It can be difficult to distinguish unstable angina from non-ST elevation (non-Q wave) myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). They differ primarily in whether the ischemia is severe enough to cause sufficient damage to the heart's muscular cells to release detectable quantities of a marker of injury (typically troponin T or troponin I). Unstable angina is considered to be present in patients with ischemic symptoms suggestive of an ACS and no elevation in troponin, with or without ECG changes indicative of ischemia (e.g., ST segment depression or transient elevation or new T wave inversion). Since an elevation in troponin may not be detectable for up to 12 hours after presentation, UA and NSTEMI are frequently indistinguishable at initial evaluation.
The pathophysiology of unstable angina is controversial. Until recently, unstable angina was assumed to be angina pectoris caused by disruption of an atherosclerotic plaque with partial thrombosis and possibly embolization or vasospasm leading to myocardial ischemia. However, sensitive troponin assays reveal rise of cardiac troponin in the bloodstream with episodes of even mild myocardial ischemia. Since unstable angina is assumed to occur in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia without troponin release, the concept of unstable angina is being questioned with some calling for retiring the term altogether.
Unstable angina is characterized by at least one of the following:
- Occurs at rest or minimal exertion and usually lasts more than 20 minutes (if nitroglycerin is not administered)
- Being severe (at least Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification 3) and of new onset (i.e. within 1 month)
- Occurs with a crescendo pattern (brought on by less activity, more severe, more prolonged or increased frequency than previously).
Fifty percent of people with unstable angina will have evidence of necrosis of the heart's muscular cells based on elevated cardiac serum markers such as creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK)-MB and troponin T or I, and thus have a diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.
Nitroglycerin can be used immediately to dilate the venous system and reduce the circulating blood volume, therefore reducing the work and oxygen demand of the heart. In addition, nitroglycerin causes peripheral venous and artery dilation reducing cardiac preload and afterload. These reductions allow for decreased stress on the heart and therefore lower the oxygen demand of the heart's muscle cells.
Antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel can help reduce the progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation, as well as combining these with an anticoagulant such as a low molecular weight heparin.
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