Voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate

The voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are t͡θ, t͜θ, t̪͡θ and t̟͡θ.

Voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate
t̪θ
t̟θ
Audio sample
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Features

Features of the voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Burmese[1] သုံး / thon: [t̪͡θòʊ̯̃] 'three' Common realization of /θ/.[1]
Chipewyan[2] ddhéth [t̪͡θɛ́θ] 'hide' Contrasts unaspirated, aspirated and ejective affricates.[2]
English Dublin[3] think [t̪͡θɪŋk] 'think' Corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; may be [t̪] instead.[3]
Maori[4] Possible realization of /θ/.[4] See New Zealand English phonology
New York[5] Corresponds to [θ] in other dialects, may be a stop [t̪] or a fricative [θ] instead.[5]
Received Pronunciation tenth [tɛnt̪θ] 'tenth' The [n] may become dentalised, but there is no IPA symbol for a dental nasal.
Mandarin Yinan[6] [t̪͡θɑ̃˥] 'grip'

See also

Notes

References

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Labov, William (1966), The Social Stratification of English in New York City (PDF) (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-24, retrieved 2014-06-27
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122
  • Shao Yanmei; Liu Changfeng; Shao Mingwu. 沂南方言志. 齐鲁书社. ISBN 978-7-5333-2223-6.
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