Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate

The voiced dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are d͡ð, d͜ð, d̪͡ð and d̟͡ð.

Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate
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The sound is a frequent allophone of /ð/.


Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Burmese[1] အညား [ʔəɲàd̪͡ðá] 'grand' Common realization of /ð/.[1]
English Dublin[2] they [d̪͡ðeɪ̯] 'they' Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; may be [] instead.[2]
New York[3] Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects, may be a stop [] or a fricative [ð] instead.[3]
Maori[4] [d̪͡ðæe̯] Possible realization of /ð/.[4] See New Zealand English phonology

See also


  1. Watkins (2001), p. 292.
  2. Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  3. Labov (1966), pp. 36-37.
  4. Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 618.


  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Labov, William (1966), The Social Stratification of English in New York City (PDF) (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-24, retrieved 2014-06-27
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122
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