Voiced bilabial affricate

A voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.

Voiced bilabial affricate


Features of the voiced bilabial affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


EnglishBroad Cockney[1]rub[ˈɹ̠ɐˑb͡β]'rub'Sporadic allophone of /b/.[2] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[3]Rare allophone of /b/.[3] See English phonology
Scouse[4][ˈɹ̠ʊˑb͡β]Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /b/.[4] See English phonology
Shipibo[5]boko[ˈb͡βo̽ko̽]'small intestine'Possible realization of /β/. See Shipibo phonology.[5]



  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
  • Wells, John C. (1982). "Accents of English 2: The British Isles". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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