Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor, surviving Theresienstadt, Auschwitz, Kaufering and Türkheim. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, the will to meaning and is most notable for the best-selling book Man's Search for Meaning (published under a different title in 1959: From Death-Camp to Existentialism, and originally published in 1946 as Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager, meaning Nevertheless, Say "Yes" to Life: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp) an account within the concentration camp hierarchy, where in various camps he practiced, 'concluded' and several times quotes, the validity of means, for Nietzschean survival. Man's Search for Meaning has sold over 12 million copies. After which, Frankl was for a time, a minor figure in existential therapy and influenced humanistic psychology.
Viktor Emil Frankl
26 March 1905
|Died||2 September 1997 92) (aged|
|Resting place||Zentralfriedhof, Vienna, Austria, Old Jewish Section|
|Education||Doctorate in Medicine, 1925, Doctorate in Philosophy, 1948|
|Alma mater||University of Vienna|
|Spouse(s)||Tilly Grosser, m. 1941|
Eleonore Katharina Schwindt, m. 1947
|Parent(s)||Gabriel Frankl and Elsa Frankl|
Frankl has been the subject of criticism from some holocaust analysts. They question the levels of Nazi accommodation inherent in the ideology of logotherapy. They also raise doubts in regard to acts which Frankl willingly pursued in the time periods before his internment. During that time, Frankl requested to perform neurosurgical experiments on Jews already declared dead by other doctors in order to try to revive them, which critics suggest comprises a link to Nazi human experimentation. These incidents may be hinted at in Frankl's own autobiographical account, and have further been looked at by researchers.
Life before 1945
Frankl was born in Vienna into a Jewish family of civil servants (Beamtenfamilie). His interest in psychology surfaced early. For the final exam (Matura) in Gymnasium, he wrote a paper on the psychology of philosophical thinking. After graduation from Gymnasium in 1923, he studied medicine at the University of Vienna. In practice he specialized in neurology and psychiatry, concentrating on the topics of depression and suicide. His early development was influenced by his contacts with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although he would diverge from their teachings.
During part of 1924 he became the president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich, a Social Democratic youth movement for high school students throughout Austria.:59 Frankl's first published paper was upon the influencing mimic movements of affirmation and negation, published in the then International Journal of Psychoanalysis in 1924.
The following unfinished paper, Frankl began to consider was Fools Tell the Truth, the title of a book Frankl had planned to write, as "two times two make four, even if a paranoid patient says it." The concept that what is 'sick' is not necessarily wrong, is a central idea in logotherapy.
Between 1928 and 1930, while still a medical student, he organized and offered a special program to counsel high school students free of charge. The program involved the participation of psychologists such as Charlotte Bühler, and it paid special attention to students at the time when they received their report cards. In 1931, not a single Viennese student committed suicide. The success of this program grabbed the attention of the likes of Wilhelm Reich who invited him to Berlin.
Following the seminal watersheds in Austrian history of the 1927 Vienna revolt which left 85 protestors dead and within the backdrop of the censorship of the press, the storming of the Hotel Schiff in February 1934, by Austrian police kickstarted the Austrian Civil War, a crushed rebellion involving the Austrian social democrats, supported by unionised factory workers, the Republikanischer Schutzbund ("Republican Protection League"), in opposition to the increasing totalitarian encroachment of the fascist Austrian state. In the same month, February 1934, Frankl would attain membership within the ruling Austrofascist, Vaterländische Front, "Fatherland Front". Once the uprising, punctuated with the shelling of the factory workers with artillery rounds and the hanging of the 9 surviving Republicans was finalized. Austria under the now only sanctioned political party, the Fatherland Front, changed its name from the "Republic of Austria" to the "Federal State of Austria" with the May 1 constitution of that year.
In September 1934, the ruling Austro-fascist single-party state, began to establish internment camps for all those of opposing political thought, most notably, at Wöllersdorf-Steinabrückl. Austro-fascism, having modeled itself after the pan-ethnic Italian Fascist state, shared its use of internment, total obedience to autocratic rule, initial absence of antisemitism and its similar prohibition and persecution of all proponents of parliamentary democracy, Social democracy, Socialism, Communism, and anarchism alike, as equal "dissidents", to be arrested and internment.
It was within this climate in Vienna and operating as a member of the ruling Fatherland Front, from 1933 to 1937, that Frankl completed his residency in neurology and psychiatry at the Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital in Vienna. He oversaw the so-called Selbstmörderpavillon, or "suicide pavilion". Here, he treated more than 3000 women who had suicidal tendencies.
The Fatherland Front, of which Frankl was a part, having both its own greeting, the "Front Heil!" and national anthem, would reinforce the new Federal State ideology by means of the cultural and the recreational organisation, called "New Life" (Neues Leben), similar to Nazi Germany's Strength Through Joy, that was intended to consume the entire waking life of workers, inclusive of involvement in cultural after-work organizations.
Beginning with the unopposed Nazi takeover of Austria in 1938 and the outlawing of the now 3 million membered Fatherland Front, with its allegiance to Austria as problematic, Frankl was thereby prohibited from treating "Aryan" patients due to his Jewish identity and due to the Anschluss from owning and operating his prior business/practice. In 1940, Frankl started working at the Rothschild Hospital, where he headed its neurological department. This hospital was the only one in Vienna to which Jews were still admitted. His medical opinions (including deliberately false diagnoses) saved several patients from being euthanised via the Nazi euthanasia program. In December 1941 he married Tilly Grosser, with the marriage registered within what was then, Nazi Germany.
Early in 1942, Frankl approached Nazi officials and requested to operate without any surgical qualifications, nor medical precedence, in support for the procedure, exploratory brain lobotomy and trepanation medical experiments approved by the Nazis on unnamed Jews who had committed suicide with an overdose of sedatives, in an act of resistance toward a fate of intended arrest, interrogation, imprisonment and enforced labour in the concentration camp system. Following the approval of Frankl's request and operating without any training as a surgeon, Frankl would publish some of the details on his experiments, in Nazi medical journals, detailing the methods of insertion of his chosen amphetamine drugs into the brains of individuals who resisted, resulting in at times an alleged partial resuscitation, in 1942, prior to his own arrest and internment at Theresienstadt ghetto in September later in that year.
Prisoner, psychohygiene facilitator
Notably late in the War and in direct contrast to that which was experienced by the vast majority of the Austrian Jewish population, from an initial pre-war population of some 181,882 by July 1942 Austria had only about 2,000 Jews still living comparatively free and openily in their initial homes. Frankl, within this group, would become some of the last Austrian Jews to be interned, two months later, 25 September 1942 with Frankl, his wife and his parents deported to the Nazi Theresienstadt(Terezín town) Ghetto in Occupied Czechoslovakia.
The Ghetto, uniquely unlike others, classified "mildest, category 4" housed many middle class and largely all upper-class Jews, with the facility a "model community" or show-camp, set up by the Schutzstaffel (SS) with the express purpose of concealing ongoing slave labor at other facilities, the Holocaust, and, later, the Nazi plan to murder all Jews, with the facility the repeated destination and initially effective international deception, for touring Red Cross representatives, permitted to inspect the facility, who were intended to come away reporting good conditions and the 'high-culture' in the community. In the cultural life of the Theresienstadt ghetto, Frankl states he worked as a general practitioner in a clinic and wrote and gave lectures. According to his account, it was when his skills in psychiatry were noticed by the Nazis, he was assigned to the psychiatric care ward in Block B IV, establishing a "psychohygiene" service. He organized a unit "to help" camp newcomers to 'overcome' shock and grief, with the psychohygiene unit distributing, collecting and Frankl then assessing, responses to the questionnaires that Frankl designed for newcomers to have answer, at the moment of stepping off the train, into the town.
Frankl's unit, acting as a "suicide watch", posed to the arrivals at the increasingly overcrowded Ghetto, a series of queries from "Have you ever considered Suicide", to “Why didn’t you committed suicide—and why won’t you now?”. This was assisted by the first female Rabbi, Regina Jonas.
Prisoners that could expose or betray the ghetto as the very opposite of the intended propaganda picture of the model community, to the international Red Cross inspections and reports on Theresienstadt, were threatened punishment under the principle of "kinship liability". It would be years more before those in other countries would become fully aware of the conditions some of the vulnerable inside the Ghetto lived under.
On 29 July 1943, Frankl would organize a closed event for the 'Scientific Society' in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, and with the help of the controversial Judenrat Leo Baeck, advertise and hold exclusive events, those directed by Frankl involved a series of lectures, including "Sleep and Sleep Disturbances", "Body and Soul", "Medical Care of the Soul", "Psychology of Mountaineering", "How to keep my nerves healthy?", "Medical ministry", "Existential Problems in Psychotherapy", and "Social Psychotherapy". In Terezin, only the social elite could get tickets for such exclusive events, attendance to these and other theatrical performances became a status symbol. Sometime within Terezin, biographers state that Frankl's father Gabriel, starved to death at Theresienstadt, by Frankl's account he died of pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
After the un-faltering "success" of the June 1944 "Operation embellishment", the so called "beautification" process, that involved deporting 7,500 "sick" Terezin inmates to Auschwitz, with the selection process itself, the list to be deported, or rather the extensive "protection list" of those who would not, decided upon by the prominent members of the Jewish Cultural Council, "to deal with" the overcrowding, after which the remaining working inmates, were likewise directed by the Council in decorating the facility for the coming Red Cross inspection, by the construction of multiple street café and other related normalcy that otherwise did not exist, while the prominent council inmates, were interviewed and screened by the Gestapo(SS), to determine which would have permission to discuss with the coming representatives, visiting what was re-titled a "Jewish settlement". After the effective completion of the deception by the Council. In Sept. 1944 eleven transports, totaling 18,402 inmates of the ghetto's 30,000, were then themselves deported between September 28 1944 and October 28 1944. Previously, the Jewish Council had chosen or marked the people to be deported but now the SS made the selections, ensuring that many members of the Jewish Council, workers and cultural figures were deported.
Close to the end of these mass deportations, on 19 October 1944, Frankl, his wife Tilly, Regina Jonas and many others from the Theresienstadt Ghetto, were transported to the Auschwitz death camp in occupied Poland, where he was processed. On 25 October, Frankl is listed as arriving in the southern German Kaufering III, of XI labor camp, which held up to 2,000 all-male prisoners in earthen huts. When it opened in June of that year, the prisoners were forced to construct a transport route to connect underground aircraft factories, creating the infrastructure for the mass production of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the world's first jet-powered bomber destroyer. The Nazis hoped it would decisively regain air supremacy and to reduce the effectiveness of Allied bombing of the Nazi armament industry.
The all-male camp would reportedly have one display of defiance, or resistance sometime during "the sixth winter of the War", with food rationing growingly severe and while the means of detection of the alleged theft is not described nor there existing any supporting evidence that it ever took place, the story Frankl recounts is that a prisoner had stolen a quantity of potatoes, with this purportedly detected resulting in the Nazi Guards threatening that if "the individual" wasn't identified, the entire camp would starve for the next day. With the 2,500 men of the Kaufering camp, defying that order to single out anyone as had been intended, going on the hunger strike without any food.
Frankl was at that time of unease, then reportedly consulted by a concerned Nazi intermediary that night in the camp structure, a block warden termed a "Kapo", when the single light bulb of the huts were in and out of darkness, he approached and requested Frankl's intervention when the men's morale was in his view, allegedly low, Frankl recounts standing up from his bunk, before the hungry men, where he delivered to them the perspective of what little had been taken from them and how it could be restored, to not give up hope of their potential coming luck of assignment to a more favorable work outfit and upon the completion of the speech, the single light bulb of the hut, powered by the Nazi electrical system, came back on, with the outcome of Frankl's intervention, reportedly resulting in many of the beleaguered inmates crying and their uninterrupted return to labor the next day. According to Frankl, it was due to his particular feats of physical initiative at this work camp that were such, that they did not go unnoticed by the Nazi administration and he was gifted "premium coupons" in late 1944, beginning of 1945. Similarly, according to Frankl's autobiography, it was when infected with the ubiquitous typhoid, he was allowed to leave the work camp and was offered a move to the so-called rest camp of Türkheim, prison records list his departure from Kaufering as 8 March 1945. Frankl states that in Turkheim he was placed in charge of fifty men with typhus, it was here he rose to the position of "senior block warden" and began writing his book anew, until 27 April 1945, when the camp was liberated by American soldiers.
Frankl's wife, having likewise been transported via the transit hub, that lay in proximity to but not in the Auschwitz camp, was sent on to Bergen-Belsen, a facility that housed a considerable number of women and minors, including Anne Frank, where they were forced to work in the shoe recycling labor camp and by the process of Extermination through labour was murdered by the brutal labor conditions sometime close to the time of its liberation in 1945. The only survivor of the Holocaust among Frankl's immediate family was his sister, Stella, who had emigrated from Austria to Australia.
Life after 1945
Liberated after several months in concentration camps, Frankl returned to Vienna, where he dictated to stenographer-typists his well known work, "the flood gates had opened", completing the book, by 1946. Frankl then published his world-famous book entitled, Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe Erlebt das Konzentrationslager ("Saying Yes to Life in Spite of Everything: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp"), known in English by the title Man's Search for Meaning (1959 title: From Death-Camp to Existentialism). In this book, he described the life of an ordinary concentration camp inmate from the objective perspective of a psychiatrist. Frankl believed that people are primarily driven by a "striving to find meaning in one's life," and that it is this sense of meaning that enables people to overcome painful experiences.
After enduring the suffering in these camps, Frankl concluded that even in the most absurd, painful, and dehumanized situation, life has potential meaning and that, therefore, even suffering is meaningful. This conclusion served as a basis for his logotherapy and existential analysis, which Frankl had described before World War II. He said, "What is to give light must endure burning."
Frankl's concentration camp experiences shaped both his therapeutic approach and philosophical outlook, as reflected in his seminal publications.
He often said that even within the narrow boundaries of the concentration camps he found only two races of Men to exist: decent ones and unprincipled ones. These were to be found in all classes, ethnicities, and groups. "Under such conditions, who could blame them for trying to dope themselves?" "These were the men who were employed in the gas chambers and crematoriums, and who knew very well that one day they would have to leave their enforced role of executioner and become victims themselves."
In 1946, he was appointed to run the Vienna Polyclinic of Neurology. He remained there until 1971. In 1947 he married his second wife Eleonore Katharina Schwindt. She was a practicing Catholic and the couple respected each other's religious backgrounds, going to both church and synagogue, and celebrating Christmas and Hanukah. They had one daughter, Gabriele, who went on to become a child psychologist.
In 1948, Frankl earned a Ph.D. in philosophy. His dissertation, The Unconscious God, is an examination of the relation of psychology and religion.
In 1955, he was awarded a professorship of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Vienna, and as visiting professor, he resided at Harvard University (1961), at Southern Methodist University, Dallas (1966), and at Duquesne University, Pittsburgh (1972). In the 1950s, Frankl began to recruit Methodist ministers and similar pastoral psychologists, to promote logotherapy amongst them, in the 1960s the wider psychology establishment would "turn against" Frankl, when the other major proponent of existential psychoanalysis, Rollo May questioned the nature of logotherapy, Man’s Search for Meaning and would similarly go on to argue that the practice of logotherapy as authoritarian.
Frankl published 39 books, which were translated into as many as 49 languages. He lectured and taught seminars all over the world and received 29 honorary doctoral degrees. In his book The Will to Meaning, Frankl would state, "The trend moves toward a profoundly personalized religion...".
"Auschwitz survivor" testimony
In The Missing Pieces of the Puzzle: A Reflection on the Odd Career of Viktor Frankl, Professor of history, Timothy Pytell of California State University, San Bernardino, conveys the numerous discrepancies and omissions in Frankl's "Auschwitz survivor" account and later autobiography, which many of his contemporaries, such as Thomas Szasz, similarly have raised. In Frankl's Man's Search for Meaning the book devotes approximately half its contents to describing Auschwitz and the psychology of its prisoners, suggesting a long stay at the death camp, however his wording is contradictory and to Pytell, "profoundly deceptive", when rather the impression of staying for months, Frankl was held close to the train, in the "depot prisoner" area of Auschwitz and for no more than a few days, he was neither registered there, nor assigned a number before being sent on to a subsidiary work camp of Dachau, known as Kaufering III, the true setting of much of what is described in his book.
Criticism on the perceived origins and implications of logotherapy
Frankl's doctrine was that one must instill meaning in the events in one's life, and that work and suffering can lead to finding meaning; this will ultimately lead to fulfillment and happiness. In 1982 the scholar and holocaust analyst Lawrence L. Langer, who while also critical of Frankl's alleged distortions on the true experience of those at Auschwitz, and Frankl's focus on "meaning", that he claims could just as equally be applied to Nazis "finding meaning in making the world free from Jews", would go on to write "if this [logotherapy] doctrine had been more succinctly worded, the Nazis might have substituted it for the cruel mockery of Arbeit Macht Frei"["work sets free", read by those entering Auschwitz]. With, in professor Pytell's view, Langer also penetrating through Frankl's disturbed subtext that Holocaust "survival [was] a matter of mental health. criticizing Frankl's tone as almost self-congratulatory and promotional throughout, that "it comes as no surprise to the reader, as he closes the volume, that the real hero of Man's Search for Meaning is not man, but Viktor Frankl" by the continuation of the aim of world-view meaning-making, that he described as precisely what had perturbed civilization into the holocaust-genocide of this era and others.
Pytell later would remark on the particularly sharp insight of Langer's reading of Frankl's holocaust testimony, noting that with Langer's criticism published in 1982 before Pytell's biography, the former had thus drawn the controversial parallels, or accommodations in ideology without the knowledge that Victor Frankl was an advocate/"embraced" the key ideas of the Nazi psychotherapy movement ("will and responsibility") as a form of therapy in the late 1930s. When at that time Frankl would submit a paper and contributed to the Göring institute in Vienna 1937 and again in early 1938 connecting the logotherapy focus on "world-view" to the "work of some of the leading Nazi psychotherapists", both at a time before Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. Frankl's founding logotherapy paper, was submitted to and published in the Zentrallblatt fuer Psychotherapie the journal of the Goering Institute, a psychotherapy movement, with the "proclaimed agenda of building psychotherapy that affirmed a Nazi-oriented worldview".
The origins of logotherapy, as described by Frankl, were therefore a major issue of continuity that Biographer Pytell argues were potentially problematic for Frankl because he had laid out the main elements of logotherapy while working for/contributing to the Nazi-affiliated Göring Institute. Principally Frankl's 1937 paper, that was published by the institute. This association, as a source of controversy, that logotherapy was palatable to National Socialism is the reason Pytell suggests, Frankl took two different stances on how the concentration-camp experience affected the course of his psychotherapy theory. Namely, that within the original English edition of Frankl's most well known book, Man's Search for Meaning, the suggestion is made and still largely held that logotherapy was itself derived from his camp experience, with the claim as it appears in the original edition, that this form of psychotherapy was "not concocted in the philosopher's armchair nor at the analyst's couch; it took shape in the hard school of air-raid shelters and bomb craters; in concentration camps and prisoner of war camps." Frankl's statements however to this effect would be deleted from later editions, though in the 1963 edition, a similar statement again appeared on the back of the book jacket of Man's Search for Meaning.
Frankl over the years would with these widely read statements and others, switch between the claim that logotherapy took shape in the camps to the claim that the camps merely were a testing ground of his already preconceived theories. An uncovering of the matter would occur in 1977 with Frankl revealing on this controversy, though compounding another, stating "People think I came out of Auschwitz with a brand-new psychotherapy. This is not the case."
Jewish relations and experiments on the resistance
In the post war years, Frankl's attitude towards not pursuing justice nor assigning collective guilt to the Austrian people for collaborating with or acquiescing in the face of Nazism, led to "frayed" relationships between Frankl, many Viennese and the larger American Jewish community, such that in 1978 when attempting to give a lecture at the institute of Adult Jewish Studies in New York, Frankl was confronted with an outburst of boos from the audience and was called a "nazi pig". From some initial 160,000 Jews in Vienna prior the war and with the majority having fled during the Anschluss, to the US and elsewhere, of the 65,000 Viennese Jews that remained behind and who were arrested/deported to concentration camps, less than 2,000 survived.
In 1988 Frankl would further "stir up sentiment against him" by being photographed next to and in accepting the Great Silver Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria as a holocaust survivor, from President Waldheim, a controversial president of Austria who concurrent with the medal ceremony, was gripped by revelations that he had lied about his WWII military record and was under investigation for complicity in Nazi War crimes. Frankl's acceptance of the medal was viewed by a large segment of the international Jewish community as a betrayal and by a disparate group of commentators, that its timing was politically motivated, an attempt to rehabilitate Waldheim's reputation on the world stage. In his "Gauachten" Gestapo profile, Frankl is described as "politically perfect" by the Nazi secret police, with Frankl's membership in the Austro-fascist "Fatherland Front" in 1934, similarly stated in isolation, Frankl was interviewed twice by the secret police during the war, yet nothing of the expected contents, the subject of discussion or any further information on these interviews, is contained in Frankl's file, suggesting to biographers that Frankl's file was "cleansed" sometime after the war.
None of Frankl's obituaries mention the unqualified and unskilled brain lobotomy and trepanation medical experiments approved by the Nazis that Frankl performed on Jews who had committed suicide with an overdose of sedatives, in resistance to their impending arrest, imprisonment and enforced labour in the concentration camp system. Operating without any training as a surgeon, Frankl would voluntary request of the Nazis to perform the experiments on those who had resisted and once approved, published some of the details on his experiments, the methods of insertion of his chosen amphetamine drugs into the brains of these individuals, resulting in at times an alleged partial resuscitation, in 1942, prior to his own internment at Theresienstadt ghetto in September later in that year. Historian Günter Bischof of Harvard University, suggests Frankl's approaching and requesting to perform lobotomy experiments could be seen as a way to "ingratiate" himself amongst the Nazis, as the latter were not at that time, appreciative of the international scrutiny that suicides, were beginning to create nor "suicide" being listed on arrest records.
Frankl's logotherapy and existential analysis is considered the third Viennese School of Psychotherapy, among the broad category that comprises existentialists. For Irvin Yalom, Frankl, "who has devoted his career to a study of an existential approach to therapy, has apparently concluded that the lack of meaning is the paramount existential stress. To him, existential neurosis is synonymous with a crisis of meaninglessness".
He has coined the term noogenic neurosis, and illustrated it with the example of Sunday neurosis. It refers to a form of anxiety resulting from an awareness in some people of the emptiness of their lives once the working week is over. Some complain of a void and a vague discontent. This arises from an existential vacuum, or feeling of meaninglessness, which is a common phenomenon and is characterised by the subjective state of boredom, apathy, and emptiness. One feels cynical, lacks direction, and questions the point of most of life's activities.
Freedom, however, is not the last word. Freedom is only part of the story and half of the truth. Freedom is but the negative aspect of the whole phenomenon whose positive aspect is responsibleness. In fact, freedom is in danger of degenerating into mere arbitrariness unless it is lived in terms of responsibleness. That is why I recommend that the Statue of Liberty on the East Coast be supplemented by a Statue of Responsibility on the West Coast.
Decorations and awards
- 1956: Promotion Award for Public Education of the Ministry of Education, Austria
- 1962: Cardinal Innitzer Prize, Austria
- 1969: Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class
- 1976: Prize of the Danubia Foundation
- 1980: Honorary Ring of Vienna, Austria
- 1981: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
- 1985: Oskar Pfister Award, USA
- 1986: Honorary doctorate from the University of Vienna, Austria, and Honorary member of the association Bürgervereinigung Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert
- 1988: Great Silver Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria
- 1995: Hans Prinzhorn Medal
- 1995: Honorary Citizen of the City of Vienna
- 1995: Great Gold Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria
- 1995: Grand Decoration of the Austrian Chamber of Physicians
- Grand Merit Cross with Star of the Federal Republic of Germany (Großes Verdienstkreuz mit Stern)
His books in English are:
- Man's Search for Meaning. An Introduction to Logotherapy, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8070-1427-1 (Originally published in 1946)
- The Doctor and the Soul, (originally titled Ärztliche Seelsorge), Random House, 1955.
- On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders. An Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis, Translated by James M. DuBois. Brunner-Routledge, London-New York, 2004. ISBN 0-415-95029-5
- Psychotherapy and Existentialism. Selected Papers on Logotherapy, Simon & Schuster,New York, 1967. ISBN 0-671-20056-9
- The Will to Meaning. Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy, New American Library, New York, 1988 ISBN 0-452-01034-9
- The Unheard Cry for Meaning. Psychotherapy and Humanism, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2011 ISBN 978-1-4516-6438-6
- Viktor Frankl Recollections: An Autobiography.; Basic Books, Cambridge, MA 2000. ISBN 978-0-7382-0355-3.
- Man's Search for Ultimate Meaning. (A revised and extended edition of The Unconscious God; with a Foreword by Swanee Hunt). Perseus Book Publishing, New York, 1997; ISBN 0-306-45620-6. Paperback edition: Perseus Book Group; New York, July 2000; ISBN 0-7382-0354-8.
- Frankl, Viktor Emil (11 August 2000). Viktor Frankl Recollections: An Autobiography. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-7382-0355-3.
- Haddon Klingberg (16 October 2001). When life calls out to us: the love and lifework of Viktor and Elly Frankl. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50036-4.
- VIKTOR FRANKL 1905 - 1997 Dr. C. George Boeree, Shippensburg University He who has a why to live for can bear almost any how.”
- Noble, Holcomb B. (4 September 1997). "Dr. Viktor E. Frankl of Vienna, Psychiatrist of the Search for Meaning, Dies at 92". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Redsand, Anna (18 December 2006). Viktor Frankl: A Life Worth Living. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-72343-0.
- Lawrence Langer, Versions of Survival: The Holocaust and the Human Spirit (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982), p.24. [End Page 107]
- Redeeming the Unredeemable:Auschwitz and Man's Search for Meaning, Timothy E. Pytell, California State University. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003 Oxford University Press
- "Frankl also admitted that the "primary surgeon Reich had refused to undertake the surgeries." When, in order to avoid deportation to concentration camps, patients had overdosed on sleeping pills and subsequently had been given up for dead by other doctors, Frankl felt justified in attempting relatively novel brain surgery techniques. First, "some injections intravenously ... and if this didn't work I gave them injections into the brain ... into the Cisterna Magna. And if that did not work I made a trepanation, opened the skull..."
- Szasz, T.S. (2003). The secular cure of souls: "Analysis" or dialogue? Existential Analysis, 14: 203-212 (July).
- Austrian Lives By Günter Bischof 241 to 255
- "Viktor Frankl, Life and Work". Viktor Frankl Institute. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Alexander Batthyany; Viktor Emil Frankl (1 April 2010). "Introduction: Viktor E. Frankl and the Development of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis". The Feeling of Meaninglessness: A Challenge to Psychotherapy and Philosophy. Marquette University Press. ISBN 978-0-87462-758-9.
- History of the Fatherland Front Published in 1971, Barnthaler
- Pyrah (2008). Enacting Encyclicals? Cultural Politics and 'Clerical Fascism' in Austria. p. 160.
- Smith, Emily Esfahani (22 February 2013). "What is a good life?". The Week. Previously published in The Atlantic Magazine. p. 41.
- Pytell, Timothy (3 June 2003). "Redeedming the Unredeemable: Auschwitz and Man's Search for Meaning". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 17 (1): 89–113. doi:10.1093/hgs/17.1.89. ISSN 1476-7937.
- [Suicide Prohibition: The Shame of Medicine By Thomas Szasz. pg 60-62]
- Österreichische Historikerkommission: Schlussbericht der Historikerkommission der Republik Österreich. Band 1. Oldenbourg Verlag, Wien 2003, S. 291–293
- Adler 2017, p. 166.
- Kwiet, Konrad (1984). "The Ultimate Refuge: Suicide in the Jewish Community under the Nazis". Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook. 29 (1): 135–167. doi:10.1093/leobaeck/29.1.135.
- Viktor Frankl Our Search for Meaning 2016, Charles Adam Eaton PhD
- Viktor Frankl Our Search for Meaning 2016, Charles Adam Eaton PhD
- ["http://muse.jhu.edu/article/43137 Redeeming the Unredeemable:Auschwitz and Man's Search for Meaning, Timothy E. Pytell, California State University. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003 Oxford University Press]
- Hanna Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem, (1963) Viking Press 1965 pp. 118–119.
- Adler, Hans Günther (2004). Theresienstadt 1941–1945 (in German). Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89244-694-1.
- Hájková 2011.
- Rothkirchen 2006, pp. 245–246.
- Kasperová 2013, p. 44.
- See Martin Weinmann, ed., Das nationalsozialistische Lagersystem (Frankfurt: Zweitausendeins, 1990), pp.195, 558.]
- [Viktor Frankl's Search for Meaning: An Emblematic 20th-Century Life By Timothy Pytell pg 104]
- List of inmates who were transferred to Kaufering III camp, 11/07/1944-16/04/1945
- Man's Search for Meaning
- Viktor Frankl Our Search for Meaning 2016, Charles Adam Eaton PhD
- Sacks, Jonathan (16 June 2014). "An Unparalleled Leader". Jewish Action. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Viktor Emil Frankl (1 June 2006). Man's Search for Meaning. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-1427-1.
- "A quote by Viktor E. Frankl". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Scully, Mathew (1995). "Viktor Frankl at Ninety: An Interview". First Things. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012.
- Boeree, George. "Personality Theories: Viktor Frankl." Shippensburg University. Accessed 18 April 2014.
- Transcending the angel beast: Viktor Frankl and humanistic psychology
- "Viktor Frankl – Life and Work". www.viktorfrankl.org. Viktor Frankl Institute Vienna. 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Pytell, Timothy. Viktor Frankl's Search for Meaning: An Emblematic 20th-Century Life. p. 158.
- Frankl, Viktor (10 August 2000). Man's search for ultimate meaning. Perseus Pub. ISBN 978-0-7382-0354-6.
- Noble, Holcomb B. (4 September 1997). "Dr. Viktor E. Frankl of Vienna, Psychiatrist of the Search for Meaning, Dies at 92". The New York Times. p. B-7. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- Redeeming the Unredeemable:Auschwitz and Man's Search for Meaning, Timothy E. Pytell, California State University, San Bernardino. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 2003 Oxford University Press
- [Viktor Frankl's Search for Meaning: An Emblematic 20th-Century Life By Timothy Pytell pg 104]
- See Martin Weinmann, ed., Das nationalsozialistische Lagersystem (Frankfurt: Zweitausendeins, 1990), pp.195, 558.
- [Suicide Prohibition: The Shame of Medicine By Thomas Szasz pg 62]
- [Lawrence Langer, Versions of Survival: The Holocaust and the Human Spirit (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982), p.24. [End Page 107]]
- Lawrence Langer, Versions of Survival: The Holocaust and the Human Spirit (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1982) As "So nonsensically unspecific is this universal principle of being that one can imagine Heinrich Himmler announcing it to his SS men, or Joseph Goebbels sardonically applying it to the genocide of the Jews!"
- Austrian Lives By Günter Bischof pg 241-242
- Viktor Frankl's Search for Meaning: An Emblematic 20th-Century Life By Timothy Pytell pg 70-72, 111
- Austrian Lives By Günter Bischof pg 242
- Austrian Lives By Günter Bischof p.255
- "What is perhaps most impressive about Langer's reading is that he was unaware of Frankl's 1937 article promoting a form of psychotherapy palatable to the Nazis".
- Pauley 2000, pp. 297–98.
- [Freud's World: An Encyclopedia of His Life and Times, By Luis A. Cordón. pg 147]
- Yalom, Irvin D. (1980). Existential Psychotherapy. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0-465-02147-6.
- Boeree, C. George (2006). "Viktor Frankl". webspace.ship.edu. Shippensburg University. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- Warnock, Caleb (8 May 2005). "If freedom is to endure, liberty must be joined with responsibility". Daily Herald. pp. A1. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Reportedly, there are plans to construct such a statue. See: "Archived copy". www.mystatueofresponsibility.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF). www.parlament.gv.at (in German). p. 267. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF). www.parlament.gv.at (in German). p. 609. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF). www.parlament.gv.at (in German). p. 822. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF). www.parlament.gv.at (in German). p. 985. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
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