Velar lateral approximant

The voiced velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a very small number[1] of spoken languages in the world. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʟ (since 1989) and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L\.

Velar lateral approximant
ʟ
IPA Number158
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʟ
Unicode (hex)U+029F
X-SAMPAL\
Braille
Audio sample
source · help

The velar laterals of the world often involve a prestopped realization [ɡ͡ʟ].[2]

Features

Features of the velar lateral approximant:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Some dialects[3] milk [mɪʟk]  'milk' May occur before velar and labial consonants. See English phonology
Hiw[4] evov [ɡ͡ʟəβɡ͡ʟɔβ] 'evening' Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].
Korean 달구지 / dalguji [tɐʟɡud͡ʑi] 'cart' When the final consonant ⟨ㄹ⟩[ɭ] is followed by ⟨ㄱ⟩[ɡ], ⟨ㅋ⟩[kʰ], and ⟨ㄲ⟩[k͈], appears. See Korean phonology.
Melpa[5] paa [paʟa] 'fence'
Mid-Wahgi[3] aglagle [aʟaʟe] 'dizzy'

See also

Notes

References

  • François, Alexandre (2010), "Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw: resolving the ambiguity of a complex segment", Phonology, 27 (3): 393–434, doi:10.1017/s0952675710000205
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Blackwell
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
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