Voiceless bilabial fricative

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɸ.

Voiceless bilabial fricative
IPA Number126
Entity (decimal)ɸ
Unicode (hex)U+0278
Audio sample
source · help


Features of the voiceless bilabial fricative:

  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.


BengaliEastern dialects[ɸɔl]'fruit'Allophone of /f/ in Bangladesh and Tripura, /pʰ/ used in Western dialects.
Ewe[1]éƒá[éɸá]'he polished'Contrasts with /f/
ItalianTuscan[2]i capitani[iˌhäɸiˈθäːni]'the captains'Intervocalic allophone of /p/.[2] See Italian phonology and Tuscan gorgia.
Japanese[3]腐敗 / fuhai[ɸɯhai]'decay'Allophone of /h/ before /ɯ/. See Japanese phonology
Korean후두개 / hudugae [ɸʷudugɛ]'Epiglottis'Allophone of /h/ before /u/. See Korean phonology
SpanishSome dialects [4][5]fuera[ˈɸwe̞ɾa̠]'outside'Non-standard variant of /f/. See Spanish phonology
Standard European[6]pub[ˈpa̠ɸ̞]'pub'An approximant; allophone of /b/ before a pause.[6]
North-Central Peninsular[7]abdicar[a̠ɸðiˈka̠ɾ]'abdicate'Allophone of /b/ in the coda. In this dialect, the unvoiced coda obstruents - /p, t, k/ - are realized as fricatives only if they precede a voiced consonant; otherwise, they emerge as stops.
Southern Peninsular[8]los vuestros[lɔʰ ˈɸːwɛʰtːɾɔʰ]'yours'It varies with [βː] in some accents. Allophone of /b/ after /s/.
Shompen[9] [koɸeoi] 'bench'
Tahitianʻōfī[ʔoːɸiː]'snake'Allophone of /f/
TurkishSome speakers[10]ufuk[uˈɸuk]'horizon'Allophone of /f/ before rounded vowels and, to a lesser extent, word-finally after rounded vowels.[10] See Turkish phonology

See also



  • Boyd-Bowman, Peter (1953), "Sobre la pronunciación del español en el Ecuador", Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, 7: 221–233
  • Cotton, Eleanor Greet; Sharp, John (1988), Spanish in the Americas, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-0-87840-094-2
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Pérez, Ramón Morillo-Velarde; Aguilar, Rafael Cano; Jiménez, Antonio Narbona (1998), El Español hablado en Andalucía, ISBN 84-344-8225-8
  • Wetzels, W. Leo; Mascaró, Joan (2001), "The Typology of Voicing and Devoicing" (PDF), Language, 77 (2): 207–244, doi:10.1353/lan.2001.0123
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.