Volcanic crater lake

A volcanic crater lake is a lake in a crater that was formed from explosive activity or collapse during a volcanic eruption.

Lakes in calderas fill large craters formed by the collapse of a volcano during an eruption. Lakes in maars fill medium-sized craters where an eruption deposited debris around a vent.

Crater lakes form as the created depression, within the crater rim, is filled by water. The water may come from precipitation, groundwater circulation (often hydrothermal fluids in the case of volcanic craters) or melted ice. Its level rises until an equilibrium is reached between the rates of incoming and outgoing water. Sources of water loss singly or together may include evaporation, subsurface seepage, and, in places, surface leakage or overflow when the lake level reaches the lowest point on its rim. At such a saddle location, the upper portion of the lake is contained only by its adjacent natural volcanic dam; continued leakage through or surface outflow across the dam can erode its included material, thus lowering lake level until a new equilibrium of water flow, erosion, and rock resistance is established. If the volcanic dam portion erodes rapidly or fails catastrophically, the occurrence produces a breakout or outburst flood. With changes in environmental conditions over time, the occurrence of such floods is common to all natural dam types.

A well-known crater lake, which bears the same name as the geological feature, is Crater Lake in Oregon. It is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama. It is the deepest lake in the United States with a depth of 594 m (1,949 ft). Crater Lake is fed solely by falling rain and snow, with no inflow or outflow at the surface, and hence is one of the clearest lakes in the world.[1]

The highest volcano in the world, 6,893-m (22,615-ft) Ojos del Salado in Chile, has a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,965 ft) on its eastern side.[2] This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world.

Due to their unstable environments, some crater lakes exist only intermittently. Caldera lakes in contrast can be quite large and long-lasting. For instance, Lake Toba (Indonesia) formed after its eruption around 75,000 years ago. At around 100 km (60 miles) by 30 km (18 miles) in extent and 505 m (1,656 ft) deep at its deepest point, Lake Toba is the largest crater lake in the world.[3]

While many crater lakes are picturesque, they can also be deadly. Gas discharges from Lake Nyos (Cameroon) suffocated 1,800 people in 1986, and crater lakes such as Mount Ruapehu's (New Zealand) often contribute to destructive lahars.

Certain bodies of water, although their formation is directly related to volcanic activity, are not usually referred to as crater lakes, including:

List of volcanic crater lakes

There are about 137 major crater lakes in the world.[4]

Waw an Namus (three small salt lakes in the caldera)Libya
Deriba CalderaSudan
Meme River Basin lakes (Lake Barombi Koto, Lake Barombi Mbo, Lake Mboandong and Lake Dissoni/Soden)Cameroon
Lake Nachtiga (between Mount Cameroon and the Atlantic coast)Cameroon
Bakossi Mountains: Lake Bermin and Mount Manengouba lakes (lac Mâle and lac Femelle)Cameroon
Adamawa crater lakes (Tison, Mbalang)Cameroon
Oku Volcanic Field, including Lake Nyos, Lake Oku, Lake Monoun, Mount Mbapit crater lake, Lake Awing and the Bambili lakesCameroon
Dallol (various acid ponds)Ethiopia
Zengena LakeEthiopia
Enyo Lake (or Haro Dandii, a lake filling a double crater caldera on Mount Dendi) and Lake Wonchi[5] (Badda Rogghie Mountains)Ethiopia
Debre Zeyit crater lakes (Bishoftu, Hora, Bishoftu Guda, Koriftu and seasonal Cheleklaka)Ethiopia
Lake Dembel, Mount ZuquallaEthiopia
Lake Ara Shetan (Butajiri-Silti Volcanic Field)Ethiopia
O'a Caldera, with Lake Shala and the smaller Chitu water-filled maarEthiopia
Bilate River Volcanic Field (several water-filled maars)Ethiopia
El Sod (small salt lake), South Omo ValleyEthiopia
Mount Biao, Bioko IslandEquatorial Guinea
Lago a Pot, Annobón IslandEquatorial Guinea
Lake AssalDjibouti
Kabarole District lakes (including lakes Nyinabulitwa, Nyabikere, Nkuruba, Kifuruka)Uganda
Many crater lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru (or Kichwambe) volcanic fields, respectively on the North and South sides of the Kazinga Channel (including Lake Katwe in the Queen Elizabeth National Park)Uganda
Muhavura (small crater lake)Rwanda / Uganda
Mount BisokeRwanda / Democratic Republic of Congo
Crocodile Lake, Flamingo Lake, Tilapia Lake, on Central Island (Lake Turkana)Kenya
Mount Marsabit (at least two lakes)Kenya
Emuruangogolak (several maar lakes)Kenya
Lake Simbi, Mount HomaKenya
Lake Sonachi (Crater Lake Game Sanctuary)Kenya
Lake ChalaKenya / Tanzania
Southern Highlands crater lakes (Lake Ngozi, Kiungululu Crater, Masoko Crater)Tanzania
Lakes Magadi and Empakaai (Ngorongoro Conservation Area)Tanzania
Lake Dziani Boundouni, Mohéli IslandComoros
Dziani Dzaha, Petite-TerreMayotte
Lake TritrivaMadagascar
Nosy Be crater lakesMadagascar
Itasy crater lakes (close to the larger Lake Itasy)Madagascar
Trou aux CerfsMauritius
Ganga Talao lakeMauritius
Piton de l'EauRéunion
Lagoa do FanalPortugal, Madeira
Laguna de los Ciclos (Charco Verde), El Golfo, LanzaroteSpain, Canary Islands
Pedra de Lume (salt lake in the crater), Sal IslandCape Verde
Queen Mary's Peak (heart-shaped crater lake)Tristan da Cunha
Lake TobaIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount SibayakIndonesia, Sumatra
Lake ManinjauIndonesia, Sumatra
Lake Asam (Suwoh Caldera)Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Gunung TujuhIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount Talang (Talang and Dibawah Lakes)Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Singgalang (Dewi and Kumbang Lakes)Indonesia, Sumatra
Bukit DaunIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount KerinciIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount KabaIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount DempoIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount KunyitIndonesia, Sumatra
Mount SumbingIndonesia, Sumatra
SorikmarapiIndonesia, Sumatra
IjenIndonesia, Java
Kawah Putih, Mount PatuhaIndonesia, Java
Mount Lamongan (several maare)Indonesia, Java
Kelut (no crater lake anymore after 2007–2008 slow eruptions with hot lava dome, but in 2014 eruption lava dome is thrown away and in rainy season, the crater is initial fill with water)Indonesia, Java
Lake Ngebel, Gunung WilisIndonesia, Java
Mount LawuIndonesia, Java
TalagabodasIndonesia, Java
Tengger caldeira (several maar lakes on Semeru summit, seasonnal lake in Bromo crater)Indonesia, Java
The Triangle of Lakes (Ranu Klakah, Ranu Bedali, Ranu Pakis)Indonesia, Java
Mount Galunggung crater lakeIndonesia, Java
Merdodo (Dieng Volcanic Complex)Indonesia, Java
Telaga Warna (Dieng Volcanic Complex)Indonesia, Java
Danau Batur, BaliIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Lake Segara Anak (Mount Rinjani), LombokIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Tambora (ephemeral lake), SumbawaIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kelimutu (three crater lakes), FloresIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Inielika (several small temporary dark lakes), FloresIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Sano Nggoang (the deepest volcanic crater lake in the world with depth of 600 meters), West Manggarai Regency, FloresIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Mount Sirung, Pantar IslandIndonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kawah Masem, Mount SempuIndonesia, Sulawesi
Mount MahawuIndonesia, Sulawesi
Lake TondanoIndonesia, Sulawesi
Mount KlabatIndonesia, Sulawesi
MakianIndonesia, Maluku Islands
Mount Ibu (several small crater lakes), HalmaheraIndonesia, Maluku Islands
Todoko-Ranu, HalmaheraIndonesia, Maluku Islands
Lake Telaga Paca, HalmaheraIndonesia, Maluku Islands
Four crater lakes in the Lower Chindwin volcanic area, including Twin TaungBurma (Myanmar)
Yak LoumCambodia
Nong Fa LakeLaos
Toroeng ProngVietnam
Khorgo Uul (at least two lakes)Mongolia
Chaihe scenic spot[6] near Zhalantun (several crater lakes in this volcanic area)China, Inner Mongolia
Longwanqun crater lakesChina, Jilin
Heaven Lake (Chonji/Tianchi), Baekdu MountainNorth Korea / China, Jilin
White Deer Lake (Baengnokdam), Mulyeongari-Oreum, Muljangori-OreumSouth Korea, Jeju Island
Akan caldera lakes (Akan, Mashū, Kussharo)Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake ShikotsuJapan, Hokkaidō
Lake TōyaJapan, Hokkaidō
Lake KuttaraJapan, Hokkaidō
TowadaJapan, Honshū
Tazawa (deepest lake in Japan)Japan, Honshū
Mount Zaō (lake Okama)Japan, Honshū
Mount Kusatsu-Shirane (three lakes, including the acidic Yu-gama with sulfur rafts floating on its turquoise surface)Japan, Honshū
Izu-Tobu (Ippeki lake)Japan, Honshū
Lake HarunaJapan, Honshū
Mount Hakone (Lake Ashi)Japan, Honshū
Naruko (Lake Katanuma)Japan, Honshū
Aizu-Bandai-san (various lakes)Japan, Honshū
Mount IwateJapan, Honshū
Mount Ontake (five crater lakes)Japan, Honshū
Oguni-numa PondJapan, Honshū
Numazawa-numa lakeJapan, Honshū
Hachoike, Mount AmagiJapan, Honshū
Mount Aso (Naka-dake)Japan, Kyūshū
Satsuma Peninsula, Lake Ikeda and Lake Unagi-ikeJapan, Kyūshū
Mount Kirishima lakes (including Mi-ike, Oonamino-ike, Rokkannonmi-ike, Byakushi-ike)Japan, Kyūshū
Imuta-ikeJapan, Kyūshū
Tairo-ike, Miyake-jimaJapan, Izu Islands
Otake, NakanoshimaJapan, Ryukyu Islands
Lake PinatuboPhilippines, Luzon
Taal Lake (caldera-filling) and the crater lake on its island's volcanoPhilippines, Luzon
Laguna de BayPhilippines, Luzon
Seven Lakes of San Pablo (Bunot, Calibato, Yambo, Pandin, Palakpakin, Muhikap, Sampaloc)Philippines, Luzon
Lake TikubPhilippines, Luzon
Mount Talinis (lakes Balinsasayao, Danao and Kabalin-an, within the Guintabon Caldera), Negros IslandPhilippines, Visayas
Margaja Valley caldera, Kanlaon Volcano, Negros IslandPhilippines, Visayas
Lakes Danao and Malagsom, Mahagnao Volcano, Leyte IslandPhilippines, Visayas
Lake Duminagat, Mount MalindangPhilippines, Mindanao
Lake Leonard, Leonard KniaseffPhilippines, Mindanao
Mount ApoPhilippines, Mindanao
Lake Maughan, Mount ParkerPhilippines, Mindanao
Jolo Island, Lakes Seit, Panamao, Timpuak and Sani CraterPhilippines, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago
Lake KhaiyrRussia, Yakutia
KhangarRussia, Kamchatka
KizimenRussia, Kamchatka
Lake Dalny, Uzon CalderaRussia, Kamchatka
Maly SemyachikRussia, Kamchatka
Bolshoy SemyachikRussia, Kamchatka
Karymsky Lake, Akademia NaukRussia, Kamchatka
Balshoe and Kraternoe, KsudachRussia, Kamchatka
Kurile LakeRussia, Kamchatka
GorelyRussia, Kamchatka
Ebeko, Paramushir IslandRussia, Kuril Islands
Onekotan Island (Kal'tsevoe Lake in the Tao-Rusyr Caldera and Nemo Lake/Caldera)Russia, Kuril Islands
Ketoy IslandRussia, Kuril Islands
Zavaritski Caldera, Simushir IslandRussia, Kuril Islands
Rudakov, Urup IslandRussia, Kuril Islands
Iturup Island lakes (Medvezhia, Chirip, Grozny Group, Bogatyr Ridge)Russia, Kuril Islands
Meke Golu (Karapınar Field)Turkey
Lake Acıgöl (bitter lake), also called Lake Nar (pomegranate lake)Turkey
Karagöl (Lake Tantalus), Mount YamanlarTurkey
Lake RamIsrael
Bir Ali craterYemen
Zubayr Group Islands (crater lakes on Saba Island and on the new island formed during the 2011–2012 eruption)Yemen
Eifel volcanic field (where maare were originally described), including Laacher See and Daun maarsGermany
Eyjafjallajökull (volcano)Iceland
Askja (Öskjuvatn and Viti lakes)Iceland
Lake BardarlaugIceland
Grímsvötn (subglacial lake in the caldera, now exposed following the 2011 eruption)Iceland
crater lakes in the Landmannalaugar area (Blahylur, Ljotipollur)Iceland
Chaîne des Puys (Gour de Tazenat, Lac Pavin, Lac de Servière, Lac Chauvet, Lac du Bouchet, Lac d'En-Haut)France
Lac d'IssarlèsFrance
Lazio crater lakes (Albano, Bolsena, Bracciano, Martignano, Nemi, Vico, Mezzano)Italy
Lake Avernus (close to Phlegraean Fields)Italy
Lake Sfânta Ana, Ciomadul volcanoRomania
Lakes of Monticchio (Lago di Monticchio Grande and Lago di Montichhio Piccolo, twin crater lakes)Italy
Lago VecchiennaItaly
Lago Specchio di Venere (Venus Mirror Lake) or Bagno dell’Acqua (hydrothermal lake within a calderic depression)Italy, Pantelleria
seasonal maar lakes in the Provincia Volcánica de Calatrava (Hoya del Acebuche, Hoya de Cervera)Spain
Lagoa do Caldeirão, Corvo IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoa da Caldeira, Faial IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoas Funda das Lajes, Branca, Comprida, Seca, da Lomba, Rasa, Funda/Negra, Flores IslandPortugal, Azores
Caldeira do Enxofre (underground lake filled with cold sulphur water), Graciosa IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoas Seca, da Rosada, Pico IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoa do Pico Pinheiro, São Jorge IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoa das Sete Cidades, do Fogo, das Furnas, Azul, Verde, São Miguel IslandPortugal, Azores
Lagoas Negra, do Negro, Terceira IslandPortugal, Azores
Lake Sfânta AnaRomania
Mount Samsari (several small lakes in the caldera)Georgia
Lake Akna, Geghama mountainsArmenia
Mount RuapehuNew Zealand, North Island
Lake TaupoNew Zealand, North Island
Lakes of Rotorua, including Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotomahana, Rotokakahi, Tikitapu, Okareka and Okataina and smaller lakes from the Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley (Inferno Crater Lake, Frying Pan Lake, Southern Crater Lake)New Zealand, North Island
Lake PupukeNew Zealand, North Island
Mangere LagoonNew Zealand, North Island
Mount Tongariro (Tama Lakes, Blue Lake and the Emerald Lakes)New Zealand, North Island
Whakaari / White Island (Bay of Plenty), Crater LakeNew Zealand, off North Island coast
Tuhua / Mayor Island (Bay of Plenty), Lake Aroarotamahine and Lake Te ParituNew Zealand, off North Island coast
Raoul Island (Blue Lake, Green Lake, Rui Lake)New Zealand, Kermadec Islands
Victory Volcano crater lakePapua New Guinea, New Guinea
Lake Wisdom, Long IslandPapua New Guinea, off New Guinea coast
Mount Balbi lakePapua New Guinea, Bougainville
Billy MitchellPapua New Guinea, Bougainville
Loloru (crescent-shaped crater lake)Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Dakataua (horseshoe-shaped caldera lake)Papua New Guinea, New Britain
Sakar IslandPapua New Guinea, off New Britain coast
Mount Gambier maar complex (including Blue Lake)Australia, South Australia
Atherton Tableland (Lake Euramoo, Lake Eacham, Lake Barrine, Mount Hypipamee Crater, Lynch's Crater, Bromfield Swamp)Australia, Queensland
Mount Le Brun (two intermittent crater lakes)Australia, Queensland
Leura maar complex (Purrumbete, Bullen Merri, Gnotuk, Keilambete, Elingamite, Wangoom, Red Rock intermittent lakes)Australia, Victoria
Tower HillAustralia, Victoria
Mount EcclesAustralia, Victoria
Green Lake,[7] Kapoho Crater, Kīlauea, Big Island,USA, Hawaii
Lake Waiau, crater of the Pu'u Waiau cinder cone, Mauna Kea, Big Island,USA, Hawaii
Kalaupapa crater lake, MolokaiUSA, Hawaii
Salt Lake (filled in for an urbanization project, except for a pond in a golf course), Honolulu, OahuUSA, Hawaii
Rano Kau, Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi (Ma′unga Terevaka)Chile, Easter Island
Anatahan (intermittent lake in the caldera)Northern Mariana Islands
Lake Te Roto, TikopiaSolomon Islands
Lake Lanoto'o, UpoluSamoa
Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i, Niuafo'ouTonga
Late (ephemeral lake)Tonga
Home Reef (newly formed island, crater lakes observed in 2006)Tonga
Lakes Lalolao, Lano, Lanutavake, Lanutuli, Lanumaha and Alofivai (intermittent), Wallis IslandWallis and Futuna
Lake Tagimaucia, Taveuni IslandFiji
Lake Letas, Gaua IslandVanuatu
Lombenben Volcano (lakes Vui, Manaro Ngoru, Manaro Lakua), Aoba IslandVanuatu
North America
Kasatochi volcano, Kasatochi IslandUnited States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Okmok, Umnak IslandUnited States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Kanaga, Kanaga IslandUnited States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fenner Lake, Semisopochnoi IslandUnited States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fisher Caldera (several lakes), Unimak IslandUnited States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount KatmaiUnited States, Alaska
Ukinrek MaarsUnited States, Alaska
Mount KaguyakUnited States, Alaska
Mount Martin (intermittent acidic lake)United States, Alaska
Mount DouglasUnited States, Alaska
Devil Mountain LakesUnited States, Alaska
Surprise Lake, Mount AniakchakUnited States, Alaska
Mount EmmonsUnited States, Alaska
Mount SpurrUnited States, Alaska
Mount ChiginagakUnited States, Alaska
Fiftytwo Ridge (several crater lakes)Canada, British Columbia
Mount RainierUnited States, Washington
Battle Ground LakeUnited States, Washington
Crater LakeUnited States, Oregon
Blue Lake CraterUnited States, Oregon
Malheur Maar, Diamond CratersUnited States, Oregon
Newberry Volcano (twin crater lakes: Paulina Lake and East Lake)United States, Oregon
Teardrop Pool South SisterUnited States, Oregon
Yellowstone LakeUnited States, Wyoming
Soda LakesUnited States, Nevada
Medicine Lake VolcanoUnited States, California
Mono–Inyo CratersUnited States, California
Clear LakeUnited States, California
Shastina (three small crater lakes)United States, California
Zuni Salt Lake (maar)United States, New Mexico
Lago Los EspinosMexico, Michoacán
La Alberca lake (also known as La Joya or Lago del Sangre)Mexico, Guanajuato
Nevado de Toluca (several lakes)Mexico, State of Mexico
Laguna de AljojucaMexico, Puebla
Oriental Basin axalapazcos (maar lakes)Mexico, Puebla / Tlaxcala / Veracruz
SangangüeyMexico, Nayarit
Santa María del OroMexico, Nayarit
El ChichónMexico, Chiapas
Central America & Caribbean
Lago de AmatitlánGuatemala
Lake IpalaGuatemala
Lago de AtitlánGuatemala
Laguna de AyarzaGuatemala
Laguna de Calderas (Pacaya)Guatemala
Laguna ChicabalGuatemala
Lago de Coatepeque (Coatepeque Lake)El Salvador
Laguna Verde (Apaneca)El Salvador
Lago de Ilopango (Ilopango Lake)El Salvador
Tecapa volcano (Laguna de Alegría)El Salvador
Chanmico maar (at the foot of the San Salvador volcano)El Salvador
Santa Ana Volcano crater lakeEl Salvador
Laguna Asososca, Las PilasNicaragua
Lakes within the Monte Galan caldera, close to the Momotombo (Laguna Monte Galan, La Sulfatosa, Agua Dulce, El Cachital, Las Piedras)Nicaragua
Chiltepe peninsula (Apoyeque and Xiloá lagoons)Nicaragua
Managua lagoons (Tiscapa, Asososca, Nejapa)Nicaragua
Masaya lakeNicaragua
Apoyo LagoonNicaragua
Zapatera Laguna (Zapatera Island, on Lake Nicaragua)Nicaragua
Maderas (Ometepe Island, on Lake Nicaragua)Nicaragua
Lake Diego de la Haya, Irazú volcanoCosta Rica
Rincón de la ViejaCosta Rica
Poás volcano (Laguna Caliente and Laguna Botos)Costa Rica
Cerro ChatoCosta Rica
Barva VolcanoCosta Rica
Mount Liamuiga crater lake, Saint KittsSaint Kitts and Nevis
La Grande Soufrière (la Citerne)Guadeloupe
Boiling Lake (Morne Trois Pitons National Park)Dominica
SoufrièreSaint Vincent
Grand Etang LakeGrenada
Lac Antoine, Mount Saint CatherineGrenada
South America
Azufral (Laguna Verde, Laguna Negra, Laguna Cristal)Colombia
Lagunas Verdes, Chiles VolcanoEcuador
Mojanda lakes (Caricocha, Yanacocha and Huarmicocha)Ecuador
Laguna Collanes, El AltarEcuador
Black Lakes of JumburaEcuador
La Cumbre, Fernandina Island (ephemeral lake)Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Tagus Cove, Isabela IslandEcuador, Galapagos Islands
Lake Arcturus, Genovesa IslandEcuador, Galapagos Islands
Laguna El Juncos, San Cristóbal IslandEcuador, Galapagos Islands
Santiago Island (small salt crater lake)Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Jayu Quta (also known as Miguel y Alex Tejada or Maracanacito crater)Bolivia
Laguna del MauleChile
Nevado Ojos del Salado (likely the highest lake in the world)Chile
Licancabur LakeChile
Chaitén (crater lakes might have disappeared with the 2008–09 eruption)Chile
Aguas CalientesChile
CopahueChile / Argentina
Planchón-PeteroaChile / Argentina
Laguna Potrok Aike (Pali-Aike Volcanic Field)Argentina
Laguna Diamante, Cerro GalánArgentina
Antarctica & Subantarctic Islands
Deception Island maareoff Antarctic Peninsula coast
Mount Larson crater lake, Thule IslandSouth Sandwich Islands
Small crater lakes on the top of various scoria cones, Marion IslandPrince Edward Islands
Bassin du Cratère (connected to sea since 1780, now an 'almost crater lake'), Saint-PaulSaint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands
Grand Cratère, Île de la PossessionCrozet Islands

See also


  1. "Facts and Figures about Crater Lake". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  2. Andes Website - Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the World's highest volcano Archived 2007-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Glenday, Craig (2010). Guinness World Record 2011. ISBN 9781904994572.
  4. John Seach Volcanic Lakes
  5. http://www.gtz.de/de/praxis/11695.htm Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine Description of Mount Wonchi crater lake on the website of GTZ
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2012-11-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. Kahumana Sanctuary – Geology
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