An underbone is a motorcycle that uses structural tube framing with an overlay of plastic or non-structural body panels and contrasts with monocoque or unibody designs where pressed steel serves both as the vehicle's structure and bodywork. Outside Asia, the term underbone is commonly misunderstood to refer to any lightweight motorcycle that uses the construction type, known colloquially as step-throughs, mopeds or scooters.

An underbone cycle may share its fuel tank position and tube framing, along with fitted bodywork and splash guards with a scooter while the wheel size, engine position, and power transmission are like those of conventional motorcycles.

Unlike motor scooters, underbones are mostly popular in Asia, particularly in Southeast Asia, Middle East, Taiwan, China and North Korea, in Latin America, as well as in some parts of Eastern Europe, Greece and Russia.


The appearance and frame of an underbone is quite different from that of a standard motorcycle, but the powertrain is functionally almost identical. The underbone engine is positioned between the rider's feet but the rear wheel is driven by a regular motorcycle secondary chain drive. Styling considerations only mean that the chain driven nature of the machine tends to be concealed under sheet-metal covers to a greater extent than that of motorcycles.

In only one significant respect does the underbone differ from the conventional motorcycle - there is no frame member or fuel tank between the seat base and the headstock. Generally the fuel tank is under the riders seat. The underbone arrangement improves ease of mounting and dismounting and contributes to the cross-gender appeal of the layout as an around-town shopping and commuter vehicle. The engine size of a typical underbone is generally between 50 cc and up to about 150 cc, though much bigger ones are available. Currently, the biggest-engined underbone motorcycle model is the SYM VF3i, which is powered by a fuel-injected 183 cc SOHC 4-valve water-cooled engine.[1]

Historically, underbones led the way in semi-automatic transmissions and indicator systems. In other respects, the technical sophistication of underbones has tended to lag those of larger motorcycles, but they increasingly have similar electronic ignition, fuel injection etc.

Underbones can have spoked or alloy wheels which are spindle mounted, usually the size fitted to small conventional motorcycles. These provide much better road-holding and braking than scooters, though it does make the (increasingly rare) punctures more difficult to repair.

Underbones generally features a three- to six-speed sequential manual gearbox, either with an automated clutch or a conventional hand-lever clutch. This is then coupled to a chain drive to direct power to the rear wheel. There are some exceptions to this, such as the Yamaha Nouvo, the Piaggio Liberty and the Yamaha Lexam, which although of underbone design, has a CVT transmission and therefore has no gears for the rider to change.


The underbone concept can be seen in some of the European mopeds of the early 1950s, including the NSU Quickly and the Heinkel Perle. The spine-framed, plastic-faired Honda Super Cub is the most produced motor vehicle of all time.[2][3] Production of the Super Cub began in 1958, surpassing 60 million units in April 2008, and continuing to be made in several countries around the world as of 2012.[4][5][6][7]

Other names and derivations

In Malaysia and Singapore this vehicle is commonly known as Kapcai or Kapchai, a slang word derived from Cantonese, being a combination of the word "Cub" from the word Honda Cub and "仔" in Chinese. In Cantonese, "仔" (pronounced "jai", or in pinyin "zai") means "little" (or its derivatives, e.g. "small", "mini", etc.). Therefore,"kapchai" literally means a "Little Cub". With Honda being a very popular brand in Malaysia, all underbone motorbikes have come to be called "kapchai". In Indonesia, it is called "motor bebek"[8] (literally means "duck bike"). In Greece is known as Papi or Papaki, a slang that also means duck.

A variation on the underbone concept known as the "maxi-scooter"[9] or "touring scooter"[10] is popular in the West. These are much larger than the underbones known to the Asian market and vary in size from the early Honda Helix with 250 cc[11] to the 850 cc Gilera GP800.[12] Many current versions are between 400 cc and 650 cc, including the Honda Silver Wing with 582 cc,[13] the Suzuki Burgman with 400 cc[14] or 638 cc,[15] the Yamaha Majesty 400 with 395 cc,[16] and the Yamaha T-Max 500 with 499 cc.[17]

Underbones of conventional size are popular in Western Europe and marketed alongside conventional scooters. They are sometimes referred to as scooters,[18] despite the design difference between underbones and conventional scooters.


Underbone motorcycles often come with storage, and this may vary between markets. In Southeast Asia there is commonly a steel basket provided as there is none under the seat, as this is the placement of the fuel tank. Some underbones have a lockable storage compartment under the seat. Some have a hook in the area between the riders knees for a shopping bag. Other storage capacity may be provided in a top box, detachable in some cases.


The market for underbone motorcycles is dominated by Japanese manufacturers, though many of them are built in factories elsewhere, including China and Taiwan. In other cases, manufacturers have violated copyright and illegally copied the models of Japanese manufacturers. The Honda Cub, Honda Wave series and Yamaha Lagenda series are amongst the most copied.

MZ Motorrad currently produces underbone models in Malaysia by their main share holder, Hong Leong Group which is also the sole distributor of Yamaha motorcycle in Malaysia and Singapore. Mforce Bikes Holdings Sdn Bhd also producing underbone motorcycle under Benelli Motorcycle.

The major underbone manufacturers are as follows:


Underbones are very popular in Southeast Asia. There is a demand for aftermarket and tuner parts. Many enthusiasts modify their underbones either for show (such as installing small sound systems, neon lights and custom paint jobs) or for performance (like increasing the engine power and fine tuning the suspension). Riding gear may not even extend to wearing shoes and long pants for safety. Illegal underbone drag racing has become popular in countries such as the Philippines and Malaysia, and poses safety issues for the commuting public as well as the riders themselves, as underbones offer little protection in the event of crashes. The most popular underbone for these purposes is the Honda XRM, Suzuki Raider 150 and the Honda Wave, although similar models from Kawasaki and Yamaha are also frequently used.

In Singapore and Malaysia, it is not uncommon to see old bicycles customized with parts found on an underbone motorcycle, a growing trend popular with the youth.


An underbone motorcycle racing series was created in partnership with the government of Malaysia's Ministry of Youth and Culture in 2012 to encourage youth to race in a controlled track environment rather than on the streets.[19] It was designed to have a lower cost of entry than existing underbone series, such as the Malaysian Cub Prix.

See also


  1. Durrani Sharom (2018-04-05). "SYM VF3i – Malaysia negara pertama terima "kapcai berkapasiti paling tinggi di dunia", 183 cc, RM8,467". Paul Tan (in Malay). Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  2. "That's 2.5 billion cc!", American Motorcyclist, Westerville, Ohio: American Motorcyclist Association, p. 24, May 2006, ISSN 0277-9358, retrieved 2010-10-31
  3. Edstrom, Christian (November 30, 2007), "To Save the Polar Bears, Ride a Cub", New York Times, retrieved 2012-01-28
  4. Honda Press Release 21 May 2008 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Cumulative Global Production of Cub Series Motorcycles Reaches 60 Million Units.
  5. Cumulative Global Production of Cub Series Motorcycles Reaches 60 Million Units (press release), Honda, May 2008, archived from the original on 2016-03-03, retrieved 2010-10-31
  6. Squatriglia, Chuck (23 May 2008), "Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub", Wired, retrieved 2010-10-31
  7. "Worldwide Production Bases", Super Cub – The Honda Worldwide Super Cub Special Site, Honda, archived from the original on 2012-10-21, retrieved 2012-01-30
  8. Panca, Anang (27 January 2016). "Motor Bebek dan Underbone, Apa Bedanya?". Sepeda-Motor.info. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  9. "Adventure and Outdoor Sports". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  10. "2017 Touring Scooter Motorcycle Reviews, Prices and Specs". www.motorcycle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  11. "First Impression: Honda Helix". Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  12. "2008 Gilera GP 800 Review @ Top Speed". Top Speed. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  13. "2009 Honda Silver Wing® ABS". Motorcycle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  14. "2007 Suzuki Burgman 400 Introduction Report". Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  15. "2009 Suzuki Burgman 650 Executive". Motorcycle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  16. "2009 Yamaha Majesty 400". Motorcycle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  17. "2009 Yamaha TMAX". Motorcycle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  18. Fuego, Del. "2009 Honda SH125i - The Scooter Review". www.thescooterreview.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  19. "Young, fast, and safe", The Sun, Malaysia, May 6, 2014
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