Uttering is a crime involving a person with the intent to defraud that knowingly sells, publishes or passes a forged or counterfeited document. More specifically, forgery creates a falsified document and uttering is the act of knowingly passing on or using the forged document.
In the law of countries whose legal systems derive from English common law, uttering is a crime similar to forgery. Uttering and forgery were originally common law offences, both misdemeanours. Forgery was the creation of a forged document, with the intent to defraud; whereas uttering was merely use – the passing – of a forged document, that someone else had made, with the intent to defraud. In law, uttering is synonymous with publication, and the distinction made between the common law offences was that forgery was the fabrication of a forged instrument (with the intent to defraud) and uttering was the publication of that instrument (with the intent to defraud). Statute law offences of forgery replace the common law offences nowadays, often subsuming the offence of uttering, and, where the distinction exists, forgery is usually a felony rather than a misdemeanour.
England and Wales and Northern Ireland
See section 36 of the Forgery Act 1861.
See section 6 of the Forgery Act 1913.
Section 29(1)(i) of the Larceny Act 1916 formerly created the offence of uttering a letter or writing demanding property with menaces.
In the U.S., uttering is the act of offering a forged document to another when the offeror has knowledge that the document is forged. Uttering does not require that the person who presented the document actually forged or altered the document. For example, forging a log for personal profit might be considered uttering and publishing. Another example would be the forging of a university diploma. As an example of the law itself, the State of Michigan defines the offense (MCL 750.249): "Any person who utters and publishes as true any false, forged, altered or counterfeit record, deed, instrument or other writing specified, knowing it to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeit, with intent to injure or defraud is guilty of uttering and publishing."
Forging or illegal "publishing" of an official or unofficial document is not the essence of uttering. Uttering is the actual presentation of forged or official documentation as one's own.
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Notes and references
- Carlan, Nored & Downey 2010, p. 45–47.
- Scheb 2008, p. 181.
- Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 368.
- NAS 2006, "Uttering".
- State v. Greenlee, 272 N.C. 651 657, 159, S.E.2d 22, 26 (1968) ("uttering is offering to another a forged instrument with the knowledge of the falsity of the writing and with intent to defraud").
- People v Cassadime - Michigan Appellate Digest, 9 September 2003
- "Index of Scottish legal terms". National Archives of Scotland. 2006-03-23. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- Carlan, Philip; Nored, Lisa S.; Downey, Ragan A. (2010). An Introduction to Criminal Law. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-0-7637-5525-6.
- Scheb, John M. (2008). Criminal Law (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-50480-1.