Voiced velar affricate

The voiced velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in very few spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ɡ͡ɣ and ɡ͜ɣ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g_G. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ɡɣ in the IPA and gG in X-SAMPA.

Voiced velar affricate
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced velar affricate has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language, but it is reported as an allophone of /g/ (usually realized as a voiced velar plosive) in some dialects of English English.


Features of the voiced velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


EnglishBroad Cockney[1]good[ˈɡ͡ɣʊˑd̥]'good'Occasional allophone of /ɡ/.[2][3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3]
Scouse[4]Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /ɡ/.[4] See English phonology


  1. Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  2. Wells (1982), p. 323.
  3. Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  4. Wells (1982), p. 372.


  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Wells, John C. (1982). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.