Via Francigena

The Via Francigena (Italian: [ˈviːa franˈtʃiːdʒena]) is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome and Apulia, where there were the ports of embarkation for the Holy Land,[1] though it is usually considered to have its starting point on the other side of the English Channel, in the cathedral city of Canterbury. As such, the route passes through England, France, Switzerland and Italy. The route was known in Italy as the "Via Francigena" ("the road that comes from France") or the "Via Romea Francigena" ("the road to Rome that comes from France").[2] In medieval times it was an important road and pilgrimage route for those wishing to visit the Holy See and the tombs of the apostles Peter and Paul.

History of the pilgrimage to Rome

In the Middle Ages, Via Francigena was the major pilgrimage route to Rome from the north. The route was first documented as the "Lombard Way", and was first called the Iter Francorum (the "Frankish Route") in the Itinerarium sancti Willibaldi of 725, a record of the travels of Willibald, bishop of Eichstätt in Bavaria. It was "Via Francigena-Francisca" in Italy and Burgundy, the "Chemin des Anglois" in the Frankish Kingdom (after the evangelisation of England in 607) and also the "Chemin Romieux", the road to Rome.

The name Via Francigena is first mentioned in the Actum Clusio, a parchment of 876 in the Abbey of San Salvatore at Monte Amiata (Tuscany).[3]

At the end of the 10th century Sigeric the Serious, the Archbishop of Canterbury, used the Via Francigena to and from Rome in order to receive his pallium;[4] he recorded his route and his stops on the return journey,[5] but nothing in the document suggests that the route was then new.

Later itineraries to Rome include the Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan of the Icelandic traveller Nikolás Bergsson (in 1154) and the one from Philip Augustus of France (in 1191).[6] Two somewhat differing maps of the route appear in manuscripts of Matthew Paris, Historia Anglorum, from the 13th century.

The Welshman Rhodri Mawr in AD 880 and his grandson Howell the Good in 945 are both known to have visited Rome towards the end of their lives, but it is not known whether they went by land or by the dangerous and pirate-infested sea route via Gibraltar. Reports of journeys before Sigeric can only be apocryphal. We may be quite certain that the Benedictine William of St-Thierry used the roads towards Rome on several occasions at the end of the 11th century. The return journey by sea was likely to be easier, thanks to the prevailing south-westerly winds, but tacking down to the Mediterranean would have made a very long journey indeed. A statement that a historical figure "died in Rome" may have been a historical falsity, but a metaphorical truth.

The Via Francigena was not a single road, like a Roman road, paved with stone blocks and provided at intervals with a change of horses for official travellers. Rather, it comprised several possible routes that changed over the centuries as trade and pilgrimage waxed and waned. Depending on the time of year, the political situation, and the relative popularity of the shrines of the saints situated along the route, travellers may have used any of three or four crossings of the Alps and the Apennines. The Lombards financed the maintenance and security of the section of road through their territories as a trading route to the north from Rome, avoiding enemy-held cities such as Florence. Another important point is that unlike Roman roads, the Via Francigena did not connect cities, but relied more on abbeys.

Sigeric's itinerary

Circa 990 AD, Archbishop Sigeric journeyed from Canterbury to Rome and then back again but only documented his itinerary on the return journey.[7] Sigeric's return journey consisted of 80 stages averaging about 20 km (12 mi) a day, for a total of some 1,700 km (1,100 mi).[8]

Most modern-day pilgrims would wish to follow Sigeric's documented route in the reverse order, i.e. from Canterbury to Rome, and so would journey from Canterbury to the English coast before crossing the Channel to Sumeran (now called Sombres) landing at the point where the seaside village of Wissant now lies. From there the modern-day pilgrim must travel to the places Sigeric knew as "Gisne", "Teranburh", "Bruaei", "Atherats", before continuing on to Reims, Châlons-sur-Marne, Bar-sur-Aube, Langres, Champlitte, Besançon, Pontarlier, Lausanne and Saint-Maurice. From Saint-Maurice they must traverse the Great St. Bernard Pass to Aosta and from Aosta they must pass through Ivrea, Vercelli, Pavia, Fidenza, Pontremoli, Filattiera, Aulla, Luni, Lucca, San Gimignano, Poggibonsi, Siena, San Quirico d'Orcia, Bolsena, Viterbo and Sutri before finally reaching the city of Rome.

Sigeric's journey compared to today's route
No.Stages as described by SigericToday's stages of the Via Francigena
Place names as per SigericCurrent-day place namesStart - EndDistances in km
Across the English Channel
1LXXXSumeranSombre (part of Wissant)Calais - Wissant19.7
2LXXIXstage missing
3LXXVIIIGisneGuînesWissant - Guînes20.2
4LXXVIITeranburhThérouanneGuînes - Licques15.7
Licques - Wisques23.9
Wisques - Thérouanne13.2
5LXXVIBruwaeiBruay-la-BuissièreThérouanne - Auchy-au-Bois15.1
Auchy-au-Bois - Bruay-la-Buissière19.0
6LXXVAtheratsArrasBruay-la-Buissière - Arras33.6
7LXXIVDuinDoingtArras - Bapaume26.2
Bapaume - Péronne25.3
Peronne - Doingt3.0
8LXXIIIMartinwaethSeraucourt-le-GrandDoingt - Seraucourt-le-Grand29.2
9LXXIIMundlothuinLaonSeraucourt-le-Grand - Tergnier17.0
Tergnier - Laon33.0
10LXXICorbuneiCorbenyLaon - Bouconville-Vauclair18.6
Bouconville-Vauclair - Corbeny4.5
11LXXRemsReimsCorbeny - Hermonville20.1
Hermonville - Reims16.3
12LXIXChatelunsChâlons-en-ChampagneReims - Trépail28.1
Trépail - Châlons-en-Champagne25.8
13LXVIIIFuntaineFontaine sur CooleChâlons-en-Champagne - Coole27.0
14LXVIIDomaniantDonnementCoole - Donnement25.7
15LXVIBreoneBrienne-le-ChâteauDonnement - Brienne le Château17.8
16LXVBarBar-sur-AubeBrienne-le-Château - Bar-sur-Aube26.9
17LXIVBlaecuileBlessonvilleBar-sur-Aube - Châteauvillain
(near Blessonville)
32.9
18LXIIIOismaHumes-JorquenayChâteauvillain - Langres
(near Humes-Jorquenay)
40.9
19LXIIGrenantGrenantLangres - Coublanc
(near Grenant)
27.0
20LXISefuiSeveuxCoublanc - Dampierre-sur-Salon27.7
Dampierre-sur-Salon - Savoyeux
(near Seveux)
5.5
21LXCusceiCussey-sur-l'OgnonSavoyeux - Gy20.6
Gy - Cussey-sur-l'Ognon16.4
22LIXBysiceonBesançonCussey-sur-l'Ognon - Besançon17.0
23LVIIINosNodsBesançon - Étalans27.0
Étalans - Chasnans
(near Nods)
9.8
24LVIIPunterlinPontarlierChasnans - Ouhans18.0
Ouhans - Pontarlier17.0
25LVIAntifernYverdon-les-BainsPontarlier - Orbe40.2
26LVUrbaOrbe
27LIVLosannaLausanneOrbe - Lausanne32.0
28LIIIVivaecVeveyLausanne - Cully12.9[9]
Cully - Vevey11.3
29LIIBurbuleiAigleVevey - Montreux8.4
Montreux - Villeneuve5.9
Villeneuve - Aigle12.7
30LISce MauriciSaint-MauriceAigle - Saint-Maurice18.0
31LUrsioresOrsièresSaint-Maurice - Martigny17.0
Martigny - Orsières18.5
32XLIXPetrecastelBourg-Saint-PierreOrsières - Bourg-Saint-Pierre15.4
33XLVIIISce RemeiSaint-Rhémy-en-BossesBourg-Saint-Pierre - Great St Bernard Hospice13.8
Great St Bernard Hospice - Saint-Rhémy-en-Bosses6.3
34XLVIIAgustaAostaSaint-Rhémy-en-Bosses - Aosta25.6
35XLVIPublei(Pontey ?) Pont-Saint-MartinAosta - Nus15.9
Nus - Saint-Vincent22.3
Saint-Vincent - Arnad22.4
Arnad - Pont-Saint-Martin15.9
36XLVEveriIvreaPont-Saint-Martin - Ivrea25.2
37XLIVSca AgathaSanthiàIvrea - Viverone21.4
Viverone - Santhià16.2
38XLIIIVercelVercelliSanthià - Vercelli28.6
39XLIITremelTromelloVercelli - Robbio19.7
Robbio - Mortara14.2
Mortara - Tromello18.1
40XLIPamphicaPaviaTromello - Gropello Cairoli13.5
Gropello Cairoli - Pavia18.1
41XLSce CristineSanta Cristina e BissonePavia - Santa Cristina e Bissone27.4
42XXXIXSce AndreaCorte San AndreaSanta Cristina e Bissone - Piacenza
(crossing the Po)
38.2
43XXXVIIIPlacentiaPiacenza
44XXXVIIFloricumFiorenzuola d'ArdaPiacenza - Fiorenzuola d'Arda26.4
45XXXVISce DomnineFidenza (up till 1927 called Borgo San Donino)Fiorenzuola d'Arda - Fidenza22.3
46XXXVMetaneCostamezzana (Medesano)Fidenza - Costamezzana10.8
47XXXIVPhilemangenurFornovo di Taro (or Felegara)Costamezzana - Medesano9.7
Medesano - Fornovo di Taro9.2
48XXXIIISce ModeranneBercetoFornovo di Taro - Cassio di Terenzo19.8
Cassio di Terenzo - Berceto10.4
49XXXIISce BenedicteMontelungoBerceto - Pontremoli29.4
50XXXIPuntremelPontremoli
51XXXAguillaAullaPontremoli - Villafranca in Lunigiana19.1
Villafranca in Lunigiana - Aulla15.3
52XXIXSce StephaneSanto Stefano di MagraAulla - Sarzana16.3
53XXVIIILunaLuniSarzana - Luni12.7
54XXVIICampmaiorPieve di CamaioreLuni - Massa14.8
Massa - Pietrasanta15.8
Pietrasanta - Camaiore8.2
55XXVILucaLuccaCamaiore - Lucca24.2
56XXVForcriPorcariLucca - Porcari10.6
57XXIIIAqua NigraPonte a Cappiano. Part of FucecchioPorcari - Ponte a Cappiano19.7
58XXIIIArne BlancaFucecchioPonte a Cappiano - Fucecchio4.9
59XXIISce DionisiiSan Genesio near San MiniatoFucecchio - San Miniato Alto7.6
60XXISce Peter CurrantCoiano. Today part of CastelfiorentinoSan Miniato Alto - Coiano12.1
61XXSce Maria GlanSanta Maria a Chianni near Gambassi TermeCoiano - Gambassi Terme12.2
62XIXSce GemianeSan GimignanoGambassi Terme - San Gimignano14.5
63XVIIISce Martin in FosseSan Martino Fosci (Molino d'Aiano. Part of Colle di Val d'Elsa)San Gimignano - Badia a Isola20.5/25.5
64XVIIAelseGracciano (Pieve d'Elsa. Part of Colle di Val d'Elsa)
65XVIBurgenoveBadia an Isola. Part of Monteriggioni
66XVSeocineSienaBadia an Isola - Monteriggioni3.5
Monteriggioni - Siena20.5
67XIVArbiaPonte d'Arbia. Part of Monteroni d'ArbiaSiena - Monteroni d'Arbia17.9
Monteroni d'Arbia - Ponte d'Arbia9.8
68XIIITurreinerTorrenieri (Part of Montalcino)Ponte d'Arbia - Buonconvento5.7
Buonconvento - Torrenieri13.5
69XIISce QuiricSan Quirico d'OrciaTorrenieri - San Quirico d'Orcia7.4
70XIAbriculaBriccole di SottoSan Quirico d'Orcia - Bagno Vignoni5.3
Bagno Vignoni - Radicofani27.4
71XSce Petir in PailSan Pietro in Paglia (Voltole)Radicofani - Ponte a Rigo10.7
72IXAquapendenteAcquapendentePonte a Rigo - Acquapendente13.8
73VIIISca CristinaBolsenaAcquapendente - Bolsena20.2
74VIISce FlavianeMontefiasconeBolsena - Montefiascone18
75VISce ValentineViterbo (Bullicame)Montefiascone - Viterbo18.7
76VFurcariVetralla (Forcassi)Viterbo - Vetralla17.9
77IlIlSuteriaSutriVetralla - Sutri22.1
78IIIBacaneBaccano (Campagnano di Roma)Sutri - Campagnano di Roma22.3
79IIJohannis VIIIISan Giovanni in Nono (La Storta)Campagnano di Roma - La Storta25.6
80IUrbs RomaRomaLa Storta - Rome14.8

The final stretch towards the Apulian ports

From Rome the path followed for a long stretch the Via Appia or the parallel Via Latina up to Benevento. From that town Via Traiana was taken up the Campanian Apennines and Daunian Mountains, where Crepacore castle stood, a fortress held by the Knights of Jerusalem in order to guarantee the safety of pilgrims along the mountain stretch.[10] The road therefore reached Troia, in the high plain of Tavoliere delle Puglie (where Via Francigena is attested since 1024),[1] and then continued towards Bari, Brindisi and Otranto, the main ports of embarkation for the Holy Land.

Today

Today some pilgrims still follow in Sigeric's ancient footsteps and travel on foot, on horseback or by bicycle on the Via Francigena, although there are far fewer pilgrims on this route than on the Way of St. James pilgrims' route to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.[11] Roughly 1,200 pilgrims were estimated to have walked the VF in 2012. One reason for this is a lack of infrastructure and suitable support facilities. Affordable pilgrims' accommodation and other facilities can be hard to come by for those traveling along the route. In 2011, James Saward-Anderson and Maxwell Hannah ran theentire route for Water Aid.[12] They completed the route unassisted in 58 days.

Accommodation

Due to the scarcity of dedicated pilgrims' accommodation along the Via Francigena, pilgrims often camp out rather than staying in hotels or pensions, both options which would turn out expensive when used for weeks on end. However increasingly in Italy, some monasteries and religious houses offer dedicated pilgrim's accommodation. These are called spedali and — like the refugios found on the Way of St. James in France and Spain — they offer cheap and simple dormitory-style accommodation. Spedali accept pilgrims who bear a valid credenziale (pilgrim's passport), usually for one night only. Some places offer meals as well.

The state and path of the route

Only a few decades ago, interest in the Via Francigena was limited to scholars. This began to change in recent years when many who, after travelling the Way of St. James in Spain, wanted to make the pilgrimage to Rome on foot as well. In Italy, this gave birth to a network of lovers of the Via Francigena, who with paint and brush, began to mark its trails and paths. These people were joined by religious and local government agencies who also tried to recover the original route. Where possible today's route follows the ancient one but sometimes it deviates from the historical path in favour of paths and roads with low traffic. The potential for the tourist trade in Italy has been recognised but this has also led some to take advantage - some have worked to divert the path so that it passes around this bar or that restaurant![14]

In England, the VF passes only through a small part of the county of Kent, from Canterbury to the ferries at Dover.

In France, the VF (given the Grande Randonnée designation 'GR145') goes through the régions Hauts-de-France, Grand-Est and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté before reaching the Swiss border.

In Switzerland the VF (with the route designation '70') goes through the cantons of Vaud and Valais.

In Italy the VF goes through the Regione of Valle d'Aosta, Piedmont, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, and finally about halfway through Lazio to Rome.

Walkers could choose to walk along the EuroVelo EV5 cycling route which bears the name the 'Via Francigena'. However, this EuroVelo route varies substantially from Sigeric's route and the one given by the Via Francigena Association.

In 1994 the Via Francigena was designated a Cultural Route, and in 2004 a Major Cultural Route.

In November 2009 the Italian government launched a project to recover the Italian leg of it. The object of the plan is to recover the entire route (disjointed parts of which are already signposted) "not only in spiritual and religious terms but also in terms of the environment, architecture, culture, history, wine and cuisine and sport." The initiative was promoted by the Region of Tuscany, which hosts 400 km (250 mi) of the Via, and which presented a plan detailing the low environmental impact infrastructures to be created. The plan will be shared with other local authorities located along the route as an encouragement to carry out similar recovery work.[15] Tuscany has also announced cooperation with the Opera Romana Pellegrinaggi (ORP), the Vatican’s organisation for encouraging pilgrimages.

The final stretch, from Rome to the Apulian ports of embarcation for Jerusalem, has been renamed Via Francigena nel Sud (in Italian "Via Francigena in the South (Italy)") or else Vie Francigene del Sud ("The Francigena Ways to the South").[16]

See also

References

  1. Renato Stopani (1992). Centro Studi Romei (ed.). "La via Appia Traiana nel Medioevo" [Via Appia Traiana in the Middle Age] (PDF). Vie Francigene del Sud (in Italian). p. 4.
  2. Valle d'Aosta Aosta Valley: Gran San Bernardo - La Via Francigena
  3. Via Francigena: history (PDF) Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Hindley, Geoffrey A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons: The beginnings of the English nation (New York: Carroll & Graf) 2006:294-295.
  5. The transcript, formerly in the Cottonian Library, is now in the British Library (Cotton Tiberius B.v., folios 34 and 35; On-line map of Sigeric's route
  6. Nikolás is noted in F. P. Magoun, Jr., "The Italian Itinerary of Philip II (Philippe-Auguste) in the Year 1191", Speculum 17.3 (July 1942:367-376) p. 367 note 2.
  7. Ortenberg "Anglo-Saxon Church and the Papacy" English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages p. 49
  8. Via Francigena - 03 |Augnet
  9. Distances given by Ingrid Retterath: Via Francigena von Lausanne nach Rom. Outdoor guide Bd. 201. Conrad Stein Verlag 2011.
  10. "San Vito". Commune of Faeto (in Italian).
  11. "Epic run from Canterbury to Rome follows pilgrimage". BBC.
  12. www.viefrancigene.it
  13. it:Via Francigena
  14. 128-page PDF in Italian, with plans and pictures
  15. "The Francigena Ways to the South". Vie Francigene del Sud.

Sources

  • Kerschbaum & Gattinger, Via Francigena - DVD- Documentary of a modern pilgrimage to Rome, ISBN 3-200-00500-9, Verlag EUROVIA, Vienna 2005
  • Trezzini, La Via Francigena. Vademecum dal Gran San Bernardo a Roma La Via Francigena. Vademecum dal Gran San Bernardo a Roma (Association Via Francigena) 2000
  • Adelaide Trezzini-AIVF. San Pellegrino sulle Via Francigene. Ed. Gangemi Cod. ISBN 88-492-1607-6
  • Adelaide Trezzini-AIVF. Topofrancigena da Canterbury a Roma (2004-2007) Ed. Ass. int. Via Francigena
  • Adelaide Trezzini-AIVF. Guide-Vademecum da Canterbury a Roma. Ed.2002-03
  • Adelaide Trezzini-AIVF. Dormifrancigena da Canterbury a Roma.2006 + 2007 Ed. Ass. int. Via Francigena

Via Francigena associations

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