croteam VR||Devolver Digital, Croteam||Support since early access|
|Serious Sam VR: The Second Encounter||April 4, 2017||February 8, 2017||Croteam VR||Devolver Digital, Croteam||Support since early access|
|Steel Rats||November 7, 2018||March 1, 2019||Tate Multimedia||Tate Multimedia||Vulkan support is only in the Linux version.|
|Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War III||June 8, 2017||June 8, 2017||Relic Entertainment, Feral Interactive||Sega|
|X Rebirth VR Edition||July 27, 2017||July 27, 2017||Egosoft GmbH||Egosoft GmbH||Support since release|
|nGlide compatible games||November 7, 2009||December 14, 2017||Zeus Software||Zeus Software||3Dfx Voodoo Glide wrapper|
|F1 2017||November 2, 2017||November 2, 2017||Codemasters, Feral Interactive||Codemasters||Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive|
|Serious Sam VR: The Last Hope||September 20, 2017||May 17, 2017||Croteam VR||Devolver Digital, Croteam||Support since early access|
|Total War: Warhammer II||September 28, 2017||November 20, 2018||Creative Assembly||Sega||Vulkan-only support in the Linux version.|
|Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus||October 27, 2017||October 27, 2017||MachineGames||Bethesda Softworks||Vulkan exclusive|
|Serious Sam Fusion 2017||2017||March 21, 2017||Croteam||Devolver Digital||Support since beta launch|
|Rise of the Tomb Raider||February 9, 2016||April 19, 2018||Crystal Dynamics, Feral Interactive||Square Enix, Feral Interactive||Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive|
|Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia||May 3, 2018||June 7, 2018||Creative Assembly, Feral Interactive||Sega, Feral Interactive||Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive|
|Geocore||August 1, 2015||June 1, 2017||Anarchy Interactive||Anarchy Interactive||Support added in an update|
|Doom Eternal||March 20, 2020||March 20, 2020||id Software||Bethesda Softworks|
|Strange Brigade||August 28, 2018||August 28, 2018||Rebellion Developments||Rebellion Developments|
|X4: Foundations||November 30, 2018||November 30, 2018||Egosoft GmbH||Egosoft GmbH||Exclusively supports Vulkan|
|Artifact||November 28, 2018||November 28, 2018||Valve||Valve||MacOS||Vulkan exclusive on Linux, Vulkan through MoltenVK on macOS|
|Rage 2||May 14, 2019||May 14, 2019||id Software, Avalanche Studios||Bethesda Softworks||Exclusively supports Vulkan|
|Wolfenstein: Youngblood||July 26, 2019||July 25, 2019||MachineGames,||Bethesda Softworks||Exclusively supports Vulkan|
|The Surge 2||September 24, 2019||September 24, 2019||Deck13||Focus Home Interactive|
|No Man's Sky||August 12, 2016||April 16, 2019||Hello Games||Hello Games||OpenGL was replaced by Vulkan|
|World War Z||April 16, 2019||April 16, 2019||Saber Interactive||Mad Dog Games|
|Fortnite Battle Royale||September 26, 2017||August 9, 2018||Epic Games||Epic Games||Vulkan support for limited devices|
|Hundred Soul||November 7, 2018||November 7, 2018||Hound 13||LINE Games|
|Lineage 2 Revolution||December 14, 2017||December 14, 2017||Netmarble Neo||Netmarble Games|
|Traha||April 18, 2019||April 18, 2019||Moai Games||Nexon|
|Forsaken Remastered||July 31, 2018||July 31, 2018/September 12, 2018||Nightdive Studios||Nightdive Studios||MacOS||Linux/macOS Vulkan support added in update|
|Crown Four Kingdoms||August 15, 2017||May 10, 2018||X-Legend Entertainment||X-Legend Entertainment||Support added in an update|
|Warhammer 40,000: Gladius - Relics of War||July 12, 2018||June 17, 2019||Slitherine||Proxy Studios||OpenGL was replaced by Vulkan|
|Aura Kingdom 2||August 25, 2019||August 25, 2019||X-Legend Entertainment||X-Legend Entertainment||Support since release|
|Red Dead Redemption 2||October 26, 2018||November 5, 2019||Rockstar Studios||Rockstar Games||Support since PC release|
Game console emulators
- Source 2 – In March 2015, Valve announced the Source 2 engine, the successor engine to the original Source engine, would support Vulkan.
- Serious Engine 4 – In February 2016, Croteam announced that they were supporting Vulkan in their Serious Engine.
- Unreal Engine 4 – In February 2016, Epic Games announced Unreal Engine 4 support for Vulkan at Samsung's Galaxy S7 Unpacked event.
- Torque 3D – In April 2016, the developers community announced they will include Vulkan support.
- id Tech 3 – unofficial Vulkan support was added in May 2017.
- id Tech 4 – unofficial Vulkan support was added in August 2017.
- id Tech 6 – Vulkan support was added in July, 2016.
- id Tech 7 – uses Vulkan on PC exclusively.
- Xenko – Vulkan support was added in July 2016.
- Unity – The engine has support for Vulkan since version 5.6.
- CryEngine – Support for Vulkan was added in the 5.4 release.
- Intrinsic – A free and open-source cross-platform game engine that supports Vulkan.
- Unigine – In April 2017, Unigine Corp announced that Vulkan support for Unigine is in the roadmap for 2017.
- Abyss Engine – In May 2017, Deep Silver FISHLABS released Galaxy on Fire 3 on Android with Vulkan support.
- Banshee 3D – A free and open-source cross-platform game engine that supports Vulkan.
- Godot – a 2D and 3D, cross-platform, free and open-source game engine. In late February 2018, the developers announced that they will shift their focus from solely using OpenGL ES 3 to target all platforms, to instead using a combination of OpenGL ES 2 and Vulkan.
- Flax Engine – Vulkan support was added in April 2019.
- Apex Game Engine (from Avalanche Studios) which was used in Rage 2 uses Vulkan for rendering.
- Messiah Game Engine – NetEase Games collaborated with Qualcomm to optimise their Messiah Game Engine for Vulkan
- UX3D Engine – Vulkan support was added in September 2017.
- Diligent Engine – graphics API abstraction library, supports Vulkan, DirectX 11/12, Metal, OpenGL and OpenGL ES
- gfx-rs – graphics/compute abstraction library in Rust, supports Vulkan, DirectX 11/12, Metal, OpenGL and OpenGL ES.
- GPU PerfStudio 3.6 supports Vulkan on Linux and Windows.
- GTK+ Scene Graph Kit, released on March 2017 as part of GTK+ 3.90, has a Vulkan rendering path.
- RenderDoc has support for Vulkan, since it was added on February 10, 2016.
- Anvil – reduces the amount of time to write a working Vulkan application from scratch. Part of GPUOpen.
- Ashes – wrapper library that let you write a Vulkan application using either Vulkan, OpenGL or DirectX as backend. Still in development.
- GLOVE – "OpenGL ES Over Vulkan", it acts as an intermediate layer between an OpenGL ES and Vulkan.
- MoltenVK – allows Vulkan applications to run on top of Metal on Apple's macOS and iOS operating systems.
- V-EZ – "Easy Mode" for Vulkan, intended to alleviate the complexity of using the Vulkan. Part of GPUOpen.
- Vulkano – wrapper for the Rust programming language.
- PasVulkan – wrapper for the Object Pascal programming language.
- Zink – an OpenGL implementation on top of Vulkan via Mesa Gallium
The Vulkan Window System Integration (WSI) does for Vulkan what EGL does for OpenGL and OpenGL ES. EGL is used by OpenGL and OpenGL ES programs to interface with the native platform windowing system. EGL handles context management, surface binding and rendering synchronization.
Initial specifications stated that Vulkan will work on hardware that currently supports OpenGL ES 3.1 or OpenGL 4.x and up. As Vulkan support requires new graphics drivers, this does not necessarily imply that every existing device that supports OpenGL ES 3.1 or OpenGL 4.x will have Vulkan drivers available.
Vulkan 1.1 with higher efforts is supported by the newer lines in Hardware like Intel Skylake and higher, AMD GCN 3rd and higher, Nvidia Kepler and higher. AMD, Arm, Imagination Technologies, Intel, Nvidia and Qualcomm supports actual hardware since second half of 2018 Vulkan 1.1 with own drivers. Mesa 18.1 supports with RADV and ANVIL driver AMD and Intel hardware. Actual state in Mesa 3D of RADV and ANVIL see Mesamatrix.
Vulkan support for iOS and macOS has not been announced by Apple, but an open-source library exists which provides a Vulkan implementation that runs on top of Metal on iOS and macOS devices.
|Company||Hardware||Software support: Vulkan 1.0|
|Microarchitecture||Available since||GPUs (chips)||Graphic cards / SoCs||Android||Linux||Microsoft Windows|
|RDNA 1.0||July 2019||Navi 10, Navi 12, Navi 14||Radeon RX 5000 series||N/A||1.0 and 1.1: AMDGPU PRO (Ubuntu & RHEL)
& RADV in Mesa
|1.0 (1.1 GCN 2nd and higher) Radeon Software|
|GCN 5th||August 2017||Vega 10, Raven Ridge, Picasso||Radeon RX Vega series,|
|GCN 4th||June 2016||Polaris 10, Polaris 11, Polaris 12||Radeon RX 400 series, Radeon RX 500 series|
|GCN 3rd||August 2014||Tonga, Fiji, Carrizo||Radeon R9 Series and more|
|GCN 2nd||March 2013||Bonaire, Hawaii, Kaveri, Kabini, Temash, Mullins, Beema, Carrizo-L||Radeon HD 7790 and more, PlayStation 4, Xbox One||Experimental 1.0 (GCN 1st and 2nd complete) and 1.1 (Partial Hardware dependent) with RADV in Mesa|
|GCN 1st||January 2012||Oland, Cape Verde, Pitcairn, Tahiti||Radeon HD 77xx–7900 Series|
|TeraScale 3||December 2010||Cayman, Trinity/Richland||Radeon HD 69xx Series, Radeon HD 7xxx–76xx Series||not supported|
|TeraScale 2||September 2009||Cedar, Cypress, Juniper, Redwood, Palm, Sumo||Radeon HD 5000 Series, Radeon HD 6350, Radeon HD 64xx–68xx Series|
|TeraScale 1||May 2007||R600, RV630, RV610, RV790, RV770, ...||Radeon HD 2000 Series, HD 3000, HD 4000|
|Turing||September 2018||TU10x, TU11x||GeForce 20 series, GeForce 16 series||1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver||1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver|
|Volta||December 2017||GV10x||Nvidia Titan V||1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver||1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver|
|Pascal||May 2016||GP10x||GeForce 10 series, Tegra X2||Yes||1.0 and 1.1 Nvidia GeForce driver||1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver|
|Maxwell||February 2014||GM10x, GM20x||GeForce GTX 750 Ti, GTX 750, GTX 860M, GeForce 900 series, Tegra X1|
|Kepler||March 2012||GK10x, GK110, GK208||GeForce 600 series, GeForce 700 series, Tegra K1|
|Fermi||March 2010||GF10x, GF11x||GeForce 400 series, GeForce 500 series||not supported|
|Tesla||November 2006||G8x, G9x, GT20x, GT21x||GeForce 8 series, GeForce 9 series, GeForce 100 series, GeForce 200 series, GeForce 300 series|
|Intel||Coffee Lake||October 2017||Core i3-/i5-/i7-8000,||Yes||1.0 and 1.1: Anvil in Mesa 18.1||Yes|
|Kaby Lake||September 2016||Core i3-/i5-/i7-7000, Pentium xyz, Celeron xyz||1.0 Anvil in Mesa 17.1, 1.1 in Mesa 18.1||1.0: Anvil in Mesa, 1.1 in Mesa 18.1||Intel Graphics driver|
|Skylake||August 2015||Core i3-/i5-/i7-6000, Core m3-/m5-/m7-6Yxx, Pentium G4xxx, Celeron G39xx|
|Broadwell||September 2014||Core i3-/i5-/i7-5000, Core M-5Yxx||1.0 Anvil in Mesa 17.1||1.0: Anvil in Mesa||not supported|
|Haswell||June 2013||Core i3-/i5-/i7-4000, Pentium G3xxx, Celeron G18xx|
|Ivy Bridge||April 2012||Core i3-/i5-/i7-3000, Pentium G2xxx, Celeron G16xx|
|Sandy Bridge||January 2011||Core i3-/i5-/i7-2000, Pentium Gxxx, Celeron Gxxx||not supported||not supported|
|Westmere||January 2010||Core i3-/i5-/i7-xxx, Pentium G69xx, Celeron G1101|
|PowerVR Series 8||February 2016||GE8200, GE8300||PowerVR Graphics SDK v4.1|
|PowerVR Series 7||November 2014||GE7400, GE7800, GT7200, GT7400, GT7600, GT7800, GT7900||Apple A9, A9X, A10 Fusion, Helio X30 (MT6799)|
|PowerVR Series 6||January 2012||G6100, G6200, G6230, G6400, G6430, G6630, RK3368, G6050, G6060, G6100 (XE), G6110, GX6240, GX6250, GX6450, GX6650||Apple A7, A8, A8X, MediaTek MT8173, MT8176, MediaTek MT6595M, MT6595T, MT6595M, MT6795, MT8135, Helio X10 (MT6795), LG H13, Atom Z3460, Z3480, Z3530, Z3560, Z3570, Z3580|
|PowerVR Series 5||January 2009||SGX543, SGX544, SGX554||Apple S1, A5, A5X, A6, A6X, NovaThor L8540, L8580, L9540, TI OMAP 4470, 5430, 5432, MediaTek MT5327, MT6589M, MT6589T, MT6589, MT8117, MT8121, MT8125, MT8389, Atom Z2460, Z2520, Z2560, Z2580, Z2760, Exynos 5410||not supported|
|Adreno 500 series||Adreno 510, Adreno 530, Adreno 540
|Snapdragon 430, 625, 650, 652, 660,820, 821, 835||1.0|
|Adreno 400 series||Adreno 418,Adreno 420,Adreno 430||Snapdragon 415, 615, 616, 617, 805, 808, 810||1.0(Adreno 418,430)|
|Adreno 300 series||Snapdragon 200, 208, 210, 212, 400, 410, 412, 600, 800, 801||not supported|
|Bifrost||June 2016||Mali-G71, ...||Kirin 960, 970, Exynos 8895, MediaTek Helio P23 (MT6763T), Helio P30||1.0|
|Midgard 4th||Q4 2015||Mali-T860, Mali-T830, Mali-T880||Exynos 8890, Exynos 7880, Exynos 7870, Kirin 950, 955, MediaTek MT6738, MT6750, Helio X20 (MT6797), X25 (MT6797T), P10 (MT6755), P20 (MT6757)|
|Midgard 3rd||October 2013||Mali-T760, ...||Exynos 7420, Exynos 5433, MT6752, MT6732, RK3288|
|Midgard 2nd||August 2012||Mali-T600 series, T720||Exynos 5250, 5260, 5410, 5420, 5422, 5430, 5800, 7580, Mediatek MT6735, MT6753, Kirin 920, 925, 930, 935||not supported|
- Direct3D 12 – main competitor of Vulkan
- OpenGL – another graphics API by the Khronos Group
- OpenCL – a heterogeneous computing framework by the Khronos Group
- Mantle – a low-level graphics and compute API from AMD, the foundation of Vulkan
- Metal – a low-level graphics and compute API for iOS and macOS
- AMDGPU – AMD's fully open-source unified graphics driver for Linux
- For Android Nougat and later.
- Drivers so far have supported Windows 7 and later.
- "Khronos Releases Vulkan 1.0 Specification". Khronos Group Press Release.
- "Vulkan® 1.1.130 - A Specification".
- "Nintendo Switch Listed as Vulkan and OpenGL Conformant - My Nintendo News". December 19, 2016.
- Palumbo, Alessio (December 19, 2016). "Nintendo Switch Officially Supports Vulkan, OpenGL 4.5 & OpenGL ES".
- "The Khronos Group". April 28, 2018.
- Bright, Peter & Walton, Mark (February 16, 2016). "Vulkan now official, with 1.0 API release and AMD driver [Updated]". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- Valich, Theo (February 17, 2016). "Mantle Cycle is Complete as Khronos Releases Vulkan 1.0". VR World. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- "GitHub - KhronosGroup/MoltenVK: MoltenVK is an implementation of the high-performance, industry-standard Vulkan graphics and compute API, that runs on Apple's Metal graphics framework, bringing Vulkan to iOS and macOS". Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- "More on Vulkan and SPIR - V: The future of high-performance graphics" (PDF). Khronos Group. p. 10. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Does Vulkan support 2D graphics?". LunarG. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
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- "Vulkan: Graphics and compute Belong Together" (PDF). Khronos Group. March 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Vulkan – Graphics and compute belong together". Khronos Group. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Smith, Ryan. "Khronos Announces Next Generation OpenGL Initiative". Retrieved September 24, 2016.
- Batchelor, James (March 3, 2015). "glNext revealed as Vulkan graphics API". Develop.
- Shilov, Anton. "AMD: Vulkan absorbed 'best and brightest' parts of Mantle". KitGuru. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Mah Ung, Gordon (March 6, 2015). "Mantle is a Vulkan: AMD's dead graphics API rises from the ashes in OpenGL's successor". PC World.
- "AMD Gaming: One of Mantle's Futures: Vulkan | AMD Blogs". AMD. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Hruska, Joel (March 4, 2015). "Not dead yet: AMD's Mantle powers new Vulkan API, VR efforts". ExtremeTech. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "AMD's Mantle Lives On In Vulkan - Lays The Foundation For The Next OpenGL". Wccftech. June 20, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Kirsch, Nathan. "Is AMD Mantle Dead As We Have Known It? Vulcan API Uses Mantle Technology for OpenGL". Legit Reviews. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "MoltenVK, popular Vulkan development tool for macOS, goes open-source". Neowin. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Vulkan graphics will enable faster games and apps on Apple platforms". VentureBeat. February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- "Vulkan Is Now Available On macOS/iOS By MoltenVK Being Open-Sourced, Vulkan SDK for Mac - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
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