Universal Studios Hollywood

Universal Studios Hollywood is a film studio and theme park in the San Fernando Valley area of Los Angeles County, California. About 70% of the studio lies within the unincorporated county island known as Universal City while the rest lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, California. It is one of the oldest and most famous Hollywood film studios still in use. Its official marketing headline is "The Entertainment Capital of LA".[1] It was initially created to offer tours of the real Universal Studios sets and is the first of many full-fledged Universal Studios Theme Parks located across the world.

Universal Studios Hollywood
Entrance to the theme park
SloganThe Entertainment Capital of LA[1]
LocationUniversal City, California
Coordinates34.136518°N 118.356051°W / 34.136518; -118.356051
ThemeShow business and Universal entertainment
Operated byUniversal Parks & Resorts
OpenedApril 30, 1912 (1912-04-30) (as a movie studio)
March 15, 1915 (1915-03-15) (L.A. studio lot)
July 15, 1964 (1964-07-15) (as a theme park)[2]
Roller coasters2
WebsiteOfficial website

Outside the theme park, a new, all-digital facility near the Universal Pictures backlot was built in an effort to merge all of NBCUniversal's West Coast operations into one area. As a result, the current home for KNBC, KVEA and NBC News with Telemundo Los Angeles Bureaus with new digital facility is on the Universal lot formerly occupied by Technicolor SA. Universal City includes hotels Universal Hilton & Towers, the Sheraton Universal Hotel, and Universal CityWalk, which offers a collection of shops, restaurants, an 18-screen Universal Cinema and a seven-story IMAX theater. In 2017, the park hosted 9,056,000 guests, ranking it 15th in the world and 9th among North American parks.[3]

Studio history

The first studio tour

From the beginning, Universal had offered tours of its studio. After Carl Laemmle opened Universal City on March 14, 1915, he later invited the general public to see all the action for an admission fee of just five cents, which also included a boxed lunch with chicken. There was also a chance to buy fresh produce, since then-rural Universal City was still in part a working farm. This original tour was discontinued in around 1930, due to the advent of sound films coming to Universal.[2]

Backlot fires

Universal Studios Hollywood's back lot has been damaged by fire nine times throughout its history.[4] The first was in 1932 when embers from a nearby brush fire were blown toward the back lot causing four movie sets to be destroyed and resulting in over $100,000 damage.[5] Seventeen years later, in 1949, another brush fire caused the complete destruction of one building and damage to two others.[6] In 1957, the New York street film studio set was destroyed by an arson fire causing half a million dollars in damage.[7] Ten years later, in 1967, twice as much damage was done when the Little Europe area and part of Spartacus Square was destroyed. It also destroyed the European, Denver and Laramie street sets.[8] In 1987, the remaining portion of Spartacus Square was destroyed along with street sets and other buildings. As with the 1957 fire, this was suspected to be the result of an arsonist.[9] Just three years later, another deliberate fire was started in the back lot. The New York Street set, the Ben Hur set and the majority of Courthouse Square were destroyed.[10] In 1997, the seventh fire occurred at the back lot.[4] A portion of the Courthouse Square was again destroyed, though most survived.[11]

2008 fire

The most damage was done on June 1, 2008 when a three alarm fire broke out on the back lot of Universal Studios.[12] The fire started when a worker was using a blowtorch to warm asphalt shingles being applied to a facade.[13][14] The Los Angeles County Fire Department had reported that Brownstone Street, New York Street, New England Street, the King Kong attraction, some structures that make up Courthouse Square, and the Video Vault had burned down (not to be confused with the actual Film Vault; the Video Vault contains duplicates of Universal's film library). Aerial news footage captured the Courthouse building surviving fire for the third time in its history, with only the west side of it being slightly charred. Over 516 firefighters[14] from various local fire departments, as well as two helicopters dropping water, had responded to the fire. Fourteen firefighters and three Los Angeles County sheriffs' deputies sustained minor injuries. The fire was put out after twelve hours, during which time firefighters encountered low water pressure.

Destroyed were 40,000 to 50,000 archived digital video and film copies chronicling Universal's movie and TV show history, dating back to the 1920s, including the films Knocked Up and Atonement, the NBC series Law & Order, The Office, and Miami Vice, and CBS's I Love Lucy.[15][16][17]

Universal president Ron Meyer stated "Nothing irreplaceable was lost. We have duplicates of everything that was lost."[18]

Several days after the fire, it was reported that the King Kong attraction would not be rebuilt and would eventually be replaced by a new attraction that had yet to be announced.[19] In August 2008, Universal changed its position and announced plans to rebuild the King Kong attraction, basing the new attraction on the 2005 film adaptation.

It emerged only in June 2019, in an article published by The New York Times that the fire had totally destroyed Building 6197, a warehouse adjoining the King Kong attraction, which housed a video vault and, significantly, a huge archive of analogue audio master tapes belonging to Universal Music Group.[12] The collection included the master tape catalogues of various labels acquired by Universal over the years, including Chess, Decca, MCA, Geffen, Interscope, A&M, Impulse, and a host of subsidiary labels.[12] Estimates of the individual items lost range from 118,000 to 175,000 album and 45rpm single master tapes, gramophone master discs, lacquers and acetates, as well as all the documentation contained in the tape boxes.[12] Many of the tapes destroyed contained unreleased recordings such as outtakes, alternate versions of released material, and instrumental 'submaster' multitracks created for subsequent dubbing and mixdown to the final master tape. Randy Aronson, who was manager of the vault at the time of the fire, estimates that as many as 500,000 individual song titles were lost.[12]

Among the losses were all of Decca's masters from the 1930s to the 1950s and most of the original Chess masters which included artists such as Chuck Berry, Otis Redding, Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf, and most of the John Coltrane's master tapes from his later career on Impulse Records; the Chess, Coltrane and Impulse Records recordings were later confirmed to have survived.[12] In a statement issued on June 11, 2019, UMG disputed The New York Times article saying it contained "numerous inaccuracies", as well as "fundamental misunderstandings of the scope of the incident and affected assets," but was unable to publicly disclose details due to "constraints".[20]

Following the publication of the New York Times story, Questlove of The Roots confirmed that the master tapes for two of the band's albums, including unused material and multi-track recordings, were lost in the fire.[21] Similarly, Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic said he believed the masters for the band's 1991 album Nevermind were "gone forever" as a result of the fire.[22] Representatives for R.E.M. announced they would investigate the effects the fire may have had on the band's archival materials, while Hole, Steely Dan, Rosanne Cash and Geoff Downes made statements on their possible losses from the fire.[22][23]

A representative for Eminem confirmed that the rapper's master recordings were digitized months before the fire, but did not confirm whether the physical master reels of his recordings were affected.[24] UMG archivist Patrick Kraus assured that the Impulse Records, John Coltrane, Muddy Waters, Ahmad Jamal, Nashboro Records, and Chess Records masters survived the fire and were still in Universal's archive.[25]

Park history

Shortly after Music Corporation of America took over Universal Pictures in 1962, accountants suggested a new tour in the studio commissary would increase profits. On July 15, 1964, the modern tour was established to include a series of dressing room walk-throughs, peeks at actual production, and later, staged events.[2] This grew over the years into a full-blown theme park. The narrated tram tour (formerly "Glamor Trams"[26]) still runs through the studio's active backlot, but the staged events, stunt demonstrations and high-tech rides overshadow the motion-picture production that once lured fans to Universal Studios Hollywood.[2][27]

In 1965, the War Lord Tower opened as one of the first attractions in the theme park. One of the early struggles for Universal was coming up with things for young children to do. The existing small Ma & Pa Kettle Petting Zoo was expanded into the Ark Park. This area encompassed the Mt. Ararat petting zoo with over 200 animals and birds representing 30 species and a Noah's Nursery and a Noah's Love Inn playhouse for children and animals.[28] This was followed by the opening of the Animal Actors' School Stage in 1970. In 1968, the Screen Actors Guild enacted a rule prohibiting visitors from most soundstages. This new rule, coupled with more productions being shot on location, meant the backlot tram tour could not show visitors much in the way of real movie and television production. Jay Stein, President of the Recreation Division, championed the idea of creating exciting experiences for visitors in place of viewing actual production. Later that same year, the Flash Flood set was opened and this first special-effects attraction proved to be a hit. 20,000 gallons of water rushed 200 feet down a narrow Mexican village street, uprooting an old tree and threatening to engulf the tram. The Parting of the Red Sea attraction opened in 1973.[28] In 1974, the Rockslide staged event was added to the Studio Tour. The following year, The Land of a Thousand Faces opened on the Upper Lot. In 1979, the Battle of Galactica replaced Rockslide as a staged event on the Studio Tour.

The Flintstones Show opened, replacing the Star Trek Adventure. In 1991, E.T. Adventure opened as the park's first "dark ride," an industry term for an attraction that uses ride vehicles to take passengers through an indoor show building. Around the same time, sister park Universal Studios Florida opened, which had its own, similar E.T. attraction. The Florida version was more of a conventional theme park and paved the way for the Hollywood park's evolution. In 1993, Back to the Future: The Ride opened, replacing Battle of Galactica. In 1996, Jurassic Park: The Ride opened. In 1997, two shows were replaced: The Land Before Time show replaced Rocky and Bullwinkle Live; and Totally Nickelodeon replaced the Flintstones Show. Just one year after it opened, the Land Before Time show was replaced with Coke Soak. In 1999, T2-3D: Battle Across Time and a Chicken Run Walkthrough opened on the upper lot. Additionally, Beetlejuice's Rock and Roll Graveyard Revue was closed.

In 2000, the Rugrats Magic Adventure replaced Totally Nickelodeon. In 2001, the Nickelodeon Blast Zone opened. Also in 2001, Animal Planet Live replaced the Animal Actors' School Stage. In 2003, Universal Studios Hollywood closed E.T. Adventure to make way for Revenge of the Mummy, which opened in 2004. The following year, Fear Factor Live replaced Spider-Man Rocks. In 2007, Universal's House of Horrors opened, replacing Van Helsing: Fortress Dracula. Both Back to the Future: The Ride and Lucy: A Tribute were closed, being replaced in 2008 by The Simpsons Ride and the Universal Story Museum respectively. Also in 2008, the Nickelodeon Blast Zone was re-branded to the Adventures of Curious George. In 2009, Creature from the Black Lagoon: The Musical replaced Fear Factor Live in the Upper Lot.

In 2010, the Special Effects Stages and Backdraft attractions were closed to make way for Transformers: The Ride 3D, which was announced in 2008 (Special Effects Stages was moved to the former Creature From The Black Lagoon building and reopened as Special Effects Stage).[29] King Kong 360 3-D also opened. On May 24, 2012, Transformers: The Ride 3D opened on the Lower Lot.[29] On December 31, 2012, Universal Studios Hollywood closed T2-3D: Battle Across Time for Despicable Me Minion Mayhem, the attraction at Universal Studios Florida, which opened on April 12, 2014.[30]

In April 2014, the park announced Springfield: a new dining complex to be built around the Simpsons Ride. The new eateries will feature "signature eateries from Krusty Burger to Luigi's Pizza and Phineas Q. Butterfat's 5,600 Flavors Ice Cream Parlor to iconic watering holes like Moe's Tavern and Duff's Brewery".[31] It opened on March 28, 2015.

On May 7, 2015, Universal Studios announced it formed a partnership with Nintendo to create attractions and merchandises based on Mario and other Nintendo characters.[32] The following year, the area was called "Super Nintendo World", and was confirmed that it would come to Universal Studios Japan in 2020[33] as well as Universal Orlando and Universal Studios Hollywood later on.[34]

On August 13, 2017, Shrek 4-D was closed after 14 years to make way for the DreamWorks Theatre attraction.

The International Broadcast Center (IBC) and main press center (MPC) will be located at Universal Studios Hollywood during the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.[35]

On September 3, 2018, Jurassic Park: The Ride was closed and refurbished to become Jurassic World: The Ride, which opened on July 12, 2019.[36]

On April 10, 2019, the park announced The Secret Life of Pets: Off the Leash!, an attraction based on The Secret Life of Pets. The attraction is set to open in 2020, adjacent to the Despicable Me Minion Mayhem attraction.[37]

Park layout

Universal Studios Hollywood is split into two areas on different levels, connected by a series of escalators called the Starway. These areas are known as the Upper lot and Lower lot. As of 2019, Universal Studios Hollywood contains 9 rides, 7 shows, and a large outdoor play area. Each lot features a collection of rides, shows and attractions as well as food, beverage, and merchandise shops.[38][39][40]

Upper Lot

The Upper Lot is home to a variety of family based attractions. The theming of the Upper Lot includes a Mission Revival entrance pathway, known as Universal Boulevard, that ends at the new Universal Plaza opened in 2012. There are not as much fully themed lands as there are small environments linked together with a common Art Deco theme that reflects the glamour of Old Hollywood. Universal Boulevard is home to a variety of shows including the Universal's Animal Actors Show, the Special Effects Stage, and Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular. Also in the Universal Boulevard section of the Upper Lot is The DreamWorks Theatre, which is themed to DreamWorks Animation's Kung Fu Panda, and a Walking Dead themed attraction that mixes animatronics with real actors.[38]

The Upper Lot is also home to Minion Way, featuring Despicable Me Minion Mayhem, a motion simulator ride that takes you into the world of minions. The ride also has its own play area that contains a large outdoor dry and wet play area for children called Super Silly Fun Land, in addition to a flat spinner ride called Silly Swirly. Gru's Lab Cafe and Despicable Delights are the two themed eateries in the area.

Springfield, U.S.A. is themed to The Simpsons. This area contains The Simpsons Ride, a motion simulator ride, along with multiple eateries themed to the show, a gift shop themed after Kwik-E-Mart, and several character meet and greets.

''The Wizarding World of Harry Potter'' soft opened February 12, 2016, and officially opened April 7, 2016, and is the largest themed area in the Upper Lot, featuring the animatronic and screen based thrill ride Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey, which is housed in a replica of Hogwarts castle, featuring actual props from the films in the queue. In addition, this area includes the family friendly roller coaster Flight of the Hippogriff, the interactive Ollivander's Wand Fitting Experience is where a wand picks a witch or a wizard, and The Frog Choir and Triwizard Rally live shows featured on the outdoor stage. In addition to attractions, the themed area features multiple shops, a Hogwarts Express train picture spot, The Three Broomsticks restaurant, and a variety of outdoor vending carts selling food and drink.

The Studio Tour is a 45 to 60 minute ride which uses tram vehicles to take the visitors from the Theme Park's Upper Lot to the back-lot where actual filming of many shows and movies take place. The tour is the signature ride at the theme park and the wait time varies by day and seasons. The tour begins with a video introduction by Jimmy Fallon and a trip down the hill into the Front Lot. After drifting through the sound stages of the Front Lot and transitioning into the Metropolitan Sets of the back lot. The tram then takes the guests to Courthouse Square section and then other buildings in the back lot. Afterwards, the tram enters a tunnel leading to the attraction: King Kong: 360 3-D. Then the tram travels through sets from Jurassic Park and encounter Dilophosauruses. Following that, the tram travels to the Flash Flood attraction. The tram continues through Old Mexico, Six Points Texas, a miniature model of the SS Venture from King Kong, and Little Europe before experiencing Earthquake: The Big One attraction, movie sets themed as Amity Island from Jaws, Whoville from How the Grinch Stole Christmas, Bates motel from Psycho, and the crashed plane set from War of the Worlds, before leading to the final attraction on the tour, Fast & Furious: Supercharged based on the Fast & Furious film franchise.

In addition, the Upper Lot contains the Streets of the World, which features the following: a French themed avenue with quick service dining, and a replica of Mel's Diner, known for being featured prominently in the Universal classic American Graffiti.


Attraction Attraction type Description Height requirements
Despicable Me Minion Mayhem Motion simulator Guests are transformed into minions and undergo training by navigating an obstacle course. Meanwhile, Gru's daughters try to give Gru a present to commemorate the anniversary of their adoption. Minimum 40" (102 cm). Children 40-48″ (102-122 cm) must be accompanied by supervising companion (14 years or older)
Silly Swirly Aerial carousel Family-friendly carnival ride spins to give guests a 360-degree view of "Super Silly Fun Land". Children under 48" (122 cm) must be accompanied by a supervising companion.
Super Silly Fun Land Play area A large outdoor wet and dry play area themed to the Despicable Me franchise. It replaced the Coke Soak attraction in 2012. None
Studio Tour Tram ride The tour of the Universal Studios back lot, which features backdrops and sets used in many of their films. Also includes attractions King Kong: 360 3-D, Fast & Furious: Supercharged, Jaws Encounter and Earthquake: The Big One. None
DreamWorks Theatre Film Themed around characters featured in films from DreamWorks Animation. Currently showing Kung Fu Panda Adventure. None
The Simpsons Ride Motion simulator The Simpsons visit Krustyland to try out the new roller-coaster but things go wrong as Sideshow Bob tries to sabotage the ride.[41] Minimum 40" (102 cm)
The Walking Dead: A Walk-Through Attraction Interactive Walkthrough Maze Follow in the footsteps of the human survivors as you battle your way through nightmarish iconic landscapes that bring the most popular cable TV show in history to life! None
Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular Stunt show A woman arrives with news of a "Dryland", but rival "smokers" attack on jet skis and boats until a Mariner arrives to fight them off. Jet-skiers and boats, stunt fights, a crashing plane, pyrotechnics.[42] None
Universal's Animal Actors Live show A 20-minute show showcasing stunts and tricks from a variety of animals. None
Special Effects Stage Live show A demonstration of some of the special effects used in film making. None

The Wizarding World of Harry Potter

The Wizarding World of Harry Potter officially opened on April 7, 2016. It includes a family friendly roller coaster ride and a motion simulator that features aerobatics. There are also live shows that take place, the Frog Choir, the Triwizard Spirit Rally, and Ollivander's Wand Show. In the Hogsmeade, you can purchase souvenirs and food based on the books and films.

Attraction Attraction type Description Height requirements
Flight of the Hippogriff Roller Coaster Learn the proper way to approach a Hippogriff before you take off on a family-friendly coaster that spirals and dives around the pumpkin patch, and swoops past Hagrid's hut.[43] Minimum 39" (99 cm). Children between 39"- 48" (99-122 cm) must be accompanied by a supervising companion.
Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey Dark ride Make your way through the classrooms of Hogwarts. Then soar above the castle grounds on a ground breaking new ride that lets you join Harry Potter and his friends on an unforgettable thrilling adventure.[43] Minimum 48" (122 cm)
Ollivander’s Wand Fitting Experience Interactive experience and gift shop Step inside this small, dusty shop and choose from an array of Ollivanders wands, or purchase replicas of the Harry Potter film characters' wands, Collectible wand sets and more. None
Frog Choir Live show This outdoor live show features students of Hogwarts with their singing frogs. None
Triwizard Spirit Rally Live show Sharing a stage with the Frog choir, this themed show features men performing martial arts moves and gymnastics with sticks. None

Lower Lot

The Lower Lot is the smaller of the two lots. There are three thrill rides at this section of the park that each have height restrictions. It is home to Jurassic World: The Ride, Revenge of the Mummy: The Ride[38] and Transformers: The Ride 3D.[29][44]

Jurassic World: The Ride, is a water adventure ride that takes visitors through the events of the film Jurassic World, ending with an 84-foot drop. Outside the ride stands the Raptor Encounter, a show that happens throughout the day, and the Dino Play jungle gym area for children too small to ride. Revenge of the Mummy: The Ride is a high speed indoor roller coaster transporting guests through moments reminiscent of the 1999 Mummy franchise. Transformers: The Ride 3D uses high tech technology to simulate a battle between the Autobots and Decepticons with 4K-3D screens and flight simulator ride vehicles. The Lower Lot also features several gift shops and quick service restaurants.


Attraction Attraction type Description Height requirements
Jurassic World: The Ride Shoot the Chute A water adventure ride that takes guests through the events of Jurassic World. Minimum 42" (107 cm). Children 42-48" (107-122 cm) must be accompanied by a super companion.
Revenge of the Mummy: The Ride Enclosed roller coaster An indoor steel roller coaster that accelerates to 45 miles per hour. Features forward motion and backwards motion. Minimum 48" (122 cm)
Transformers: The Ride 3D 3D dark ride A dark ride where the rider's task is to protect the AllSpark from the clutches of Megatron and his cohorts as the car travels through the streets and skyscrapers of Chicago.[45] Minimum 40" (102 cm). Children 40-48″ (102-122 cm) must be accompanied by a supervising compansion.
Raptor Encounter Live performance and character photos A live show performed outside the Jurassic World attraction featuring a "raptor handler" and a velociraptor.[46][47] None
Dino Play Play area An interactive play area with fossils, cargo nets, ladders and slides. None

Character appearances

As with the other Universal parks, characters roam the park grounds, representing many different genres. Some are portrayals of Hollywood icons while others are based on Universal's media library.[48][49][50]


2009201020112012201320142015201620172018Worldwide rank
4,308,000[51] 5,040,000[52] 5,141,000[52] 5,912,000[3] 6,148,000[3] 6,824,000[53] 7,097,000[54] 8,086,000[55] 9,056,000[56] 9,147,000[57] 15

Public transportation

Universal Studios Hollywood can easily be accessed by public transportation at Universal City/Studio City. The Metro Red line subway train runs between Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles, Westlake, Koreatown, East Hollywood, and Hollywood.

Passengers can also arrive at the entrance of the theme park entrance by several Metro bus routes. Metro Local lines 150, 155, 224, 240, and Metro Rapid line 750 stop at Lankershim Blvd & Universal Center Drive (front entrance). Metro Local line 165 and Metro Shuttle line 656 Owl stop farther away from the entrance, at Ventura and Lankershim Boulevards. At the front entrance (Universal Center Dr. & Lankershim Blvd), there is a free shuttle tram which takes the passengers directly towards the theme park entrance.

See also


  1. "About Us". Universal Studios Hollywood. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  2. "Chronology & History of Universal Studios Hollywood". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  3. "TEA/AECOM Theme and Museum Index 2017" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  4. "Backlot Fires". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  5. "Actors Flee Blazing Movie Set". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  6. "Southland Fires Halted". Long Beach Independent. June 22, 1949. Retrieved July 9, 2010 via The Studio Tour.
  7. "1957 Backlot Fire". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  8. "1967 Backlot Fire". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  9. "1987 Backlot Fire". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  10. "1990 Backlot Fire". The Studio Tour. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  11. "1997 Backlot Fire". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  12. Rosen, Jody (June 11, 2019). "The Day the Music Burned: It was the biggest disaster in the history of the music business — and almost nobody knew". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  13. "USH 2008 Fire". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  14. "Universal Studios blaze burns sets, video vault". CNN. June 1, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
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  16. Risling, Greg. "Fire at Universal Studios destroys sets, videos". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2015 via Web Archive.
  17. Nakashima, Ryan. "Universal studios fire may cost tens of millions". Web Archive. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  18. "Universal Studios fire engulfs sets, video vault, King Kong exhibit". CBC.ca. June 1, 2008.
  19. "Universal Studios Hollywood to replace 'King Kong' with new attraction". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  20. Aswad, Jem (June 11, 2019). "Universal Music Disputes Severity of 2008 Fire Cited in New York Times Article". Variety. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  21. "Hole Say They Were Never Told About Lost Recordings in Warehouse Fire". Pitchfork. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  22. Holson, Laura M. (June 12, 2019). "Musicians Mourn the Fiery Destruction of Their Recordings: 'I Think They Are Gone Forever'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  23. Colburn, Randall. "Nirvana's Krist Novoselic believes Nevermind masters lost in Universal fire". News. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  24. "Eminem Master Tapes Were Digitally Backed Up Just Months Before Universal Fire: Report". Billboard. June 12, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  25. "Universal Music Group Archivist: Vault Fire Damage 'Surprisingly Overstated,' But Any Loss Is 'Painful for Us'". Billboard.
  26. "GlamourTrams". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  27. "The Studio Tour". The Studio Tour. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  28. Gennawey, Sam (2016). JayBangs: How Jay Stein, MCA, and Universal invented the Modern Theme Park and Beat Disney at Its Own Game. United States of America: Theme Park Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-1683900252.
  29. MacDonald, Brady (October 21, 2008). "Universal Studios Hollywood plans Transformers ride for 2011". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
  30. Universal Studios Hollywood. "'Despicable Me: Minion Mayhem' Is Coming to Universal Hollywood!". Get Away Today (Press release).
  31. Mirgoli, Nicholous (April 2014). "Universal Studios Hollywood announces Springfield Food Court and Fast & Furious Turbocharged opening in 2015". www.ThemeParkOverload.net. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  32. Villas-Boas, Antonio (May 7, 2015). "Nintendo's huge new deal with Universal shows just how far it'll go to turn the ship around". Business Insider. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  33. Ashcraft, Biran (March 5, 2016). "First Details on Nintendo's Universal Studios Collaboration". Kotaku. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  34. Spangler, Todd (November 29, 2016). "Nintendo-Themed Areas Coming to Universal Parks". Variety. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  35. "Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding" (PDF). Los Angeles 2024 Bid Committee.
  36. "BREAKING NEWS: "Jurassic World—The Ride" Opens at Universal Studios Hollywood and It Just Got Real". NBCUniversal MediaVillage. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  37. McNary, Dave (April 10, 2019). "'Secret Life of Pets' Theme Park Ride Coming to Universal Studios Hollywood". Variety. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  38. "Park Map". Universal Studios Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  39. "Dining". Universal Studios Hollywood. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  40. "Shopping". Universal Studios Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
  41. Levine, Arthur. "The Simpsons Ride Universal Studios Florida and Universal Studios Hollywood". About.com Travel. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  42. Wharton, David (October 12, 1995). "Wet, Wild Saga Continues for 'Waterworld' : Universal Studios to Unveil Stunt Show Based on the Film". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  43. "Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey™". Universal Studios Hollywood.
  44. Angona, Dan (June 12, 2010). "Universal Studios Hollywood". Photo Update. Westcoaster. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
  45. Miller, Martin (June 6, 2012). "Review: Universal's 'Transformers' ride sophisticated, satisfying". Hero Complex. Los Angeles Times.
  46. "Jurassic World Raptor Encounter debuts at Universal Studios Hollywood, encouraging dinosaur selfies - Inside the Magic". July 8, 2015.
  47. "Come face-to-face with a Velociraptor at Universal Studios Hollywood". July 9, 2015.
  48. "Universal Studios Hollywood - Character Photo Ops". October 12, 2010. Archived from the original on October 12, 2010.
  49. "Character Sightings".
  50. "Streetmosphere". The Studio Tour. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
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  52. "TEA/AECOM 2011 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
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