Unilever is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom, and Rotterdam, Netherlands. Its products include food and beverages (about 40 percent of its revenue), cleaning agents, beauty products, and personal care products. It is Europe’s seventh most valuable company.[5] Unilever is one of the oldest multinational companies; its products are available in around 190 countries.[6]

Unilever plc
Unilever N.V.
Public limited company
Naamloze vennootschap
Traded asLSE: ULVR
FTSE 100 Component
Euronext: UNA
IndustryConsumer goods
Founded2 September 1929 (1929-09-02)
HeadquartersUnilever House, London, UK
Rotterdam, Netherlands[1]
Area served
Key people
ProductsBeauty & personal care, food & refreshments, cleaning products
BrandsSee list of brands
Revenue €50.982 billion (2018)
€12.535 billion (2018)
€9.808 billion (2018)
Total assets €59.456 billion (2018)
Total equity €12.292 billion (2018)
Number of employees
155,000 (2019)
Footnotes / references

Unilever owns over 400 brands, with a turnover in 2017 of 53.7 billion euros,[7] and thirteen brands with sales of over one billion euros:[8] Axe/Lynx, Dove, Omo, Heartbrand ice creams, Hellmann's, Knorr, Lipton, Lux, Magnum, Rexona/Degree, Sunsilk and Surf.[6] It is a dual-listed company consisting of Unilever plc, based in London, and Unilever N.V., based in Rotterdam. The two companies operate as a single business, with a common board of directors. Unilever is organised into four main divisions – Foods, Refreshment (beverages and ice cream), Home Care, and Beauty & Personal Care. It has research and development facilities in the United Kingdom (two), the Netherlands, China, India and the United States.[9]

Unilever was founded on September 2, 1929, by the merger of the Dutch margarine producer Margarine Unie and the British soapmaker Lever Brothers. During the second half of the 20th century the company increasingly diversified from being a maker of products made of oils and fats, and expanded its operations worldwide. It has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including Lipton (1971), Brooke Bond (1984), Chesebrough-Ponds (1987), Best Foods (2000), Ben & Jerry's (2000), Alberto-Culver (2010), Dollar Shave Club (2016) and Pukka Herbs (2017). Unilever divested its speciality chemicals businesses to ICI in 1997. In the 2010s, under leadership of Paul Polman, the company gradually shifted its focus towards health and beauty brands and away from food brands showing slow growth.[10]

Unilever plc has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Unilever N.V. has a primary listing on Euronext Amsterdam and is a constituent of the AEX index. The company is also a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[11]



In 1872, Antoon Jurgens, founded the first margarine factory in the world in Oss, Netherlands. Then, in 1888, Samuel van den Bergh, also from Oss, opened his margarine factory in Kleve. These two companies merged in 1927 to form Margarine Unie.[12]

The initial harvesting of palm oil was from British West Africa, from where news reports seen back in England showed the workers abroad in favourable conditions.[13] In 1911, the company received a concession for 750,000 hectares (1,900,000 acres) of forest in Belgian Congo, mostly south of Bandundu, where it operated through a subsidiary named Huileries du Congo Belge that used forced labour.[14]


In 1925, Lever Brothers acquired Mac Fisheries, owner of T. Wall & Sons.[15] In September 1929, Unilever was formed by a merger of the operations of Dutch Margarine Unie and British soapmaker Lever Brothers, with the name of the resulting company a portmanteau of the name of both companies.[16]

In the 1930s, business grew and new ventures were launched in Africa and Latin America. The Nazi occupation of Europe during the Second World War meant that Unilever was unable to reinvest its capital into Europe, so it instead acquired new businesses in the UK and the US.[17] In 1943, it acquired T. J. Lipton, a majority stake in Frosted Foods (owner of the Birds Eye brand) and Batchelors Peas, one of the largest vegetables canners in the UK.[15][18] In 1944, Pepsodent was acquired.[18]

After 1945 Unilever's once successful American businesses (Lever Brothers and T.J. Lipton) began to decline.[2] As a result, Unilever began to operate a "hands off" policy towards the subsidiaries, and left American management to its own devices.[2]


Sunsilk was first launched in the UK in 1954.[19] Dove was first launched in the US in 1957.[19] Unilever took full ownership of Frosted Foods in 1957, which it renamed Birds Eye.[20] The US-based Good Humor ice cream business was acquired in 1961.[21]

By the mid-1960s laundry soap and edible fats still contributed around half of Unilever's corporate profits.[15] However, a stagnant market for yellow fats and increasing competition in detergents and soaps from Procter & Gamble forced Unilever to diversify.[15] In 1971, Unilever acquired the British-based Lipton Ltd from Allied Suppliers.[15] In 1978, National Starch was acquired for $487 million, marking the largest ever foreign-acquisition of a US company at that point.[22]


By the end of the 1970s through acquisitions, Unilever had gained 30 percent of the Western European ice cream market.[15] In 1982, Unilever management decided to reposition itself from an unwieldy conglomerate to a more concentrated FMCG company.[23]

In 1984, Unilever acquired Brooke Bond (maker of PG Tips tea) for £390 million in the company's first successful hostile takeover.[15] In 1986 Unilever strengthened its position in the world skin care market by acquiring Chesebrough-Ponds (merged from Chesebrough Manufacturing and Pond's Creams), the maker of Ragú, Pond's, Aqua-Net, Cutex, and Vaseline in another hostile takeover.[23] In 1989, Unilever bought Calvin Klein Cosmetics, Fabergé, and Elizabeth Arden, but the latter was later sold (in 2000) to FFI Fragrances.[24]


In 1993, Unilever acquired Breyers from Kraft, which made the company the largest ice cream manufacturer in the United States.[25]

In 1996, Unilever merged Elida Gibbs and Lever Brothers in its UK operations.[26] It also purchased Helene Curtis, significantly expanding its presence in the United States shampoo and deodorant market.[24] The purchase brought Unilever the Suave and Finesse hair-care product brands and Degree deodorant brand.[24]

In 1997, Unilever sold its speciality chemicals division, including National Starch & Chemical, Quest, Unichema and Crosfield to Imperial Chemical Industries for £4.9 billion.[27]

Unilever established a sustainable agriculture programme in 1998.[28]


In April 2000, Unilever bought both Ben & Jerry's and Slim Fast for £1.63 billion.[27] Later that year, the company acquired Best Foods for £13.4 billion.[27] The Bestfoods acquisition increased Unilever's scale in foods in America, and added brands such as Knorr, Marmite, Bovril and Hellmann's to its portfolio.[27] The transaction was the second largest cash acquisition in world business history.[27] In exchange for European regulatory approval of the deal, Unilever divested itself of such well-known brands as Oxo, Lesieur, McDonnells, Bla Band Royco and Batchelors.[27] The same year, the company bought worldwide mustard and products firm Maille. Maille had three boutiques in Europe, all of which sell mustard from the pump in the traditional Maille fashion. Paris, Dijon, France and London, UK. The merge between Best Foods and Unilever was approved by the Israeli Anti trust agency.[29]

In 2001, Unilever split into two divisions: one for Foods and one for Home and Personal Care.[27] In the UK, it merged its Lever Brothers and Elida Faberge businesses as Lever Faberge in January 2001.[30]

In September 2002, the company sold its specialty oils and fats division, Loders Croklaan, for RM814 million (€218.5 million) to IOI Corporation, a Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia-based oil palm company. As part of the deal, the Loders Croklaan brand will be maintained.[31]

Also in 2002 Unilever sold the Mazola, Argo & Kingsfords, Karo, Golden Griddle, and Henri's brands, along with several Canadian brands, to ACH Food Companies, an American subsidiary of Associated British Foods.[32][33]

In 2004 Unilever sold its share in Rushdi food industry to the Bashir family which started to use the Baracke brand name.[34] As of 2014 Roshadi food industries was one of the three largest tahini producers in Israel and one of the largest producers of Tahini worldwide.[35]

In May 2007 Unilever became the first large-scale company to commit to sourcing all its tea in a sustainable manner,[36] employing the Rainforest Alliance, an international environmental NGO, to certify its tea estates in East Africa, as well as third-party suppliers in Africa and other parts of the world.[37] It declared its aim to have all Lipton Yellow Label and PG Tips tea bags sold in Western Europe certified by 2010, followed by all Lipton tea bags globally by 2015.[38]

In September 2009 Unilever agreed to acquire the personal care business of Sara Lee Corporation, including brands such as Radox, Badedas and Duschdas, strengthening its category leadership in skin cleansing and deodorants.[39] The Sara Lee acquisition was completed on 6 December 2010.[40]


In August 2010, Unilever signed an asset purchase agreement with the Norwegian dairy group TINE, to acquire the activities of Diplom-Is in Denmark.[41]

In September 2010, Unilever announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to sell its consumer tomato products business in Brazil to Cargill.[42]

In September 2010, Unilever purchased Alberto-Culver, a maker of personal care and household products including Simple, VO5, Nexxus, TRESemmé, and Mrs. Dash, for US$3.7 billion.[43]

In September 2010, Unilever and EVGA announced that they had signed an agreement under which Unilever would acquire EVGA's ice cream brands (amongst others, Scandal, Variete and Karabola) and distribution network in Greece, for an undisclosed amount.[44]

In February 2011, Unilever announced that it will switch to 100% cage-free eggs for all products it produces worldwide.[45]

In March 2011, it was announced that Unilever had entered into a binding agreement to sell the Sanex brand to Colgate-Palmolive for €672 million, and that Unilever would acquire Colgate-Palmolive's laundry detergent brands in Colombia (Fab, Lavomatic and Vel) for US$215 million.[46]

In April 2011, Unilever was fined €104 million by the European Commission for establishing a price-fixing cartel in Europe along with P&G, who was fined €211.2 million, and Henkel (not fined). Though the fine was set higher at first, it was discounted by 10% after Unilever and P&G admitted running the cartel. As the provider of the tip-off leading to investigations, Henkel was not fined.[47]

In August 2011, it was announced that Unilever had agreed to sell the Alberto VO5 brand in the United States and Puerto Rico, and the Rave brand globally, to Brynwood Partners VI L.P.[48]

In October 2011, it was announced that Unilever had agreed to acquire 82% of the Russia-based beauty company Kalina.[49]

In December 2012, it was announced that Unilever would phase out the use of microplastics in the form of microbeads in their personal care products by 2015.[50]

In January 2013, Unilever agreed to sell the Skippy peanut butter brand, together with related manufacturing facilities in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States and Weifang, Shandong, China, to Hormel Foods for approximately $700 million (£433 million, or approximately €540 million) in cash.[51][52]

In July 2013, Unilever increased its stake in its Indian unit, Hindustan Unilever, to 67% for around €2.45 billion.[53]

In August 2013, Unilever announced that it had signed an agreement for the sale of its Wish-Bone and Western dressings brands to Pinnacle Foods Inc. for a total cash consideration of approximately US$580 million, subject to regulatory approval.[54] On 6 September 2013, Unilever entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the premium Australian tea brand T2.[55]

In February 2014, Unilever signed a definitive agreement for the sale of its meat snacks business, including Peperami (UK/Ireland) and BIFI (continental Europe) to Jack Link's, for an undisclosed amount.[56]

In March 2014, Unilever agreed to acquire a majority stake in the China-based water purification company Qinyuan, which makes water purifiers, drinking water equipment and water treatment membranes, for an undisclosed price.[57][58]

On 22 May 2014, the company announced it had sold its North America pasta sauces business including the Ragú and Bertolli brands to Japanese company Mizkan in a deal worth $2.15 billion.[59]

On 10 July 2014, Unilever announced that it had sold its Slim-Fast brand to Kainos Capital, yet retained a minority stake in the business.[60]

On 2 December 2014, Unilever announced that it had acquired Talenti Gelato & Sorbetto. Minneapolis-based Talenti, which was founded in 2003, had grown into the best-selling packaged gelato in the United States.[61]

On 22 December 2014, Unilever announced the purchase of the Camay brand globally and the Zest brand outside of North America and the Caribbean from Procter & Gamble.[62] The sale is part of P&G's strategy of shedding its 80-100 non-core brands and diverting focus to the remaining 70-90 powerhouse brands. The two brands had a combined revenues of $225 million in fiscal 2014.[63] The sale also includes P&G's manufacturing facility in Mexico.The plant employs approximately 170 people who will transfer to Unilever at the completion of the deal.[64] Following the acquisition, Unilver has enlisted the services of the packaging design agency Who? Brand Design, in order to update the Camay brand image.[65]

Hampton Creek lawsuit

In November 2014, Unilever filed a lawsuit against rival Hampton Creek.[66] In the suit,[67] Unilever claimed that Hampton Creek was "seizing market share" and the losses were causing Unilever "irreparable harm." Unilever used standard of identity regulations in claiming that Hampton Creek's Just Mayo products are falsely advertised because they don't contain eggs.[68]

The Washington Post[69] headline on the suit read "Big Food's Weird War Over The Meaning of Mayonnaise." The Los Angeles Times[70] began its story with "Big Tobacco, Big Oil, now Big Mayo?" A Wall Street Journal writer described that with "Giant corporation generates huge quantities of free advertising and brand equity for tiny rival by suing it."[71]

In December 2014, Unilever dropped the claim.[72]


In March 2015, Unilever confirmed it had reached an agreement to acquire REN Skincare, a British niche skincare brand.[73] This was followed in May 2015 by the acquisition of Kate Somerville Skincare LLC.[74]

In July 2015, the company separated its food spreads business,[75] including its Flora and I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! brands, into a standalone entity named Unilever Baking, Cooking and Spreading.[76] The separation was first announced in December 2014 and was made in response to declining worldwide sales in that product category.[77]

In October 2015, Unilever agreed to acquire the Italian premium ice cream maker GROM for an undisclosed amount.[78]


In July 2016, Unilever bought the US start-up Dollar Shave Club for a reported $1b (£764m) in order to compete in the male grooming market.[79] On 16 August 2016, Unilever acquired Blueair, a supplier of mobile indoor air purification technologies.[80] In September 2016, Unilever acquired Seventh Generation Inc. for $700 million.[81] On 16 December 2016, Unilever acquired Living Proof Inc, a hair care products business.[82]

On 17 February 2017, significantly smaller Kraft Heinz made a $143 billion bid for Unilever.[83][84] The deal was declined by Unilever.[85] On 20 April 2017, Unilever acquired Sir Kensington’s, a New York-based condiment maker.[86] On 15 May 2017, the company acquired the personal care and home care brands of Quala, a Latin American consumer goods company.[87] In June, the company acquired Hourglass, a colour cosmetics brand.[88] In July, the company then announced that it had acquired the organic herbal tea business, Pukka Herbs.[89]

In September 2017, Unilever acquired Weis, an Australian ice cream business.[90] Later that month Unilever acquired Remgro’s interest in Unilever South Africa in exchange for the Unilever South Africa spreads business plus cash consideration.[91] Even later that month, Unilever agreed to acquire Carver Korea, with 2.7billion USD, a skincare business brand of AHC in North Asia.[92]

In October 2017, Unilever acquired Brazilian natural and organic food business Mãe Terra.[93] In November, Unilever announced an agreement to acquire the Tazo speciality tea brand from Starbucks.[94] Later in November 2017, the company acquired Sundial Brands, a skincare company.[95] In December 2017, Unilever acquired Schmidt's Naturals, a US natural deodorant and soap company.[96]

In March 2018, the company announced that its headquarters will be moved completely to Rotterdam, ending its dual Anglo-Dutch structure.[97] A shareholder vote was planned to decide for the listing of a new Unilever Dutch entity, which would have seen Unilever dropping out of the FTSE 100 Index.[98] When it appeared that the vote would fail the scheme was cancelled on 5 October 2018.[99]

In October 2018, it acquired[100] a 75% stake in the Italian personal-care business Equilibra[101] and acquired the high-end, eco-friendly laundry and household cleaning products company The Laundress for an undisclosed sum.[102]

In 2018, UK recruitment website Indeed named Unilever as the UK's ninth best private sector employer[103] based on millions of employee ratings and reviews.[104]

Unilever acquired the snack company Graze in February 2019.[105]


In December 2017, Unilever sold its margarine and spreads division to investment firm KKR for €6.8bn.[106][107] The sale was completed in July 2018, and the new company was named Upfield.[108] Upfield's notable brands include Flora, Stork, I Can't Believe It's Not Butter, Rama, Country Crock, Becel, and Blue Band.[109]


Unilever is organised into four main divisions: Personal Care (production and sale of skin care and hair care products, deodorants and oral care products); Foods (production and sale of soups, bouillons, sauces, snacks, mayonnaise, salad dressings, margarines and spreads); Refreshment (production and sale of ice cream, tea-based beverages, weight-management products and nutritionally enhanced staples sold in developing markets); and Home Care (production and sale of home care products including powders, liquids and capsules, soap bars and other cleaning products).[110] In the financial year ended 31 December 2013, Unilever had a total turnover of €49.797 billion of which 36% was from Personal Care, 27% from Foods, 19% from Refreshment and 18% from Home Care.[110] Unilever invested a total of €1.04 billion in research and development in 2013.[110]

Unilever is one of the largest media buyers in the world, and invested around €6 billion (US$8 billion) in advertising and promotion in 2010.[111][112]

Unilever's largest international competitors are Nestlé and Procter & Gamble.[113] It also faces competition in local markets or specific product ranges from numerous companies, including Beiersdorf, ConAgra, Danone, Henkel, Mars, PepsiCo, Reckitt Benckiser and S. C. Johnson & Son. Unilever was fined by Autorité de la concurrence in France in 2016 for price-fixing on personal hygiene products.[114][115]

Corporate affairs

Unilever has two holding companies: Unilever N.V., which has its registered and head office in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and Unilever plc, which has its registered office at Port Sunlight in Merseyside, United Kingdom and its head office at Unilever House in London, United Kingdom.[116] Unilever plc and Unilever N.V. and their subsidiary companies operate as nearly as practicable as a single economic entity, whilst remaining separate legal entities with different shareholders and separate stock exchange listings.[116]

There is a series of legal agreements between the parent companies, together with special provisions in their respective Articles of Association, which are known as the Foundation Agreements.[116] A key requirement of the agreements is that the same people be on the Boards of the two parent companies. An Equalisation Agreement regulates the mutual rights of shareholders in Unilever plc and Unilever N.V. with the objective of ensuring that, in principle, it does not make any financial difference to hold shares in Unilever plc rather than Unilever N.V. (and vice versa).[116]


On 15 March 2018, Unilever announced its intention to simplify this structure by centralising the duality of legal entities and keeping just one headquarters in Rotterdam, abandoning the London head office. Business groups and staff would have been unaffected, as would the dual listing.[117] On 5 October 2018 the group announced it would cancel the restructuring due to concern that the UK shareholders would lose value if the company fell out of the London FTSE100.[118]

Senior management

In January 2019, Alan Jope succeeded Paul Polman as the Chief Executive Officer.[119] The Chief Financial Officer, Graeme Pitkethly,[120] is Executive Director. Jope will be proposed as joint Executive Director at Unilever's 2019 AGM.[121]

Previously, Paul Polman was CEO for ten years, succeeding Patrick Cescau in 2009.[122]

In November 2019, Unilever announced that Nils Andersen would be replacing CEO Marijn Dekkers, who stepped down after three years in the role.[123]

In 1930, the logo of Unilever was in a sans-serif typeface and all-caps. The current Unilever corporate logo was introduced in 2004 and was designed by Wolff Olins, a brand consultancy agency. The 'U' shape is now made up of 25 distinct symbols, each icon representing one of the company's sub-brands or its corporate values.[124] The brand identity was developed around the idea of "adding vitality to life."[125]



Dove describes itself as being dedicated to "help ... women develop a positive relationship with the way they look – helping them raise their self-esteem and realize their full potential". (Dove, "Our Vision")[126] Dove employs the use of advertising for their own products to display their messages of positive self-esteem. In September 2004 Dove created a Real Beauty campaign, focusing predominately on women of all shapes and colour. Later in 2007 this campaign furthered itself to include women of all ages. This campaign consisted mostly of advertisements, shown on television and popularised by the internet. Dove fell under scrutiny from the general public as they felt the Dove advertisements described the opinion that cellulite was still unsightly, and that women's ageing process was something to be ashamed of.[127]


Axe, known as Lynx in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, is a toiletries brand marketed towards young men between the age of 16 and 24.[128] Its marketing is a "tongue-in-cheek take on the 'mating game'", suggesting that women are instantly drawn to men using the products.[129][130] Unlike Dove's long running beauty campaign Lynx advertising often creates mini-series of advertisements based around a singular product rather than communicating an overarching idea. This campaign thrives on controversy. Using images about which the company knows it will receive complaints garners the brand more free publicity and notoriety. A wide variety of these adverts have been banned in countries around the world. In 2012 Lynx's 'Clean Balls' advert was banned. This advert designed for television shows an attractive young woman cleaning various sports balls. In 2011 in the UK Lynx's shower gel campaign was banned. The poster for Lynx shower gel showed a woman in an undone bikini under a shower at a beach, with the headline: "The cleaner you are the dirtier you get."[129][131]

Both advertising campaigns make stark comparisons between how women and their sexuality are portrayed in advertising and sales efficiency. Lynx commonly portrays women as hypersexual, flawless and stereotypically attractive who are aroused by men, of all ages and stature, because of their use of the Lynx product. Their target audience is single men between the ages of 16-24.[128]

Environmental record

Unilever has declared the goal of decoupling its environmental impact from its growth, by: halving the environmental footprint of its products over the next 10 years; helping 1 billion people improve their health and well-being; and sourcing all of its agricultural raw materials sustainably.[132] In September 2019, Unilever announced that their sites across five continents are now powered by 100% renewable grid electricity, ahead of their 2020 target.[133]

Palm oil

Unilever has been criticised by Greenpeace for causing deforestation,[134] Unilever was targeted in 2008 by Greenpeace UK,[135] which criticised the company for buying palm oil from suppliers that are damaging Indonesia's rainforests.[136] By 2008, Indonesia was losing 2% of its remaining rainforest each year, having the fastest deforestation rate of any country. The United Nations Environmental Programme stated that palm oil plantations are the leading cause of deforestation in Indonesia.[136]

Furthermore, Indonesia was the fourteenth[137] largest emitter of greenhouse gases largely due to the destruction of rainforests for the palm oil industry, which contributed to 4% of global green house gas emissions.[138] According to Greenpeace, palm oil expansion was taking place with little oversight from central or local government as procedures for environmental impact assessment, land-use planning and ensuring a proper process for development of concessions were neglected.[138] Plantations that were off-limits, by law, for palm oil plantations were being established as well as the illegal use of fire to clear forest areas was commonplace.[138]

Unilever, as a founding member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), responded by publicising its plan to obtain all of its palm oil from sources that are certified as sustainable by 2015.[139] It claims to have met this goal in 2012 and is encouraging the rest of the industry to become 100% sustainable by 2020.[140]

In Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), one of Unilever's palm oil suppliers was accused of clearing forest for plantations, an activity that threatened a primate species, Miss Waldron's red colobus. Unilever intervened to halt the clearances pending the results of an environmental assessment.[141]

According to an Amnesty International report published in 2016, Unilever's palm oil supplier Wilmar International profited from child labor and forced labor. Some workers were extorted, threatened or not paid for work. Some workers suffered severe injuries from banned chemicals. In 2016 Singapore-based Wilmar International was the world’s biggest palm oil grower.[142]

Paper use

For years, Unilever purchased paper for its packaging from Asia Pulp & Paper, the third largest paper producer in the world, which was labelled as a "forest criminal" for destroying "precious habitat" in Indonesia's rainforest.[143] In 2011, when Unilever cancelled its contract with Asia Pulp & Paper, Greenpeace Executive Director Phil Radford commended the company for efforts made towards forest protection, for "taking rainforest conservation seriously."[144]

Rainforest Alliance

Unilever certifies its tea products by the Rainforest Alliance scheme. The company has stated that at least 50% of the tea in its products originates from certified farms, compared to the Alliance's 30% minimum entry point. Unilever decided on the scheme over Fairtrade, because according to the company's analysis, Fairtrade might "lack the scale and the organizational flexibility to certify industrial tea estates".[145]


The Rainforest Alliance certification scheme has been criticised for not offering producers minimum or guaranteed price,[146] therefore leaving them vulnerable to market price variations. The alternative certificate, Fairtrade, has however received similar criticism as well. The Rainforest Alliance certification has furthermore been criticised for allowing the use of the seal on products that contain only a minimum of 30% of certified content, which according to some endangers the integrity of the certification.[147]

Mercury Contamination

A mercury thermometer factory operated by the Indian subsidiary of Unilever in the South Indian hilltown of Kodaikanal was shut down by state regulators in 2001 after the company was caught for dumping toxic mercury wastes in a densely populated part of town. By the company’s own admissions, more than 2 tonnes of mercury have been discharged into Kodaikanal’s environment. A 2011 Government of India study on workers’ health concluded that many workers suffered from illnesses caused by workplace exposure to mercury. The scandal opened up a series of issues in India such as corporate liability, corporate accountability and corporate negligence.[148]

In March 2016, Unilever reached an out of court settlement (for an undisclosed amount) with 591 ex-workers of the unit who had sued the company for knowingly exposing them to the toxic element.[149]

July - September 2016 salmonella affair

Salmonella affair in cereals in Israel

In July 2016, rumours about salmonella contamination in cereals spread among Israeli consumers.[150] Initially, Unilever did not provide public information about the subject and queries on the matter were initially rebuffed by the company as a non-story and nonsense. On the night of 26 July 2016, Unilever had stopped transferring cornflakes to retailer chains.[151] On 28 July, Yedioth Ahronoth reported tens of thousands of boxes of breakfast cereal had been destroyed.[152] By 28 July, despite the company's assurances that nothing contaminated was released for consumption, many customers stopped buying Unilever products and started to throw away all cornflakes made by Unilever.[153] The company withheld information about the affected production dates.[154]

On 2 August 2016, Globes reported that the company has published more information about Telma cereals handled on the packaging line in which the contamination was discovered and that a Telma announcement had been made: "We again stress that all Telma products in the stores and in your homes are safe to eat. According to our company's strict procedures, every production batch is checked and put on hold. These products are not marketed until test results for this production series are returned, confirming that all is well. If any flaw is discovered, the batch is not marketed to stores, as was the case."[155] In the following days the Health Minister, Yakov Litzman, threatened to pull Unilever's licence in Israel. He accused Unilever of lying to his ministry regarding salmonella-infected breakfast cereals.[156]

On 7 August, Globes reported that contamination may be sourced in pigeon faeces, the Health ministry said that there might be other sources for the contamination and pigeon faeces are not the only possible source. Globes also said that the production line is automatic ("without human hands") and the possibility that the source is human is a very slim chance.[157] On 8 August 2016, the Israeli Health minister suspended a manufacturing licence until Unilever carry out a number of corrections; the action came after an inspection of the Arad plant, stating "This was a series of negligent mistakes, and not an incident with malicious intent by the firm's management and quality control procedures."[158] An investigation led by Prof. Itamr Grutto and Eli Gordon concluded that the event was caused by negligence.[159]

On 23 September it was reported that the cereals produced between the 18th and 20th at the Arad plant had traces of salmonella.[160]

Class actions

A filed class action must first be approved by an Israeli court, after an approval the case will be held.

  • For a sum of 1.2 million NIS (~$329K USD) against Unilever for hiding the contamination and misleading the public[161]
  • For a sum of 76 million NIS (~$23m USD) against Unilever after a 15-year-old teen had been hospitalised for Salmonellosis after allegedly contracting it from Unilever products[162]

Salmonella affair in Tahina

On 31 August 2016, Unilever stated that the Tehina products produced by RJM had been contaminated by salmonella.[163]


On 6 September 2018 Unilever Bangladesh Limited, Bangladeshi subsidiary of Unilever, became the official shirt sponsor of Bangladesh national cricket team for the period of 2018 to 2020.[164]

See also


  1. "Unilever - Profile". Zoominfo.com. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  2. Geoffrey Jones. "Unilever: a case study". hbs.edu. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  3. "Annual Results 2018" (PDF). Unilever. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  4. "Annual Report & Accounts 2018". Unilever. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  5. "The Parable of St Paul". The Economist. 31 August 2017.
  6. "Our approach to sustainability". Unilever. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  7. "Annual Report and Accounts 2017 Highlights". www.unilever.com.
  8. "About Unilever". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  9. Unilever R&D Locations, Unilever, viewed 19 December 2013
  10. Boyle, Matthew; Jarvis, Paul (4 December 2014). "Unilever Spreads Split Boosts Chance of Exit as Shares Gain". Bloomberg News.
  11. "Börse Frankfurt (Frankfurt Stock Exchange): Stock market quotes, charts and news". www.boerse-frankfurt.de.
  12. "Organisation introduction". Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  13. "British Pathe News, Wealth of the World, 1950". Britishpathe.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  14. Jules Marechal, "Travail forcé pour l'huile de palme de Lord Leverhulme L'Histoire du Congo 1910–1945". Part III. Editions Paula Bellings. pp.348–368.
  15. "Acquisitions and firm growth: Creating Unilever's ice cream and tea business" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  16. http://www.unilever.com/about/who-we-are/our-history/1920-1929.html Archived 25 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Unilever website, about section, 1920-1929.
  17. Ben Wubs (11 June 2008). International Business and National War Interests: Unilever Between Reich and Empire, 1939-45. Routledge. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-134-11652-2.
  18. "Corporate venturing: the origins of Unilever's pregnancy test" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  19. Greg Thain; John Bradley (11 July 2014). FMCG: The Power of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods. First Edition Design Pub. p. 426. ISBN 978-1-62287-647-1.
  20. Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (8 January 2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
  21. "1960 - 1969". unilever.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  22. Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (8 January 2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
  23. Manuel Hensmans; Gerry Johnson; George Yip (8 January 2013). Strategic Transformation: Changing While Winning. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-137-26845-7.
  24. Collins, Glenn (15 February 1996). "Unilever Agrees to Buy Helene Curtis". New York Times. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  25. Jones, Geoffrey (2005). Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-19-160842-1.
  26. "Unilever moots merger of Elida Gibbs and Lever Bros". UK: Marketing Week. Retrieved 26 November 2013. Unilever is understood to be planning to merge its Elida Gibbs and Lever Brother's operations after Elida Gibbs relocates its headquarters to Lever House in Kingston, Surrey.
  27. Jones, Geoffrey (2005). Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-19-160842-1.
  28. "Sustainable agriculture". unilever.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  29. "החלטה בעניין הודעת המיזוג בין החברות:יוניליוור בסטפודס ישראל בע"מרושדי תעשיות מזון בע"מרושדי תעשיות טקסטיל בע"מ". 17 June 2004.
  30. Witt, Joanna (11 January 2001). "Unilever creates Lever Faberge in UK consolidation". Marketing Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  31. "IOI to buy Unilever's oils and fats division". 2 September 2002. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  32. "ACH Foods Company Overview". achfood.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  33. "ACH Food Companies, Inc. Buys Unilever's Mazola Corn Oil and Associated Brands". prnewswire.com. 23 April 2002. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  34. "אודות - טחינה בארכה - חלבה בארכה". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  35. "Taste Israel@Sial OPT". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  36. Nicholson, Marcy (25 May 2007). "San Diego Times". Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  37. "Unilever: Sustainable Tea". Unilever.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  38. "Unilever press release". Unilever.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  39. Unilever buys Sara Lee's personal care division for £1.17bn Daily Telegraph, 25 September 2009
  40. Unilever completes Sara Lee Personal Care & European Laundry acquisition, Unilever, 6 December 2010
  41. Unilever acquires Diplom-Is operations in Denmark Food Bev, 11 August 2010
  42. Cargill Acquires Unilever Tomato Business Food Processing, 30 September 2010
  43. "Unilever to Purchase Alberto Culver for $3.7 Billion". Businessweek. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  44. Unilever buys Greek Ice Cream Manufacturer Food News, 28 September 2010
  45. "Timeline of Major Farm Animal Protection Advancements". Humane Society. February 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  46. Unilever and Colgate-Palmolive exchange brands Marketing Week, 23 March 2011
  47. "Unilever and Procter & Gamble in price fixing fine". BBC News. 13 April 2011.
  48. Unilever Sells Alberto VO5, Rave to Brynwood Wall Street Journal, 24 August 2011
  49. Unilever to Buy Russia's Kalina in $694 Million Deal to Aid Emerging Push Bloomberg, 14 October 2011
  50. "The Maker of Dove Soaps Will Phase Out Exfoliating Plastic Microbeads". Business Insider. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  51. "Spam maker Hormel pays $700m for Unilever's Skippy peanut butter business". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  52. "Skippy peanut butter sold to Spam owner". BBC News. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  53. Abhishek Takle (4 July 2013). "Unilever raises stake in Indian unit to 67 percent". Reuters.
  54. "Pinnacle Foods to buy Unilever's Wish-Bone salad dressing business". Reuters. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  55. "Unilever acquires T2 tea brand". B&T. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  56. "Peperami gobbled up by US meat snacks firm Jack Link's". The Guardian. London. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  57. "Unilever buys majority stake in Chinese water purification company". Reuters. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  58. "Unilever Acquires Majority Stake in Chinese Water-Purification Company". The New York Times. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  59. "Consumer goods major Unilever sells Ragu and Bertolli brands". Japan Herald. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  60. "Unilever sells Slim-Fast to Kainos Capital". Unilever. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  61. "Unilever Buys Talenti Gelato to Bolster Ice-Cream Business". Bloomberg. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  62. "Procter & Gamble to Sell Camay and Zest to Unilever". Wall Street Journal. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  63. "P&G Unloads Camay and Zest Brands to Unilever". Forbes. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  64. "P&G announces sale of Camay and Zest brands to Unilever - Information portal". www.retail-loyalty.org. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  65. "Unilever's Camay undergoes brand makeover". www.cosmeticsbusiness.com. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  66. Harwell, Drew (10 November 2014). "Big Food's weird war over the meaning of mayonnaise, America's top condiment". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  67. "Hampton Creek Plans To Counter-Sue Unilever Over Mayo Fight". TechCrunch. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  68. "Hellmann's Maker Sues Competitor Because Free Markets Are Hard". Reason. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  69. "Big Food's Weird War Over The Meaning Of Mayonnaise, America's Top Condiment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  70. "Vegan Mayonnaise Maker Sued By Food Giant Unilever". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  71. "Giant Corporation Generates Huge Quantities of Free Advertising and Brand Equity For Tiny Rival by Suing It". @mims/Twitter. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  72. "Hampton Creek: The History of a Mayo Startup in 5 Controversies". Fortune. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  73. Daneshkhu, Scheherazade (2 March 2015). "Unilever to buy REN skincare brand". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  74. "BRIEF-Unilever buys U.S. skincare brand Kate Somerville". Reuters. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  75. Chaudhuri, Saabira (19 January 2016). "Unilever Spreads Division's CEO Quits". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  76. Spary, Sara (4 December 2014). "Unilever to separate spreads business to give brands more 'focus'". Marketing Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  77. Boyle, Matthew; Jarvis, Paul (4 December 2014). "Unilever Spreads Split Boosts Chance of Exit as Shares Gain". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  78. Landini, Francesca (1 October 2015). "Unilever buys premium Italian ice cream maker GROM". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  79. "Shaving start-up firm bought by Unilever". BBC News. BBC. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  80. "Unilever to buy Blueair air purifiers". Reuters. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  81. TERLEP, SHARON; CHAUDHURI, SAABIRA (19 September 2016). "Unilever Buys 'Green' Products Maker Seventh Generation". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  82. Thomas, Ellen (16 December 2016). "Unilever Buys Living Proof, Jennifer Aniston Out". WWD. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  83. Anne Steele Chaudhuri saabira (17 February 2017). "Kraft Makes $143 Billion Merger Bid for Unilever". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  84. Sierra Tishgart (21 April 2017). "That Ketchup That Isn't Heinz Is Worth $140 Million". Grubstreet. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  85. "Kraft Heinz Abandons Unilever Bid". Morning Star. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  86. Strom, Stephanie (20 April 2017). "Unilever Buys Sir Kensington's, Maker of Fancy Ketchup". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  87. "Unilever to buy Latin American personal care brands from Quala". Reuters. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  88. Collins, Allison (19 June 2017). "Unilever Adds Hourglass to Portfolio". WWD. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  89. "Pukka tea firm vows to stay ethical as PG Tips owner takes it over". The Guardian. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  90. "Unilever gobbles up iconic Weis brand from founders". Financial Review. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  91. "Unilever buys out Remgro in South African unit". Market Watch. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  92. "Unilever to buy Carver Korea for €2.27bn". Financial Times. 25 September 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  93. "Unilever to buy Brazilian organic food business Mãe Terra". Financial Times. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  94. "Starbucks To Sell Tazo Tea Brand To Unilever For $384 Million". Forbes. 2 November 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  95. "Unilever packs more acquisitions in the cupboard". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  96. "Today's Stock Market News and Analysis from Nasdaq.com". NASDAQ.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  97. "Ben & Jerry's owner picks Netherlands for HQ in snub to London". cnn.com. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  98. Geller, Martinne (11 September 2018). "Unilever details plans for December listing of new Dutch entity". Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  99. "Unilever drops plan to leave London". Market Watch. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  100. "Unilever closes acquisition of 75% stake in Equilibra". Unilever global company website. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  101. "Unilever to acquire 75% of Italian personal care business Equilibra". Unilever global company website. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  102. Segran, Elizabeth (29 January 2019). "Exclusive: The Laundress founders come clean about why they sold to Unilever". Fast Company. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  103. Taylor, Chloe (22 October 2018). "Apple named best private sector employer in the UK". CNBC. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  104. "Top-Rated Workplaces: Best in the Private Sector - Indeed Blog". Indeed Blog. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  105. "Marmite-owner snaps up snack brand Graze". 5 February 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  106. Buckley, Thomas (15 December 2017). "Terms of Service Violation". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  107. Treanor, Jill (15 December 2017). "Unilever sells household name spreads to KKR for £6bn". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  108. "July 2018 – Upfield". www.upfield.com. 3 July 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  109. "Our Brands". www.upfield.com. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  110. "2013 Annual Report and Accounts" (PDF). Unilever. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  111. Rushton, Katherine (13 December 2011). "Unilever to shake up £5.1bn global advertising spend". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  112. "Unilever to review media buying". Reuters. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  113. Sterling, Toby (4 September 2008). "Unilever: Nestle executive to take CEO job". USA Today. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  114. "Huge price-fixing fine is upheld". The Connexion. 28 October 2016. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017.
  115. Legrand, Gaëlle (28 October 2016). "Amende record confirmée pour L'Oréal, Gillette et Colgate-Palmolive". Ouest-France (in French). Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  116. "Governance of Unilever – 1 January 2012" (PDF). Unilever. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  117. "Unilever, Britain's third biggest company, moves headquarters to Rotterdam after 100 years in London". The Independent. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  118. Abboud, Leila (5 October 2018). "Unilever backs down on plan to move headquarters from UK". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  119. Key, Alys (29 November 2018). "Unilever boss Paul Polman steps down after 10 years". Irish Independent. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  120. Malviya, Sagar (21 October 2017). "Sales growth still behind historic levels: Unilever CFO Graeme Pitkethly". The Economic Times. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  121. "Alan Jope". Unilever global company website. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  122. "In Surprise Move, Unilever Names Polman CEO". Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  123. "Unilever appoints Nils Andersen as chairman, replacing Dekkers". Reuters. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  124. "Unilever icons explained". Logodesignlove.com. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  125. "Unilever case study". Wolff Olins. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  126. "Our Vision". mydove.com.au. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  127. "WIMN - Dove's "Real Beauty" Backlash". wimnonline.org. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  128. Claire Cozens. "Lynx marketing campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  129. "'Offensive' Lynx adverts banned by advertising watchdog". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  130. Rodionova, Zlata (23 June 2016). "Unilever, the owner of Magnum and Lynx, vows to end gender stereotyping in its adverts". The Independent. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  131. "ASA Ruling on Unilever UK Ltd". Advertising Standards Authority. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  132. "Sustainable Living Plan". Unilever. 2014.
  133. Gordon, Philip (16 September 2019). "Unilever announces global move to 100% renewable energy use". Smart Energy International. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  134. "Unilever admits toxic dumping: will clean up but not come clean". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  135. "Ape protest at Unilever factory". BBC. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
  136. "Palm Oil: Cooking the Climate". GREENPEACE. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  137. "EDGAR - GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, F-gases) emission time series 1990-2012 per region/country - European Commission". edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  138. "How Unilever Palm Oil Suppliers are Burning Up Borneo" (PDF). Greenpeace International. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
  139. "Unilever commits to certified sustainable palm oil | Media centre | Unilever Global". Unilever.com. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  140. "Unilever's Position on Palm Oil Sourcing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  141. "Manifesto for the Conservation of the Tanoé Swamps Forest". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
  142. The great palm oil scandal: Labour abuses behind big brand names Amnesty International 30 November 2016
  143. "Paper Giant Pledges to Leave the Poor Rainforest Alone. Finally. Asia Pulp & Paper—the notorious destroyer of pristine tiger and orangutan habitat—says it's changing its ways". Mother Jones. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  144. Phil Radford. "Hasbro Turns Over a New Leaf, Steps Up for Rainforests". Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  145. "Unilever sustainable tea Part 1: Leapfrogging to mainstream" (PDF). Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  146. Ethical Corporation (January 2005). Bean Wars. URL accessed on 20 July 2008.
  147. "TransFair USA | Board Members". 27 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  148. "Final Report of the GOI Committee". Government of India. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  149. "After 15 years Unilever settles with Indian factory workers over mercury poisoning". Washington Post. 19 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  150. "Where have all the cornflakes gone?". ynet. 28 July 2016.
  151. דברת-מזריץ, עדי (27 July 2016). "מה גרם ליוניליוור לעצור את שיווקן של אלפי אריזות דגני בוקר?". Retrieved 9 November 2016 via TheMarker.
  152. "Contamination feared in Israeli cornflakes". Israel National News. 28 July 2016.
  153. "Salmonella in cornflakes: 'I don't trust Unilever products anymore'". ynetnews. 28 July 2016.
  154. דברת-מזריץ, עדי; זרחיה, צבי (1 August 2016). "הזיהום בקורנפלקס: יוניליוור מסרבת לחשוף תאריכי הייצור וכמה אלימים החיידקים". themarker.com. Retrieved 9 November 2016 via TheMarker.
  155. "Unilever Israel updates on cereal contamination". Globes. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  156. "Health minister threatens to revoke Unilever's license after recall". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  157. "האם קורנפלקס של יוניליוור בא במגע עם לשלשת יונים או הפרשות עובד?". Globes. 8 August 2016.
  158. "Unilever has license suspended for selling Salmonella-tainted cornflakes". Times of Israel. 8 August 2016.
  159. "חשד נוסף לסלמונלה: ספק טחינה גדול הודיע על החזרת מוצרים - וואלה! חדשות". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  160. "סלמונלה במפעל יוניליוור? החברה: האריזות לא יצאו לשיווק - גלובס". Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  161. "ייצוגית ראשונה בפרשת הקורנפלקס: צרכנים דורשים 1.2 מיליון שקל מיונילוור ישראל". 2 August 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016 via Ynet.
  162. "עוד ייצוגית נגד יוניליוור: "הסתירה את הסלמונלה במשך יותר מחודש"". Globes. 24 August 2016.
  163. "חשד נוסף לסלמונלה ביוניליוור: ספק טחינה לחברה הודיע על החזרת מוצרים". walla (in Hebrew). 31 August 2016.
  164. "Unilever becomes Bangladesh Cricket team's sponsor". The Daily Star. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.