Voiced retroflex stop

The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].

Voiced retroflex stop
ɖ
IPA Number106
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɖ
Unicode (hex)U+0256
X-SAMPAd`
Braille
Audio sample
source · help

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex stop:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AsturianAstierna dialectḷḷingua[ɖiŋɡwä]'tongue'Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1]ডাকাত[ɖäkät̪]'robber'Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
EnglishIndian dialectsdine[ɖaɪn]'to eat'Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2][ɖə](name of a letter)Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4]डालना/ڈالنا[ɖäːlnäː]'to put'Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javaneseꦣꦲꦂ/dhahar[ɖahaɽ]'to eat'
Kannadaಸು[ʌɖʌsu]'to join'
Malayalamപാണ്ഡവര്[ˈpäːɳɖäʋər]'Pandavas'
Marathi[2]हा[häːɖ]'bone'Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nihali[biɖum]'one'
Norwegianvarde[ˈʋɑɖːə]'beacon'See Norwegian phonology
Pashtoډﻙ[ɖak]'full'
Punjabiਡੱਡੂ[ɖəɖːu]'frog'
Sardiniancherveddu[keɾˈveɖːu] 'brain'
Siciliancoḍḍu[kɔɖːu]'neck'
Somalidhul[ɖul]'earth, land, ground'See Somali phonology
Swedishnord[nuːɖ]'north'See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5]ண்டி[ʋəɳɖi]'cart'Subapical;[2] allophone of /ʈ/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Teluguరు[ʌɖʌru]'to arise'
Torwali[6]ڈىغو[ɖiɣu]'late afternoon'Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.

See also

Notes

References

  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hindī Bhāshā, Kitāb Mahal: Kitāb Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X
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