Université de Montréal

The Université de Montréal[7] (UdeM; French pronunciation: [ynivɛʁsite də mɔ̃ʁeal] translates to University of Montreal[8][note 1]) is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the neighbourhoods of Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges. The institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two[10] affiliated schools: the Polytechnique Montréal (School of Engineering; formerly the École Polytechnique de Montréal) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes.

Université de Montréal
Latin: Universitas Montis Regii
Former name
Université Laval à Montréal
MottoFide splendet et scientia (Latin)
Motto in English
It shines by faith and knowledge
Endowment$339.730 million[1]
Budget$1.05 billion[2]
ChancellorLouis Roquet[3]
RectorGuy Breton
Academic staff
Administrative staff
Students67,632 total (46,784 without its affiliated schools)[5]
Location, ,
CampusUrban, park, 60 ha (150 acres)
ColoursRoyal blue, white and black               
Athletics15 varsity teams
AffiliationsAUCC, IAU, AUF, AUFC, ACU, U Sports, QSSF, IFPU, U15, CBIE, CUP.

The university was founded as a satellite campus of the Université Laval in 1878. It became an independent institution after it was issued a papal charter in 1919, and a provincial charter in 1920. Université de Montréal moved from Montreal's Quartier Latin to its present location at Mount Royal in 1942. It was made a secular institution with the passing of another provincial charter in 1967.

The school is co-educational, and has over 34,335 undergraduate and over 11,925 post-graduate students (excluding affiliated schools). Alumni and former students reside across Canada and around the world, with notable alumni serving as government officials, academics, and business leaders.


The Université de Montréal was founded in 1878 as a new branch of Université Laval in Quebec City. It was then known as the Université de Laval à Montréal.[11] The move initially went against the wishes of Montréal's prelate, who advocated an independent university in his city.[12] Certain parts of the institution's educational facilities, such as those of the Séminaire de Québec and the Faculty of Medicine, founded as the Montreal School of Medicine and Surgery, had already been established in Montréal in 1876 and 1843, respectively.[13]

The Vatican granted the university some administrative autonomy in 1889, thus allowing it to choose its own professors and license its own diplomas. However, it was not until 8 May 1919 that a papal charter from Pope Benedict XV granted full autonomy to the university.[14] It thus became an independent Catholic university and adopted Université de Montréal as its name.[15] Université de Montréal was granted its first provincial charter on 14 February 1920.[14]

At the time of its creation, fewer than a hundred students were admitted to the university's three faculties, which at that time were located in Old Montreal. These were the Faculty of Theology (located at the Grand séminaire de Montréal), the Faculty of Law (hosted by the Society of Saint-Sulpice), and the Faculty of Medicine (at the Château Ramezay).[16][17]

Graduate training based on German-inspired American models of specialized coursework and completion of a research thesis was introduced and adopted.[13] Most of Québec's secondary education establishments employed classic course methods of varying quality. This forced the university to open a preparatory school in 1887 to harmonize the education level of its students. Named the "Faculty of Arts", this school would remain in use until 1972 and was the predecessor of Québec's current CEGEP system.[18]

Two distinct schools eventually became affiliated to the university. The first was the École Polytechnique, a school of engineering, which was founded in 1873 and became affiliated in 1887. The second was the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, or HEC (a business school), which was founded in 1907 and became part of the university in 1915.[16] In 1907, Université de Montréal opened the first francophone school of architecture in Canada at the École Polytechnique.[19]

Between 1920 and 1925, seven new faculties were added: Philosophy, Literature, Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Dental Surgery, Pharmacy, and Social Sciences.[20] Notably, the Faculty of Social Sciences was founded in 1920 by Édouard Montpetit, the first laic to lead a faculty.[21] He thereafter was named secretary-general, a role he fulfilled until 1950.

From 1876 to 1895, most classes took place in the Grand séminaire de Montréal. From 1895 to 1942, the school was housed in a building at the intersection of Saint-Denis and Sainte-Catherine streets in Montreal's eastern downtown Quartier Latin. Unlike English-language universities in Montréal, such as McGill University, Université de Montréal suffered a lack of funding for two major reasons: the relative poverty of the French Canadian population and the complications ensuing from its being managed remotely, from Quebec City. The downtown campus was hit by three different fires between 1919 and 1921, further complicating the university's already precarious finances and forcing it to spend much of its resources on repairing its own infrastructure.[20]

By 1930, enough funds had been accumulated to start the construction of a new campus on the northwest slope of Mount Royal, adopting new plans designed by Ernest Cormier. However, the financial crisis of the 1930s virtually suspended all ongoing construction.[22] Many speculated that the university would have to sell off its unfinished building projects in order to ensure its own survival. Not until 1939 did the provincial government directly intervene by injecting public funds.[23]

The campus's construction subsequently resumed and the mountain campus was officially inaugurated on 3 June 1943.[24] The Cote-des-Neiges site includes property expropriated from a residential development along Decelles Avenue, known as Northmount Heights.[25] The university's former downtown facilities would later serve Montreal's second francophone university, the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM).

In 1943, the university assisted the Western Allies by providing laboratory accommodations on its campus. Scientists there worked to develop a nuclear reactor, notably by conducting various heavy water experiments. The research was part of the larger Manhattan Project, which aimed to develop the first atomic bomb. Scientists working on the school's campus eventually produced the first atomic battery to work outside of the United States. One of the participating Québec scientists, Pierre Demers, also discovered a series of radioactive elements issued from Neptunium.[26]

Université de Montréal was issued its second provincial charter in 1950.[14] A new government policy of higher education during the 1960s (following the Quiet Revolution) came in response to popular pressure and the belief that higher education was key to social justice and economic productivity.[13] The policy led to the school's third provincial charter, which was passed in 1967. It defined the Université de Montréal as a public institution, dedicated to higher learning and research, with students and teachers having the right to participate in the school's administration.[14]

In 1965, the appointment of the university's first secular rector, Roger Gaudry, paved the way for modernization. The school established its first adult-education degree program offered by a French Canadian university in 1968. That year the Lionel-Groulx and 3200 Jean-Brillant buildings were inaugurated, the former being named after Quebec nationalist Lionel Groulx. The following year, the Louis Collin parking garage - which won a Governor General's medal for its architecture in 1970 - was erected.

An important event that marked the university's history was the École Polytechnique massacre. On 6 December 1989, a gunman armed with a rifle entered the École Polytechnique building, killing 14 people, all of whom were women, before taking his own life.

Since 2002, the university has embarked on its largest construction project since the late 1960s, with the construction of five new buildings planned for advanced research in pharmacology, engineering, aerospace, cancer studies and biotechnology.[16]


The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs. Its landmark Pavilion Roger-Gaudry - known until 2003 as Pavillon principal [27] - and named for former rector Roger Gaudry - can be seen from around the campus and is known for its imposing tower. It is built mainly in the Art Deco style with some elements of International style and was designed by noted architect Ernest Cormier. On 14 September 1954, a Roll of Honour plaque on the wall at the right of the stairs to the Court of Honour in Roger-Gaudry Pavillon was dedicated to alumni of the school who died in while in the Canadian military during the Second World War. [28] On November 1963, a memorial plaque was dedicated to the memory of those members of the Université de Montréal who served in the Armed Forces during the First and Second World Wars and Korea.[29] The Mont-Royal campus is served by the Côte-des-Neiges, Université-de-Montréal, and Édouard-Montpetit metro stations.

Apart from its main Mont-Royal campus, the university also maintains five regional facilities in Terrebonne, Laval, Longueuil, Saint-Hyacinthe and Mauricie.[30] The campus in Laval, just north of Montréal, was opened in 2006. It is Laval's first university campus and is located in the area near the Montmorency metro station and opposite to Collège Montmorency In October 2009, the university announced an expansion of its Laval satellite campus with the commissioning of the six-storey Cité du Savoir complex.[31] The Mauricie campus in the city of Trois-Rivières is known for its association with the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) and as a satellite campus for the university's faculty of medicine. In order to solve the problem of lack of space on its main campus, the university is also planning to open a new campus in Outremont.[32]

The Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) and the Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine are the two teaching hospital networks of the Université de Montréal's Faculty of Medicine, although the latter is also affiliated with other medical institutions such as the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal Heart Institute, Hôpital Sacré-Coeur and Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont. A plaque dedicated to the personnel of the "Hôpital Général Canadien No. 6 (Université Laval de Montréal)" from 1916 to 1920 was donated by Mr. Louis de Gonzague Beaubien in 1939.[33]

The J.-Armand-Bombardier Incubator[34] is among buildings jointly erected by the Université de Montréal and Polytechnique Montréal. The incubator is part on the main Campus of Université de Montréal and was built in the fall of 2004 with the aim of helping R&D-intensive startup companies by providing complete infrastructures at advantageous conditions.

The environment helps promote collaboration between industries and academics while encouraging Quebec entrepreneurship. Since its creation the Incubator has hosted more than fifteen companies, mainly in the biomedical field (Cuttle Pharmaceuticals, Angiotech, Siegfried, Haemacure) in the field of polymer / surface treatment (Solaris Chem, Cerestech, Nanomextrix, Novaplasma) in optics / photonics (Photon etc., Castor Optics, Thorlabs, Genia Photonics) and IT security (ESET, Urqui).

View of Université de Montréal's main campus, taken in June 2017. The majority of the university's facilities are located on this campus.


The Université de Montréal is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.[35] Undergraduate students make up the majority of the university community, accounting for 74 per cent of the university student body, whereas graduate students account for 24 per cent of the student body.[36] The university presently has 66,768 students (including students from affiliated institutions HEC Montréal and Polytechnique Montréal). More than 9,500 university students are international students, while another 8,000 are considered permanent residents of Canada.[36] From the 1 June 2010 to the 31 May 2011, the university conferred 7,012 bachelor's degrees, 461 doctoral degrees, and 3,893 master's degrees.[4]

Depending on a student's citizenship, they may be eligible for financial assistance from the Student Financial Assistance program, administered by the provincial Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports, and/or the Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. The university's Office of Financial Aid acts as intermediaries between the students and the Quebec government for all matters relating to financial assistance programs.[37] The financial aid provided may come in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships fellowships and work programs.


University rankings
Global rankings
ARWU World[38]151-200
QS World[39]137
Times World[40]85
Times Employability[41]37
U.S News & World Report Global[42]139
Canadian rankings
ARWU National[38]6–9
QS National[39]5
Times National[40]5
U.S News & World Report National[42]5
Maclean's Medical/Doctoral[43]10

Université de Montréal has consistently been ranked in a number of university rankings. In the 2019 Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings, the university ranked 151–200 in the world and 6–9 in Canada.[38] The 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed the university 85th in the world, and fifth in Canada.[40] The 2020 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 137th in the world and fifth in Canada.[39] In U.S. News & World Report 2020 global university rankings, the university placed 139th, tied for fifth in Canada with the University of Alberta.[42] In Maclean's 2020 Canadian university rankings, the university was ranked 10th in both their Medical-Doctoral university category, and in their reputation ranking for Canadian universities.[43] The university was ranked in spite of having opted out from participation in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006.[44]

Université de Montréal also placed in a number of rankings that evaluated the employment prospects of graduates. In QS's 2019 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 151–160 in the world, and ninth in Canada.[45] In the Times Higher Education's 2018 global employability ranking, the university placed 37th in the world, and third in Canada.[41]


Université de Montréal is a member of the U15, a group that represents 15 Canadian research universities. The university includes 465 research units and departments.[36] In 2018, Research Infosource ranked the university third in their list of top 50 research universities; with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $536.238 million in 2017.[46] In the same year, the university's faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $271,000, while its graduates averaged a sponsored research income of $33,900.[46]

Université de Montréal research performance has been noted several bibliometric university rankings, which uses citation analysis to evaluates the impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked the university 104th in the world, and fifth in Canada.[47] The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2018–19 rankings placed the university 99th in the world, and fifth in Canada.[48]

Student life

The school's two main student unions are the Fédération des associations étudiantes du campus de l'Université de Montréal (FAÉCUM), which represents all full-time undergraduate and graduate students, and the Association Étudiante de la Maîtrise et du Doctorat de HEC Montréal (AEMD), which defends the interests of those enrolled in HEC Montréal.[49][50] FAÉCUM traces its lineage back to 1989, when the Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec (FEUQ) was founded, and is currently the largest student organization in Québec.[51] Accredited organizations and clubs on campus cover a wide range of interests ranging from academics to cultural, religion and social issues. FAÉCUM is currently associated with 82 student organizations and clubs.[52] Four fraternities and sororities are recognized by the university's student union, Sigma Thêta Pi, Nu Delta Mu, Zeta Lambda Zeta, Eta Psi Delta.[53]


The university's student population operates a number of news media outlets. The Quartier Libre is the school's main student newspaper.[54] CISM-FM is an independently-owned radio station. It is owned by the students of the Université de Montréal and operated by the student union.[55] The radio station dates back to 1970, and it received a permit from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on 10 July 1990 to transmit on an FM band. On 14 March 1991, CISM's broadcasting antenna was boosted to 10 000 watts. With a broadcasting radius of 70 km, CISM is now the world's largest French-language university radio station.[56] The CFTU-DT television station also receives technical and administrative support from the student body.[57]


Université de Montréal's sports teams are known as the Carabins. The Carabins participate in the U Sports' Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec (RSEQ) conference for most varsity sports. Varsity teams include rugby, badminton, Canadian football, cheerleading, golf, hockey, swimming, alpine skiing, soccer, tennis, track and field, cross-country, and volleyball.[58] The athletics program at the university dates back to 1922.[59] The university's athletic facilities is open to both its varsity teams and students. The largest sports facility is the Centre d'éducation physique et des sports de l'Université de Montréal (CEPSUM), which is also home to all of the Carabin's varsity teams.[60] The CEPSUM's building was built in 1976 in preparation for the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montréal. The outdoor stadium of the CEPSUM, which hosts the university's football team, can seat around 5,100 people.[60]

Notable people

The university has an extensive alumni network, with more than 300,000 members of the university's alumni network.[61] Throughout the university's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in a number of fields. Several prominent business leaders have graduated from the university. Graduates include Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien, founder and CEO of Telemedia,[62] Louis R. Chênevert, chairman and CEO of the United Technologies Corporation,[63] and Pierre Karl Péladeau, former president and CEO of Quebecor.[64]

A number of students have also gained prominence for their research and work in a number of scientific fields. Roger Guillemin, a graduate of the university, would later be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with neurohormones.[65] Alumnus Ishfaq Ahmad, would also gain prominence for his work with Pakistan's nuclear weapon's program.[66] Jocelyn Faubert, known for his work in the fields of visual perception, is currently a faculty member of the university.[67] Gilles Brassard, best known for his fundamental work in quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement distillation, quantum pseudo-telepathy, and the classical simulation of quantum entanglement.[68] Ian Goodfellow is a thought leader in the field of artificial intelligence.

Many former students have gained local and national prominence for serving in government, including Former Supreme Court of Canada Judge and UN Human Rights Commissioner Louise Arbour. Michaëlle Jean served as Governor General of Canada,[69] Ahmed Benbitour, who served as the Prime Minister of Algeria,[70] and Pierre Trudeau who served as the Prime Minister of Canada.[71] Eleven Premiers of Quebec have also graduated from Université de Montréal, including Jean-Jacques Bertrand,[72] Robert Bourassa,[73] Maurice Duplessis,[74] Lomer Gouin,[75] Daniel Johnson, Jr.,[76] Daniel Johnson Sr.,[72] Pierre-Marc Johnson,[77] Bernard Landry,[78] Jacques Parizeau,[79] Paul Sauvé [80] and Philippe Couillard.

See also


  1. As with most Francophone post-secondary institutions in Quebec, the university does not have an official name in English, with the institution using the name Université de Montréal to refer to itself in both languages. However, several publications have used the name University of Montreal to refer to the institution.[9]


  1. "État des résultats et de l'évolution des soldes de fonds" (PDF). États financiers de l'Université de Montréal (in French). Université de Montreal. 2017-09-25. p. 3. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  2. "État des résultats et de l'évolution des soldes de fonds" (PDF). États financiers de l'Université de Montréal (in French). Université de Montreal. 30 September 2014. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  3. "Chancellor Louis Roquet". Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2019-04-11.
  4. "Université de Montréal official statistics". Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  5. "UdeM at a Glance" (PDF). 2016. p. 27. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  6. "Statistiques d'inscription automne 2013" (PDF) (in French). Université de Montreal. 2014-09-30. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
  7. "2007 Annual Report. Université de Montréal Accessed 20 October 2008.
  8. "Names of Canadian universities (Linguistic recommendation from the Translation Bureau)". Translation Bureau. Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2015-10-15. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  9. University of Montreal , timeshighereducation.com
  10. General overview of Université de Montréal
  11. Pound, Richard W. (2005). 'Fitzhenry and Whiteside Book of Canadian Facts and Dates'. Fitzhenry and Whiteside.
  12. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  13. The Canadian Encyclopedia - University
  14. The Canadian Encyclopedia - Université de Montréal
  15. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  16. Université de Montréal - English - Brief History
  17. Université de Montréal - Information générale Archived 13 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  18. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  19. The Canadian Encyclopedia - Architectural Education
  20. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  21. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  22. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  23. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  24. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  25. "Publicité de la Northmount Land". 1698-1998 CÔTE-DES-NEIGES AU FIL DU TEMPS (in French). La société du troisième centenaire de la Côte-des-Neiges 1698-1998. 2000-07-06. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
  26. Université de Montréal - Fêtes du 125e - 125 ans d'histoire (1878-2003) (in French)
  27. "Le pavillon principal de l'UdeM devient le pavillon Roger Gaudry" (PDF) (in French). La Presse. 17 December 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  28. http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/nic-inm/sm-rm/mdsr-rdr-eng.asp?PID=7904 Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Alumni - World War II Honour Roll
  29. http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/nic-inm/sm-rm/mdsr-rdr-eng.asp?PID=7905 Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Alumni - war service
  30. Université de Montréal - Plan Campus (in French)
  31. Croteau, Martin (2009-10-14). "Nouveau campus de l'UdM à Laval". La Presse (in French). Montreal. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  32. Université de Montréal - Outremont facility project page (in French)
  33. "Hôpital Général Canadien No. 6 (Université Laval de Montréal)". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  34. "J.-Armand Bombardier Incubator". Polytechnique Montréal. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  35. "Université de Montréal" (in French). Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. 2012. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  36. "In figures". Université de Montréal. 2019. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  37. "Aide financière du Québec" (in French). Université de Montréal. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  38. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  39. "QS World University Rankings - 2020". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2020. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  40. "World University Rankings 2020". Times Higher Education. TES Global. 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-14.
  41. "Graduate employability: top universities in Canada ranked by employers 2018". Times Higher Education. TES Global. 2018-11-14. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  42. "Best Global Universities in Canada". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  43. "Canada's best Medical Doctoral universities: Rankings 2020". Maclean's. Rogers Media. 2019-10-03. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  44. "11 universities bail out of Maclean's survey". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-04-14. Retrieved 2017-08-17.
  45. "Graduate Employability Ranking 2019". QS Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2018. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  46. "Canada's Top 50 Research Universities 2018". Re$earch Infosource. 2018. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  47. "World University Rankings By 2019". NTU Rankings. 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
  48. "2018-2019 RANKING BY COUNTRY". Informatics Institute of Middle East Technical University. 2018. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  49. "Qu'est-ce que la FAÉCUM?" (in French). FAÉCUM. 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  50. "Welcome to AEMD!" (in French). Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  51. "Histoire de la Fédération" (in French). FAÉCUM. 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  52. "Associations membres" (in French). FAÉCUM. 2012. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  53. "Groupes d'intérêt" (in French). FAÉCUM. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  54. "Quartier Libre" (in French). Quartier Libre. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  55. "A Propos" (in French). CISM 89.3 FM. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  56. "Historique" (in French). CISM 89.3 FM. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  57. "Historique" (in French). Canal Savoir. 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  58. "Carabins" (in French). Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
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  60. "Centre sportif - CEPSUM - Installations" (in French). Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  61. "Diplômés de l'Université de Montréal" (in French). Université de Montréal. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  62. "Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien". Business Families Foundation. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  63. "Louis R. Chênevert, Chairman & Chief Executive Officer". United Technologies Corporation. 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  64. "PIERRE KARL PÉLADEAU". Quebecor. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  65. Shorter, Edward; Fink, Max (2010). Endocrine Psychiatry: Solving the Riddle of Melancholia. Oxford University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0-19-973746-0.
  66. John, Wilson (2005). Pakistan's nuclear underworld: an investigation. Saṁskṛiti in association with Observer Research Foundation. p. 88. ISBN 81-87374-34-9.
  67. "Jocelyn Faubert". Université de Montréal. 2010. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  68. Herzberg runner-up: Gilles Brassard, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  69. Adu-Febiri, Francis; Everett, Ofori (2009). Succeeding from the Margins of Canadian Society: A Strategic Resource for New Immigrants, Refugees and International Students. CCB Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 1-926585-27-5.
  70. Hireche, Aïssa (2013-04-01). "Six ex-chefs de gouvernement sur la ligne de départ?". L'Expression (in French). Sarl Fattani Communication and Press. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
  71. Coucill, Irma (2005). Canada's Prime Ministers, Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers Limited. p. 38. ISBN 1-55138-185-0.
  72. Levine, Allan Gerald (1989). Your Worship: the lives of eight of Canada's most unforgettable mayors. James Lorimer & Company. p. 152. ISBN 1-55028-209-3.
  73. "Robert BOURASSA" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. April 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  74. Paulin, Marguerite (2005). Maurice Duplessis: powerbroker, politician. Dundurn Press Limited. p. 2. ISBN 1-894852-17-6.
  75. "Lomer GOUIN" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. March 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  76. "Daniel JOHNSON (FILS)" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. June 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  77. "Pierre Marc JOHNSON" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. May 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  78. "Bernard LANDRY" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. April 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  79. "Jacques PARIZEAU" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. December 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
  80. "Joseph-Mignault-Paul SAUVÉ" (in French). Assemblee Nationale de Quebec. July 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-23.

Further reading

  • Bizier, Hélène-Andrée. 1993. L'Université de Montréal: la quête du savoir. Montréal: Libre expression. 311 pp. ISBN 2-89111-522-8
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