Underground hydrogen storage
Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in caverns, salt domes and depleted oil/gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in caverns by ICI for many years without any difficulties. The storage of large quantities of hydrogen underground in solution-mined salt domes, aquifers or excavated rock caverns or mines can function as grid energy storage which is essential for the hydrogen economy. By using a turboexpander the electricity needs for compressed storage on 200 bar amounts to 2.1% of the energy content.
Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal
The Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal in Texas has stored hydrogen since the 1980s in a solution-mined salt cavern. The cavern roof is about 2,800 feet (850 m) underground. The cavern is a cylinder with a diameter of 160 feet (49 m), a height of 1,000 feet (300 m) and a usable hydrogen capacity of 1,066 million cubic feet (30.2×106 m3), or 2,520 metric tons (2,480 long tons; 2,780 short tons).
- Sandia National Laboratories released in 2011 a life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen.
- The European project Hyunder indicated in 2013 that for the storage of wind and solar energy an additional 85 caverns are required as it cannot be covered by PHES and CAES systems.
- ETI released in 2015 a report The role of hydrogen storage in a clean responsive power system noting that the UK has sufficient salt bed resources to provide tens of GWe.
- RAG Austria AG successfully finished a hydrogen storage project in a depleted oil an gas field in Austria in 2017 and is currently conducting its second project "Underground Sun Conversion".
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