The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages, in particular the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. These many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable among localized variants of Latin alphabets.
Chữ Quốc ngữ
|Languages||Vietnamese, other indigenous languages of Vietnam|
|Creator||Portuguese Jesuits, and later Alexandre de Rhodes|
Letter names and pronunciation
|Letter||Name||Name when used in spelling||IPA|
|B b||bê||bờ||/ɓe˧, ɓəː˧˩/|
|C c||xê||cờ||/se˧, kəː˧˩/|
|D d||dê||dờ||/ze˧, zəː˧˩/|
|Đ đ||đê||đờ||/ɗe˧, ɗəː˧˩/|
|G g||giê||gờ||/ze˧, ɣəː˧˩/|
|H h||hát||hờ||/hək˧˥, həː˧˩/|
|I i||i; i ngắn||/i˧, i˧ ŋan˧˥/|
|P p||pê; bê phở (colloq.)||pờ||/pe˧, pəː˧˩/|
|Q q||cu; quy||quờ||/ku˧, kwi˧, kwəː˧˩/|
|S s||ét-xì; xờ nặng||sờ||/ɛt˦˥si˧˩, ʂəː˧˩/|
|T t||tê||tờ||/te˧, təː˧˩/|
|V v||vê||vờ||/ve˧, vəː˧/|
|X x||ích xì; xờ nhẹ||xờ||/ik˦˥si˧˩, səː˧˩/|
|Y y||i dài; i-cờ-rét||/i˧zaːj˧˩, i˧kəː˧rɛt˦˥/|
- Naming b bê bò and p pê phở is to avoid confusion in some dialects or some contexts, the same for s sờ mạnh (nặng) and x xờ nhẹ, i i ngắn and y y dài.
- Q, q is always followed by u in every word and phrase in Vietnamese, e.g. quần (trousers), quyến rũ (to attract), etc.
- The name i-cờ-rét for y is from the French name for the letter: i grec (Greek I), referring to the letter's origin from the Greek letter upsilon.
The alphabet is largely derived from the Portuguese, although the usage of gh and gi was borrowed from Italian (compare ghetto, Giuseppe), and that for c/k/qu from Greek and Latin (compare canis, kinesis, quō vādis), mirroring the English usage of these letters (compare cat, kite, queen).
|C c||/k/||/k/||⟨k⟩ is used when preceding ⟨i y e ê⟩.|
⟨qu⟩ is used instead of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
Realized as [k͡p] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
|Ch ch||/tɕ/||/c/||/ʲk/||/t/||Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨ch⟩ have been proposed (main article).|
|D d||/z/||/j/||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨d⟩ represented /ð/. The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects.|
|Gh gh||Spelling used ⟨gh⟩ instead of ⟨g⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩, seemingly to follow the Italian convention. ⟨g⟩ is not allowed in these environments.|
|Gi gi||/z/||/j/||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨gi⟩ represented /ʝ/. The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects. Realized as [ʒ] in Northern spelling pronunciation. [Spelled ⟨g⟩ before another ⟨i⟩.|
|K k||/k/||Spelling used instead of ⟨c⟩ before ⟨i y e ê⟩ to follow the European tradition. ⟨c⟩ is not allowed in these environments.|
|Kh kh||/x/||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨kh⟩ was pronounced [kʰ]|
|N n||/n/||/n/||/ŋ/||In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨n⟩ is realized as [ŋ] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.|
|Ng ng||/ŋ/||/ŋ/||Realized as [ŋ͡m] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.|
|Ngh ngh||Spelling used instead of ⟨ng⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩ in accordance with ⟨gh⟩.|
|Nh nh||/ɲ/||/ʲŋ/||/n/||Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨nh⟩ have been proposed (main article).|
|P p||/p/||Only occurs initially in loanwords. Some Vietnamese pronounce it as a "b" sound instead (as in Arabic).|
|Ph ph||/f/||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨ph⟩ was pronounced [pʰ]|
|Qu qu||/kʷ/||Spelling used in place of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.|
|R r||/z/||/r/||Variably pronounced as a fricative [ʐ], approximant [ɹ], flap [ɾ] or trill [r] in Southern speech.|
|S s||/s/||/ʂ/||Realized as [ʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.|
|T t||/t/||/t/||/k/||In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨t⟩ is realized as [k] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.|
|Tr tr||/tɕ/||/ʈ/||Realized as [tʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.|
|V v||/v/||/j/||In Middle Vietnamese, it was represented by a b with flourish ⟨|
Can be realized as [v] in Southern speech through spelling pronunciation and in loanwords.
|X x||/s/||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨x⟩ was pronounced [ɕ].|
- This causes some ambiguity with the diphthong ia/iê, for example gia could be either gi+a [za ~ ja] or gi+ia [ziə̯ ~ jiə̯]. If there is a tone mark the ambiguity is resolved: giá is gi+á and gía is gi+ía.
The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is somewhat complicated. In some cases, the same letter may represent several different sounds, and different letters may represent the same sound. This is because the orthography was designed centuries ago and the spoken language has changed, as shown in the chart directly above that contrasts the difference between Middle and Modern Vietnamese.
The letters y and i are mostly equivalent, and there is no concrete rule that says when to use one or the other, except in sequences like ay and uy (i.e. tay ("arm, hand") is read /tă̄j/ while tai ("ear") is read /tāj/). There have been attempts since the late 20th century to standardize the orthography by replacing all the vowel uses of y with i, the latest being a decision from the Vietnamese Ministry of Education in 1984. These efforts seem to have had limited effect. In textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục ("Publishing House of Education"), y is used to represent /i/ only in Sino-Vietnamese words that are written with one letter y alone (diacritics can still be added, as in ý, ỷ), at the beginning of a syllable when followed by ê (as in yếm, yết), and after u; therefore such forms as *lý and *kỹ are not "standard", though they are much preferred elsewhere. Most people and the popular media continue to use the spelling that they are most accustomed to.
Spelling Sound Spelling Sound a /a/ ([æ] in some dialects) except as below
/ă/ in au /ăw/ and ay /ăj/ (but /a/ in ao /aw/ and ai /aj/)
/ăj/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch /k/, see
Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
/ə̯/ in ưa /ɨə̯/, ia /iə̯/ and ya /iə̯/
/ə̯/ in ua except after q
o /ɔ/ except as below
/ăw/ before ng and c
/w/ after any vowel letter (= after a or e)
/w/ before any vowel letter except i (= before ă, a or e)
ă /ă/ ô /o/ except as below
/ə̆w/ before ng and c except after a u that is not preceded by a q
/ə̯/ in uô except after q
â /ə̆/ ơ /ə/ except as below
/ə̯/ in ươ /ɨə̯/
e /ɛ/ u /u/ except as below
/w/ after q or any vowel letter
/w/ before any vowel letter except a, ô and i
Before a, ô and i: /w/ if preceded by q, /u/ otherwise
ê /e/ except as below
/ə̆j/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch /k/, see
Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
/ə̯/ in iê /iə̯/ and yê /iə̯/
ư /ɨ/ i /i/ except as below
/j/ after any vowel letter
y /i/ except as below
/j/ after any vowel letter except u (= after â and a)
- qua is pronounced /kwa/ except in quay, where it is pronounced /kwă/. When not preceded by q, ua is pronounced /uə̯/.
- However, oong and ooc are pronounced /ɔŋ/ and /ɔk/.
- uông and uôc are pronounced /uə̯ŋ/ and /uə̯k/ when not preceded by a q.
- quô is pronounced /kwo/ except in quông and quôc, where it is pronounced /kwə̆w/. When not preceded by q, uô is pronounced /uə̯/.
The uses of the letters i and y to represent the phoneme /i/ can be categorized as "standard" (as used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục) and "non-standard" as follows.
Context "Standard" "Non-standard" In one-lettered non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: i tờ, í ới, ì ạch, ỉ ôi, đi ị) In one-lettered Sino-Vietnamese syllables y (e.g.: y học, ý kiến, ỷ lại) Syllable-initial, not followed by ê i (e.g.: ỉa đái, im lặng, ích lợi, ỉu xìu) Syllable-initial, followed by ê y (e.g.: yếu ớt, yếm dãi, yết hầu) After u y (e.g.: uy lực, huy hoàng, khuya khoắt, tuyển mộ, khuyết tật, khuỷu tay, huýt sáo, khuynh hướng) After qu, not followed by ê, nh y (e.g.: quý giá, quấn quýt) i (e.g.: quí giá, quấn quít) After qu, followed by ê, nh y (e.g.: quyên góp, xảo quyệt, mừng quýnh, hoa quỳnh) After b, d, đ, r, x i (e.g.: bịa đặt, diêm dúa, địch thủ, rủ rỉ, triều đại, xinh xắn) After g, not followed by a, ă, â, e, ê, o, ô, ơ, u, ư i (e.g.: cái gì?, giữ gìn) After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: ti hí, kì cọ, lí nhí, mí mắt, tí xíu) After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in Sino-Vietnamese syllables i (e.g.: hi vọng, kì thú, lí luận, mĩ thuật, giờ Tí) y (e.g.: hy vọng, kỳ thú, lý luận, mỹ thuật, giờ Tý) After ch, gh, kh, nh, ph, th i (e.g.: chíp hôi, ghi nhớ, ý nghĩa, khiêu khích, nhí nhố, phiến đá, buồn thiu) After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in non-proper-noun syllables i (e.g.: ni cô, si tình, vi khuẩn) After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in proper nouns i (e.g.: Ni, Thuỵ Sĩ, Vi) y (e.g.: Ny, Thụy Sỹ, Vy) After h, k, l, m, n, s, t, v, followed by a letter i (e.g.: thương hiệu, kiên trì, bại liệt, ngôi miếu, nũng nịu, siêu đẳng, mẫn tiệp, được việc) In Vietnamese personal names, after a consonant i either i or y, depending on personal preference
This "standard" set by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục is not definite. It is unknown why the literature books use Lí while the history books use Lý.
The table below matches the vowels of Hanoi Vietnamese (written in the IPA) and their respective orthographic symbols used in the writing system.
Front Central Back Sound Spelling Sound Spelling Sound Spelling Centering /iə̯/ iê/ia* /ɨə̯/ ươ/ưa* /uə̯/ uô/ua* Close /i/ i, y /ɨ/ ư /u/ u Close-mid/
/e/ ê /ə/ ơ /o/ ô /ə̆/ â Open-mid/
/ɛ/ e /a/ a /ɔ/ o /ă/ ă
- The vowel /i/ is:
- usually written i: /sǐˀ/ = sĩ (A suffix indicating profession, similar to the English suffix -er).
- sometimes written y after h, k, l, m, n, s, t, v, x: /mǐˀ/ = Mỹ 'America'.
- It is always written y when:
- preceded by an orthographic vowel: /xwīə̯n/ = khuyên 'to advise';
- at the beginning of a word derived from Chinese (written as i otherwise): /ʔīə̯w/ = yêu 'to love'.
- The vowel /ɔ/ is written oo before c or ng (since o in that position represents /ăw/): /ʔɔ̌k/ = oóc 'organ (musical)'; /kǐŋ kɔ̄ŋ/ = kính coong. This generally only occurs in recent loanwords or when representing dialectal pronunciation.
- Similarly, the vowel /o/ is written ôô before c or ng: /ʔōŋ/ = ôông (Nghệ An/Hà Tĩnh variant of ông /ʔə̆̄wŋ/). But unlike oo being frequently used in onomatopoeia, transcriptions from other languages and words "borrowed" from Nghệ An/Hà Tĩnh dialects (such as voọc), ôô seems to be used solely to convey the feel of the Nghệ An/Hà Tĩnh accents. In transcriptions, ô is preferred (e.g. các-tông 'cardboard', ắc-coóc-đê-ông 'accordion').
Diphthongs and triphthongs
Rising Vowels Rising-Falling Vowels Falling Vowels nucleus (V) /w/ on-glides /w/ + V + off-glide /j/ off-glides /w/ off-glides front e /wɛ/ oe/(q)ue* /wɛw/ oeo/(q)ueo* /ɛw/ eo ê /we/ uê /ew/ êu i /wi/ uy /wiw/ uyu /iw/ iu ia/iê/yê* /wiə̯/ uyê/uya* /iə̯w/ iêu/yêu* central a /wa/ oa/(q)ua* /waj/ oai/(q)uai, /waw/ oao/(q)uao* /aj/ ai /aw/ ao ă /wă/ oă/(q)uă* /wăj/ oay/(q)uay* /ăj/ ay /ăw/ au â /wə̆/ uâ /wə̆j/ uây /ə̆j/ ây /ə̆w/ âu ơ /wə/ uơ /əj/ ơi /əw/ ơu ư /ɨj/ ưi /ɨw/ ưu ưa/ươ* /ɨə̯j/ ươi /ɨə̯w/ ươu back o /ɔj/ oi ô /oj/ ôi u /uj/ ui ua/uô* /uə̯j/ uôi
The glide /w/ is written:
- u after /k/ (spelled q in this instance)
- o in front of a, ă, or e except after q
- o following a and e
- u in all other cases; note that /ăw/ is written as au instead of *ău (cf. ao /aw/), and that /i/ is written as y after u
The off-glide /j/ is written as i except after â and ă, where it is written as y; note that /ăj/ is written as ay instead of *ăy (cf. ai /aj/) .
The diphthong /iə̯/ is written:
- ia at the end of a syllable: /mǐə̯/ = mía 'sugar cane'
- iê before a consonant or off-glide: /mǐə̯ŋ/ = miếng 'piece'; /sīə̯w/ = xiêu 'to slope, slant'
- Note that the i of the diphthong changes to y after u:
- ya: /xwīə̯/ = khuya 'late at night'
- yê: /xwīə̯n/ = khuyên 'to advise'
- iê changes to yê at the beginning of a syllable (ia does not change):
- /īə̯n/ = yên 'calm'; /ǐə̯w/ yếu' 'weak, feeble'
The diphthong /uə̯/ is written:
- ua at the end of a syllable: /mūə̯/ = mua 'to buy'
- uô before a consonant or off-glide: /mūə̯n/ = muôn 'ten thousand'; /sūə̯j/ = xuôi 'down'
The diphthong /ɨə̯/ is written:
- ưa at the end of a syllable: /mɨ̄ə̯/ = mưa 'to rain'
- ươ before a consonant or off-glide: /mɨ̄ə̯ŋ/ = mương 'irrigation canal'; /tɨ̌ə̯j/ = tưới 'to water, irrigate, sprinkle'
Vietnamese is a tonal language, i.e., the meaning of each word depends on the "tone" (basically a specific tone and glottalization pattern) in which it is pronounced. There are six distinct tones in the standard northern dialect. In the south, there is a merging of the hỏi and ngã tones, in effect leaving five basic tones. The first one ("level tone") is not marked, and the other five are indicated by diacritics applied to the vowel part of the syllable. The tone names are chosen such that the name of each tone is spoken in the tone it identifies.
|Name||Contour||Diacritic||Vowels with diacritic|
|Ngang or Bằng||mid level, ˧||unmarked||A/a, Ă/ă, Â/â, E/e, Ê/ê, I/i, O/o, Ô/ô, Ơ/ơ, U/u, Ư/ư, Y/y|
|Huyền||low falling, ˨˩||grave accent||À/à, Ằ/ằ, Ầ/ầ, È/è, Ề/ề, Ì/ì, Ò/ò, Ồ/ồ, Ờ/ờ, Ù/ù, Ừ/ừ, Ỳ/ỳ|
|Hỏi||mid falling, ˧˩ (Northern); dipping, ˨˩˥ (Southern)||hook above||Ả/ả, Ẳ/ẳ, Ẩ/ẩ, Ẻ/ẻ, Ể/ể, Ỉ/ỉ, Ỏ/ỏ, Ổ/ổ, Ở/ở, Ủ/ủ, Ử/ử, Ỷ/ỷ|
|Ngã||glottalized rising, ˧˥ˀ (Northern); slightly lengthened Dấu Hỏi tone (Southern)||tilde||Ã/ã, Ẵ/ẵ, Ẫ/ẫ, Ẽ/ẽ, Ễ/ễ, Ĩ/ĩ, Õ/õ, Ỗ/ỗ, Ỡ/ỡ, Ũ/ũ, Ữ/ữ, Ỹ/ỹ|
|Sắc||high rising, ˧˥||acute accent||Á/á, Ắ/ắ, Ấ/ấ, É/é, Ế/ế, Í/í, Ó/ó, Ố/ố, Ớ/ớ, Ú/ú, Ứ/ứ, Ý/ý|
|Nặng||glottalized falling, ˧˨ˀ (Northern); low rising, ˩˧ (Southern)||dot below||Ạ/ạ, Ặ/ặ, Ậ/ậ, Ẹ/ẹ, Ệ/ệ, Ị/ị, Ọ/ọ, Ộ/ộ, Ợ/ợ, Ụ/ụ, Ự/ự, Ỵ/ỵ|
- Unmarked vowels are pronounced with a level voice, in the middle of the speaking range.
- The grave accent indicates that the speaker should start somewhat low and drop slightly in tone, with the voice becoming increasingly breathy.
- The hook indicates in Northern Vietnamese that the speaker should start in the middle range and fall, but in Southern Vietnamese that the speaker should start somewhat low and fall, then rise (as when asking a question in English).
- In the North, a tilde indicates that the speaker should start mid, break off (with a glottal stop), then start again and rise like a question in tone. In the South, it is realized identically to the Hỏi tone.
- The acute accent indicates that the speaker should start mid and rise sharply in tone.
- The dot signifies in Northern Vietnamese that the speaker starts low and fall lower in tone, with the voice becoming increasingly creaky and ending in a glottal stop
In syllables where the vowel part consists of more than one vowel (such as diphthongs and triphthongs), the placement of the tone is still a matter of debate. Generally, there are two methodologies, an "old style" and a "new style". While the "old style" emphasizes aesthetics by placing the tone mark as close as possible to the center of the word (by placing the tone mark on the last vowel if an ending consonant part exists and on the next-to-last vowel if the ending consonant doesn't exist, as in hóa, hủy), the "new style" emphasizes linguistic principles and tries to apply the tone mark on the main vowel (as in hoá, huỷ). In both styles, when one vowel already has a quality diacritic on it, the tone mark must be applied to it as well, regardless of where it appears in the syllable (thus thuế is acceptable while thúê is not). In the case of the ươ diphthong, the mark is placed on the ơ. The u in qu is considered part of the consonant. Currently, the new style is usually used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục, while most people still prefer the old style in casual uses. Among Overseas Vietnamese communities, the old style is predominant for all purposes.
In lexical ordering, differences in letters are treated as primary, differences in tone markings as secondary, and differences in case as tertiary differences. (Letters include for instance A and Ă but not Ẳ. Older dictionaries also treated digraphs and trigraphs like CH and NGH as base letters.) Ordering according to primary and secondary differences proceeds syllable by syllable. According to this principle, a dictionary lists tuân thủ before tuần chay because the secondary difference in the first syllable takes precedence over the primary difference in the second.
As a result of influence from the Chinese writing system, each syllable in Vietnamese is written separately as if it were a word. In the past, syllables in multisyllabic words were concatenated with hyphens, but this practice has died out, and hyphenation is now reserved for foreign borrowings. A written syllable consists of at most three parts, in the following order from left to right:
- An optional beginning consonant part
- A required vowel syllable nucleus and the tone mark, if needed, applied above or below it
- An ending consonant part, can only be one of the following: c, ch, m, n, ng, nh, p, t, or nothing.
Since at least the 8th century, Vietnamese was written using variant Chinese characters (chữ Nôm 字喃), each of them representing one word. The system was based off chu Han, but was also supplemented with Vietnamese-invented characters (chữ thuần nôm, proper Nom characters) to represent native Vietnamese words.
Invention of Quoc-ngu
As early as 1520, Portuguese and Italian Jesuit missionaries in Vietnam began using Latin script to transcribe the Vietnamese language as an assistance for learning the language. These efforts led eventually to the development of the present Vietnamese alphabet, started by Portuguese missionary Francisco de Pina. His work was continued by the Avignon missionary Alexandre de Rhodes, who worked in the country between 1624 and 1644. Building on previous dictionaries by Gaspar do Amaral and António Barbosa, Rhodes wrote the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, a Vietnamese–Portuguese–Latin dictionary, which was later printed in Rome in 1651, using their spelling system.
Quoc-ngu and French colonization
In 1910, French colonial administration forcibly made chữ Quốc ngữ (the modern Vietnamese alphabet) mandatory.
It was originally used in Christian communities in Vietnam. Some missionaries saw the Confucian literati as the main obstacle to Catholic conversion in Vietnam (and French control over Vietnam). The Latin alphabet also became a means to publish Vietnamese popular literature, disparaged as vulgar by the Chinese-educated imperial elites.
Historian Pamela A. Pears asserted that by instituting the Latin alphabet in Vietnam, the French cut the Vietnamese from their traditional literature, making them unable to read it. Some French originally planned to replace Vietnamese entirely with the French language, but this never was a serious project, given the small number of French settlers compared with the native population. By 1910 they accepted the use of chữ Quốc ngữ to write Vietnamese, as it still achieved their goals of romanizing the language and wiping out Han Nom.
Between 1907-1908 the short-lived Tonkin Free School promulgated quoc ngu and taught French to the general population.
By 1917, the French suppressed Vietnam's Confucian examination system, viewed as an aristocratic system linked with the "ancien regime", thereby forcing Vietnamese elites to educate their offspring in the French language education system. Emperor Khải Định declared the traditional writing system abolished in 1918. While the most traditional nationalists favoured the Confucian examination system and the use of ideograms, Vietnamese revolutionaries and progressive nationalists as well as pro-French elites viewed the French education system as a means to get rid of all remnants of the old Chinese domination, to democratize education and to open the Vietnamese to the modern world and the ideals identified with the French republic.
The French colonial regime then set up another educational system for natives, teaching Vietnamese as first language using quoc ngu in primary school, but then French as a second language (taught in quoc ngu). Hundreds of thousands of textbooks for primary education began to be published in quoc ngu, with the unintentional result of turning the script into the popular medium for the expression of Vietnamese culture. By the late 1930s, approximately 10% of the population was literate, a huge increase over several decades before.
Late 20th century to present
Prior to the advent of 21st-century computer-assisted typesetting methods, the act of typesetting and printing Vietnamese had been described as a "nightmare" due to the number of accents and diacritics.
Contemporary Vietnamese texts sometimes include words which have not been adapted to Vietnamese orthography. A pronunciation guide may be provided in small print above the words, a system akin to "ruby characters" elsewhere in Asia.
Typing Vietnamese (computer support)
The universal character set Unicode has full support for the Vietnamese writing system, although it does not have a separate segment for it. The required characters that other languages use are scattered throughout the Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, and Latin Extended-B blocks; those that remain (such as the letters with more than one diacritic) are placed in the Latin Extended Additional block. An ASCII-based writing convention, Vietnamese Quoted Readable, and several byte-based encodings including VSCII (TCVN), VNI, VISCII and Windows-1258 were widely used before Unicode became popular. Most new documents now exclusively use the Unicode format UTF-8.
Unicode allows the user to choose between precomposed characters and combining characters in inputting Vietnamese. Because in the past some fonts implemented combining characters in a nonstandard way (see Verdana font), most people use precomposed characters when composing Vietnamese-language documents (except on Windows where Windows-1258 used combining characters).
Most keyboards used by Vietnamese-language users do not support direct input of diacritics by default. Various free software such as Unikey that act as keyboard drivers exist. They support the most popular input methods, including Telex, VNI, VIQR and its variants.
- Ă, Â, Đ, Ê, Ô, Ơ, Ư
- Chữ Nôm, formerly the script used to write the Vietnamese language.
- Chu Han, first and oldest form of written Vietnamese, in Classical Chinese
- Dot (diacritic)
- Hook above
- Horn (diacritic)
- VIQR, a standard 7-bit writing convention of the Vietnamese alphabet.
- VISCII, a standard 8-bit encoding of the Vietnamese alphabet.
- Vietnamese Braille
- Vietnamese calligraphy
- Vietnamese phonology
- Gregerson, Kenneth J. (1969). A study of Middle Vietnamese phonology. Bulletin de la Société des Etudes Indochinoises, 44, 135-193. (Published version of the author's MA thesis, University of Washington). (Reprinted 1981, Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics).
- Haudricourt, André-Georges (1949). "Origine des particularités de l'alphabet vietnamien (English translation as: The origin of the peculiarities of the Vietnamese alphabet)" (PDF). Dân Việt-Nam. 3: 61–68.
- Healy, Dana.(2003). Teach Yourself Vietnamese, Hodder Education, London.
- Nguyen, Đang Liêm. (1970). Vietnamese pronunciation. PALI language texts: Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-87022-462-X
- Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1955). Quốc-ngữ: The modern writing system in Vietnam. Washington, D. C.: Author.
- Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà (1992). "Vietnamese phonology and graphemic borrowings from Chinese: The Book of 3,000 Characters revisited". Mon-Khmer Studies. 20: 163–182.
- Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1996). Vietnamese. In P. T. Daniels, & W. Bright (Eds.), The world's writing systems, (pp. 691–699). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
- Nguyễn, Đình-Hoà. (1997). Vietnamese: Tiếng Việt không son phấn. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55619-733-0.
- Pham, Andrea Hoa. (2003). Vietnamese tone: A new analysis. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics. New York: Routledge. (Published version of author's 2001 PhD dissertation, University of Florida: Hoa, Pham. Vietnamese tone: Tone is not pitch). ISBN 0-415-96762-7.
- Sassoon, Rosemary (1995). The Acquisition of a Second Writing System (illustrated, reprint ed.). Intellect Books. ISBN 1871516439. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Thompson, Laurence E. (1991). A Vietnamese reference grammar. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1117-8. (Original work published 1965).
- Wellisch, Hans H. (1978). The conversion of scripts, its nature, history, and utilization. Information sciences series (illustrated ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0471016209. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Language Monthly, Issues 40–57. Praetorius. 1987. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Nguyen, A. M. (2006). Let's learn the Vietnamese alphabet. Las Vegas: Viet Baby. ISBN 0-9776482-0-6
- Shih, Virginia Jing-yi. Quoc Ngu Revolution: A Weapon of Nationalism in Vietnam. 1991.
- Jacques, Roland (2002). Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Linguistics Prior to 1650 – Pionniers Portugais de la Linguistique Vietnamienne Jusqu'en 1650 (in English and French). Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Press. ISBN 974-8304-77-9.
- Jacques, Roland (2004). "Bồ Đào Nha và công trình sáng chế chữ quốc ngữ: Phải chăng cần viết lại lịch sử?" Translated by Nguyễn Đăng Trúc. In Các nhà truyền giáo Bồ Đào Nha và thời kỳ đầu của Giáo hội Công giáo Việt Nam (Quyển 1) – Les missionnaires portugais et les débuts de l'Eglise catholique au Viêt-nam (Tome 1) (in Vietnamese & French). Reichstett, France: Định Hướng Tùng Thư. ISBN 2-912554-26-8.
- Haudricourt, André-Georges. 2010. "The Origin of the Peculiarities of the Vietnamese Alphabet." Mon-Khmer Studies 39: 89–104. Translated from: Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1949. "L'origine Des Particularités de L'alphabet Vietnamien." Dân Viêt-Nam 3: 61–68.
- Jakob Rupert Friederichsen Opening Up Knowledge Production Through Participatory Research? Frankfurt 2009 [6.1 History of Science and Research in Vietnam] Page 126 "6.1.2 French colonial science in Vietnam: With the colonial era, deep changes took place in education, communication, and ... French colonizers installed a modern European system of education to replace the literary and Confucianism-based model, they promoted a romanized Vietnamese script (Quốc Ngữ) to replace the Sino-Vietnamese characters (Hán Nôm)"
- "Vietnam Alphabet". vietnamesetypography.
- "Do you know How to pronounce Igrec?". HowToPronounce.com. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
- See for example Lê Bá Khanh; Lê Bá Kông (1998) . Vietnamese-English/English-Vietnamese Dictionary (7th ed.). New York City: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-924-2.
- "Quoc-ngu | Vietnamese writing system". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
- Nguyên Tùng, "Langues, écritures et littératures au Viêt-nam", Aséanie, Sciences humaines en Asie du Sud-Est, Vol. 2000/5, pp. 135-149.
- Pamela A. Pears (2006). Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam: Women, Words, and War. Lexington Books. p. 18. ISBN 0-7391-2022-0. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Trần Bích San. "Thi cử và giáo dục Việt Nam dưới thời thuộc Pháp" (in Vietnamese). Note 3. "The French had to accept reluctantly the existence of chữ quốc ngữ. The propagation of chữ quốc ngữ in Cochinchina was, in fact, not without resistance [by French authority or pro-French Vietnamese elite] [...] Chữ quốc ngữ was created by Portuguese missionaries in the phonemic orthography of Portuguese language. The Vietnamese could not use chữ quốc ngữ to learn French script. The French would mispronounce chữ quốc ngữ in French orthography, particularly people's names and place names. Thus, the French constantly disparaged chữ quốc ngữ because of its uselessness in helping with the propagation of French script."
- Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. pp. 127-128.
- Wellisch 1978, p. 94.
- "Language Monthly, Issues 40–57" 1987, p. 20.
- Sassoon 1995, p. 123.