Voiceless velar stop

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.

Voiceless velar stop
k
IPA Number109
Encoding
Entity (decimal)k
Unicode (hex)U+006B
X-SAMPAk
Braille
Audio sample
source · help

The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop.

Features

Features of the voiceless velar stop:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Varieties

IPADescription
kplain k
aspirated k
palatalized k
labialized k
k with no audible release
voiced k
tense k
ejective k

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazақалақь[ˈakalakʲ]'the city'See Abkhaz phonology
AdygheShapsugкьэт[kʲat] 'chicken'Dialectal; corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in other dialects.
Temirgoyпскэн[pskan]'to cough'
Ahtnagistaann[kɪstʰɐːn]'six'
Aleut[3]kiikax̂[kiːkaχ]'cranberry bush'
ArabicModern Standard[4]كتب[ˈkatabɐ]'he wrote'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[5]քաղաք[kʰɑˈʁɑkʰ]'town'Contrasts with unaspirated form.
Assamese[kɔm]'less'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaickuleh[kulɛː]'all'Used in most varieties, with the exception of the Urmia and Nochiya dialects
where it corresponds to [t͡ʃ].
Basquekatu[kat̪u]'cat'
Bengali[kɔm]'less'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianкак[kak]'how'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6]quinze[ˈkinzə]'fifteen'See Catalan phonology
ChineseCantonese / gā[kaː˥]'home'Contrasts with aspirated and or labialized forms. See Cantonese phonology
Hokkien koa [kua] 'song'
Mandarin / gāo[kɑʊ˥]'high'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czechkost[kost]'bone'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[7]gås[ˈkɔ̽ːs]'goose'Usually transcribed in IPA with ɡ̊ or ɡ. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with or k. See Danish phonology
Dutch[8]koning[ˈkoːnɪŋ]'king'See Dutch phonology
Englishkiss[kʰɪs]'kiss'See English phonology
Esperantorakonto[raˈkonto]'tale'See Esperanto phonology
Estoniankõik[kɤik]'all'See Estonian phonology
Esperantokato[kato]'cat'
Filipinokuto[ˈkuto]'lice'
Finnishkakku[kɑkːu]'cake'See Finnish phonology
French[9]cabinet[kabinɛ]'office'See French phonology
Georgian[10]ვა[kʰva]'stone'
GermanKäfig[ˈkʰɛːfɪç]'cage'See Standard German phonology
Greekκαλόγερος / kalógeros[kaˈlo̞ʝe̞ro̞s̠]'monk'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiકાંદો[kɑːnd̪oː]'onion'See Gujarati phonology
Hebrewכסף / kesef[ˈkesef]'money'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hiligaynonkadlaw[kad̪law]'laugh'
Hindustaniकाम / کام[kɑːm]'work'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarianakkor[ɒkkor]'then'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[11]casa[ˈkäːzä]'house'See Italian phonology
Japanese[12] / kaban[kabaɴ]'handbag'See Japanese phonology
Kagayanen[13]kalag[kað̞aɡ]'spirit'
Korean감자 / kamja[kamdʐa]'potato'See Korean phonology
Lakotakimímela[kɪˈmɪmela]'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[14]geess[ˈkeːs]'goat'Less often voiced [ɡ]. It is usually transcribed in IPA as ɡ, and it contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed k.[14] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonianкој[kɔj]'who'See Macedonian phonology
Marathiवच[kəʋət͡s]'armour'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Malaykaki[käki]'leg'
Norwegiankake[kɑːkɛ]'cake'See Norwegian phonology
Pashtoكال[kɑl]'year'
Persian کیمچی [kimt͡ʃi] 'kimchi'
Polish[15]buk[ˈbuk] 'beech tree'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16]corpo[ˈkoɾpu]'body'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਕਰ/کر[kəɾ]'do'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Romanian[17]când[ˈkɨnd]'when'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]короткий[kɐˈrotkʲɪj] 'short'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19]кост / kost[kȏːs̪t̪]'bone'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovakkosť[kɔ̝sc̟]'bone'See Slovak phonology
Spanish[20]casa[ˈkäsä]'house'See Spanish phonology
Swedishko[ˈkʰuː]'cow'See Swedish phonology
Sylhetiꠇꠤꠔꠣ[kɪt̪à]'what'
Teluguకాకి[kāki]'crow'
Thai ไก่i [kị̀] 'chicken'
Turkishkulak[kʰuɫäk]'ear'See Turkish phonology
Ubykh[kawar]'slat'Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[21]колесо[ˈkɔɫɛsɔ]'wheel'See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[22]cam[kam]'orange'See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiankeal[kɪəl]'calf'See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ge[kɤ˧]'foolish'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
ZapotecTilquiapan[23]canza[kanza]'walking'

See also

Notes

  1. Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  4. Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  5. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  7. Basbøll (2005:61)
  8. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  9. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  12. Okada (1999), p. 117.
  13. Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  14. Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  15. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. DEX Online :
  18. Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  21. Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  23. Merrill (2008), p. 108.

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
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