Underground hydrogen storage

Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in caverns,[1][2] salt domes and depleted oil/gas fields.[3][4] Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in caverns by ICI for many years without any difficulties.[5] The storage of large quantities of hydrogen underground in solution-mined salt domes,[6] aquifers[7] or excavated rock caverns or mines can function as grid energy storage[8] which is essential for the hydrogen economy.[9] By using a turboexpander the electricity needs for compressed storage on 200 bar amounts to 2.1% of the energy content.[10]

Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal

The Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal in Texas has stored hydrogen since the 1980s in a solution-mined salt cavern. The cavern roof is about 2,800 feet (850 m) underground. The cavern is a cylinder with a diameter of 160 feet (49 m), a height of 1,000 feet (300 m) and a usable hydrogen capacity of 1,066 million cubic feet (30.2×10^6 m3), or 2,520 metric tons (2,480 long tons; 2,780 short tons).[11]


  • Sandia National Laboratories released in 2011 a life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen.[12]
  • The European project Hyunder[13] indicated in 2013 that for the storage of wind and solar energy an additional 85 caverns are required as it cannot be covered by PHES and CAES systems.[14]
  • ETI released in 2015 a report The role of hydrogen storage in a clean responsive power system noting that the UK has sufficient salt bed resources to provide tens of GWe.[15]
  • RAG Austria AG successfully finished a hydrogen storage project in a depleted oil an gas field in Austria in 2017 and is currently conducting its second project "Underground Sun Conversion".[16]

See also


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