Vanderlin Island is an island in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory, Australia. It is the largest island in the Sir Edward Pellew Group. Its area is 264 km². The Walu were the indigenous Australian people of the island.
The only settlements on the island are four family outstations along the west coast. They are, from north to south:
Exact population figures are not known, but family outstations are typically four to six people, which results in a population of approximately 20 for the whole island. In 2019 only one family (Smith) of five persons lives on Vanderlin Island.