USA Rugby

USA Rugby (officially the United States of America Rugby Football Union, Ltd.) is the national governing body for the sport of rugby union in the United States. Its role is to serve as "the national governing body charged with achieving and maintaining high levels of quality in all aspects of rugby."[1] USA Rugby is responsible for the promotion and development of the sport in the U.S. and promotion of U.S. international participation.[2]

USA Rugby
SportRugby union
Founded1975
World Rugby affiliation1987
RAN affiliation2001
Websitewww.usarugby.org

USA Rugby was founded in 1975 as the United States of America Rugby Football Union, and it organized the first U.S. national team match in 1976. Today, USA Rugby has over 130,000 memberships, the largest segment being college rugby with over 32,000 members. USA Rugby oversees 1,200 high school teams, 900 college teams, 700 senior club teams, and 400 youth teams.[3] USA Rugby administers all United States national teams: senior men's and women's teams, sevens teams for both men and women, and under-20 national teams for both sexes. The organization also sponsors college rugby for both sexes, although since the 2010–11 academic year the NCAA has designated women's rugby an emerging varsity sport.

USA Rugby is governed by a nine-member Board of Directors and a 43-member Congress, and is led by CEO Ross Young. It is a member of World Rugby through membership with Rugby Americas North, and a member of the United States Olympic Committee. The headquarters for USA Rugby is located in Lafayette, Colorado.

Recent Achievements

  • In the 2009–10 Sevens World Series, the men's sevens team finished the season ranked 10th in the world, their highest ranking to date at that time.
  • In 2010, USA Rugby became an Olympic Sport member of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC).[4]
  • In 2011, the International Rugby Board, now known as World Rugby, gave its Development Award to USA Rugby for its Rookie Rugby program that introduced over 100,000 new children to youth rugby.[5]

• In 2014, the U.S. Women's Sevens finished 4th in the World Rugby Women's Sevens World Series, their highest finish to date.

• In 2017, the Women's U.S. National Team finished 4th at the Women's Rugby World Cup in Ireland. Their second highest finish since winning the 1991 tournament.

  • In 2017, the U.S. Men's Sevens team finished fifth in the 2016-17 World Rugby Sevens Series, their highest ever finish.
  • In 2018, The U.S. Men's National Team won the America's Rugby Championship (ARC) for the second consecutive year.

• In 2018, the United States hosted its first ever Rugby World Cup event with the Rugby World Cup Sevens 2018 in San Francisco at AT&T Park. The event welcomed more than 100,000 in attendance, setting the mark for highest attended Rugby World Cup Sevens to date.

Governance and leadership

USA Rugby is governed by its board of directors and its congress. The board is composed of 9 members: 6 independent directors, 2 international athletes, and 1 representative from USA Rugby's Congress. Board members are:[7]

The congress is composed of 43 members representing the community levels of rugby: Youth, College, Club and international athletes.[8]

Gary Gold began his tenure as the head coach of the men's national team on 1 January 2018.[9] Mike Friday is the head coach of the men's national sevens team.

Rob Cain was appointed as the Women's Eagles head coach in May 2018 earning his first victory again Ireland on November 18. Chris Brown is the head coach of the Women's Sevens team, who are currently ranked 2nd in the world through the 2018-19 Women's World Rugby Sevens Series.

International Representation

USA Rugby became a member of the International Rugby Football Board in 1987. The worldwide body would become the International Rugby Board (IRB) in 1998 and World Rugby in 2014. USA Rugby does not hold a vote on WR's 28 member Executive Council—the majority of votes are held by the 8 founding nations—although NACRA members collectively hold one vote on the Executive Council.[10] In December 2011, for the first time, USA Rugby placed a representative on the 10-man executive committee. Bob Latham, in his role as chair of Rugby Americas North (RAN; known as NACRA before 2016), represents RAN on the executive committee.[11]

USA Rugby also has relationships with international multi-sport organizations. USA Rugby is a member of the U.S. Olympic Committee and interacts with the International Olympic Committee. USA Rugby also interacts with the Pan American Sport Organization, and rugby has been a sport at the Pan Am Games since 2011.

Financials

USA Rugby generally earns between $8 million to $16 million in annual revenues, with the majority of the revenue coming from (1) membership dues, (2) event revenue, (3) grants, and (4) sponsorship. Their principal expenses are (1) High Performance, (2) Men's National Team, and (3) Marketing and Fundraising.[1] In 2010, USA Rugby paid over $200,000 each to its CEO Nigel Melville and its then head coach Eddie O'Sullivan.[1] As of 2012, Nigel Melville's compensation was $250,000.[12] USA Rugby experienced a financial crunch in 2016–2017, due to the bankruptcy of kit sponsor BLK and currency exchange rates that affect grants received from World Rugby.[13]

USA Rugby annual revenues are below, along with the components that generated the majority of revenue:[14]

YearTotal
Revenues
Member
dues
GrantsSponsorsEvent
revenue
International comparisons
(annual reported revenue)
2017[15]$14.01m$5.04m$1.96m$1.87m$2.14m
2016[16]$14.69m$4.8m$1.98m$2.28m$2.69mScotland (£47.3m), Ireland (€76m/£67m), Wales (£73.3m), England (£407m)[17]
2015[18]$14.6m$4.7m$2.4m$2.5m$2.1mWales (£64m);[19] Scotland (£44m).[20]
2014[21]$16.4m$4.5m$2.0m$2.2m$5.4mWales (£58m),[22] Scotland (£44m).[23]
2013[24]$12.2m$4.3m$1.7m$1.9m$1.8mIreland (€62m), Wales (£61m),
New Zealand (£54m), Scotland (£39m).
2012[25]$10.2m$4.3m$1.7m$1.6m$1.1mScotland (£38m).[26]
2011[27]$7.5m$3.2m$1.7m$1.5m$0.2mScotland (£35m);[28] Canada (C$9m).[26]
2010[29]$6.4m$2.8m$1.4m$1.0m$0.2mScotland (£34m)[30]
2009[31]$8.1m$2.7m$1.3m$2.4m$0.8m
2008[32]$8.0m$2.0m$1.4m$2.7m$0.9m
2007[33]$6.7m$2.2m$1.7m$0.9m$1.0m
2006[34]$5.3m$2.0m$1.3m$0.2m$0.7m

Notes:

  • Grants come mainly from World Rugby and from the United States Olympic Committee.

History

The U.S. men's national team, the Eagles, won the Gold Medal in Olympic rugby in 1920 and 1924. After that time, rugby in the U.S. stagnated while continuing to grow in other parts of the world.

Beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s, the sport of rugby union enjoyed a renaissance in the USA. This created the need for a national governing body to represent the United States. On 7 June 1975, four territorial organizations (Pacific Coast, West, Midwest and East) gathered in Chicago, Illinois and formed the United States of America Rugby Football Union (now known as USA Rugby). USA Rugby then fielded its first national team on 31 January 1976 in a match against Australia in Anaheim, California, which Australia won 24–12.

In 1993, the Southern California RFU, a local area union of the Pacific Coast RFU, applied to become a separate territory. This was an impetus for others around the country to do the same, changing the make-up of USA Rugby, which now has seven territories (Pacific, Southern California, West, Midwest, South, Northeastern, and Mid-Atlantic).

USA Rugby lobbied for several years for participation in the IRB Sevens World Series. It was finally was awarded the annual USA Sevens tournament, beginning in 2004 with Los Angeles as the venue for the initial USA Sevens tournaments. In the summer of 2006, the tournament was moved to Petco Park in San Diego. Since 2010, the tournament has been held every year at Sam Boyd Stadium in Las Vegas and has been broadcast live on NBC.

USA Rugby is a Founding Sports Partner of the Sports Museum of America, joining more than 50 other single-sport Halls of Fame, national governing bodies, museums and other organizations across North America, to richly celebrate the history, grandeur and significance of sports in American culture. Opened in New York City on 7 May 2008, the Sports Museum of America showcases USA Rugby in its Hall of Halls Gallery, in return for their support of the creation of the Nation's first all-sports museum experience.

In 2014, USA Rugby created Rugby International Marketing, a for-profit company that is responsible for promoting the sport of rugby.[35]

Board performance issues and turnover

In a February 2017 assembly, the Board Chair Will Chang called for a vote of confidence in the Board from USA Rugby's Congress, which passed by a vote of 43–1. The sole Congress member, Steve Lewis, who voted no confidence in the Board, cited three issues — RIM's performance, the sanctioning of the PRO Rugby competition, and overspending by the high performance department.[36] With RIM's financial performance continuing to deteriorate, in August 2017, Lewis proposed what was effectively a vote of no confidence in the Board, this time getting seven votes and a similar number of abstentions.[37] RIM's product “The Rugby Channel” which was supposed to be a money maker for USA Rugby, finished 2017 with $4.2 million in losses for the year.[37]

National Teams: The Eagles

USA Rugby is responsible for organizing the various US national teams:

Men's teams

Women's teams

  • U.S. women's national rugby union team — (Women's Eagles) competes every four years in the Women's Rugby World Cup. The national women's team had early success in the World Cup, reaching the finals in each of the first three tournaments (1991, 1994, 1998), but has not reached the semifinals since then.
  • U.S. women's national rugby sevens team — (Women's Eagles Sevens) competes in the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series, and have finished in the top six each season since the inaugural series season in 2012-13.
  • United States national under-20 rugby union team — competes annually, most notably with rival nation to the north, Canada in exhibition tournaments.

Professional rugby

The Professional Rugby Organization, known as PRO Rugby, was a USA Rugby sanctioned American professional rugby union competition that began play in 2016. This was the first professional rugby competition in North America.[38] PRO played only the 2016 season, before it ceased operations as of January 2017.

Major League Rugby, another professional competition, was founded in late 2017. It began play in 2018 with seven teams, all in the U.S., and expanded to nine teams for the 2019 season, with one of the new teams in Canada. 2020 is expected to see 12 teams with East and West divisions.

While not yet professional, the top domestic competition for women's rugby in the US is the Women's Premier league (WPL) with 10 teams. The league just completed its 10th season.[39]

Club competitions

USA Rugby hosts two national championships in the club space. The Club National Championships in early June along with the Club 7s National Championship in mid August.[40]

Rugby Super League, organized and sanctioned by USA Rugby, was the premier national level of men's club competition in the USA.[41] It was founded in 1996, but ended play as of 2012 following the Great Recession.[42] Following the demise of the Super League, the Pacific Rugby Premiership was formed in 2013, and began play in 2014 as the top level of men's club competition in the U.S.

The USA Rugby club structure sees the United States divided into two leagues: West and East. Within each league there are four conferences, with the winners of each conference's division advancing to the league semifinals, and the two league champions competing in the national championship.[43]

East: Atlantic North, Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, Southern

West: Pacific North, Pacific South, Frontier, Red River

College rugby

USA Rugby hosts 5 total championship competitions annually. The Men's Division 1-A, Women's D1 Elite, Spring College, Fall College and College 7s Championships.[44]

The Collegiate Rugby Championship is a rugby sevens competition that has been held every year in June since 2010.[45] The tournament is the highest profile college rugby tournament in the U.S., and is broadcast live on NBC every year from PPL Park in Philadelphia. Every year, the number of spectators increase, and in 2015 the College Rugby Championship broke an attendance record at over 24,000 spectators, which shows how the popularity of the sport is expanding.

State Rugby Organizations

State Rugby Organizations are responsible for developing an administrative structure with the objective of promoting the development of youth rugby within their state. They are also responsible for day-to-day governance, including organizing league structures, collecting dues, implementing a state championship, and conducting rugby outreach. USA Rugby has 44 state rugby organizations.[46]

Hall of Fame

World Rugby Hall of Fame

The following have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame:

InducteeYear
Inducted
Accomplishments
1920 U.S. Olympic rugby team2012Won the gold medal.
1924 U.S. Olympic rugby team2012Won the gold medal.
Patty Jervey2014Played in five Women's World Cups.
Daniel Carroll2016A member of the 1920 Olympic team
Phaidra Knight2017Won All-World Team honors in 2002, 2006

U.S. Rugby Hall of Fame

The following have been inducted into the U.S. Rugby Hall of Fame:

InducteeYear
Inducted
Accomplishments
1920 U.S. Olympic rugby team2011Won the 1920 Olympic gold medal.
1924 U.S. Olympic rugby team2011Won the 1924 Olympic gold medal.
Patrick Vincent2011Co-founder of USA Rugby (1975). Governor of the U.S. Union (1975–1977).
Dennis Storer2011First head coach of the U.S. national team (1976).
Keith Seaber2011Served for 15 years on the U.S. Union's board of directors.
Managed the first Eagles team in 1976.
Miles "Doc" Hudson2011Head coach of the Cal Golden Bears for 36 seasons (1938–1974);
339 wins, 84 losses and 23 ties; most wins by a coach in U.S. college rugby.
Kevin Higgins2012Played in 28 test matches for the Eagles and was captain in three.
Played for the United States in the 1987 and 1991 Rugby World Cups.
Robinson Bordley2012Captained the United States in the first two tests they played in the 1970s.
Harry Langenberg2012Co-founded the Missouri Rugby Football Union in 1933; Secretary from 1933–1983.
Ed Lee2012Founding member of the USA Rugby Football Union (USA Rugby).
Colby "Babe" Slater2012Captain of the 1924 U.S. team than won Olympic gold.
Craig Sweeney2012Played in the first four tests for the United States Eagles.
Captained the team in the third and fourth tests.
Victor Hilarov2013Founding member and first President of U.S. Rugby Football Union (USA Rugby) in 1975.
Ray Cornbill2013Head coach for the USA Eagles for eight test matches during the 1970 and 1980s.
Edward Hagerty2013Editor in Chief of Rugby Magazine from 1977 to 2009.
Ian Nixon2013USARFU's 6th president from 1991–1995. Refereed several test matches.
Jon Prusmack2013Founded Rugby Magazine (originally known as Scrumdown) in 1968.
Purchased the USA Sevens tournament in 2005.
Created the Collegiate Rugby Championship in 2010 in partnership with NBC.
Dick Smith2013Founding member and Director of the U.S. Rugby Football Union (USA Rugby) in 1975.
Jack Clark2014
Kevin R. Swords2014
Jay Hanson2014
Tom Selfridge2014
Richard Aldo Donelli2014
Terry Fleener2014
Ron Mayes2014
Anne Barry2014
Mickey Ording2015
Don Morrison2015
Dick Poulson2015
Jeff Lombard2015
Bill Fraumann2015
Mike Purcell2015
Bob Watkins2015
Tom Billups2015
Patty Jervey2015
Emil Signes2015
Rudy Scholz2015
Ed Burlingham2015
Steve Gray2016
Dan Lyle2016
Dave Sitton2016
Brian Vizard2016
Brad Andrews2016
Jay Berwanger2016
George Betzler2016
Kathy Flores2016
Jim Russell2017
Ed Schram Sr.2017
Tommy Smith2017
Jay Waldron2017
1991 USA Women's Team20171991 Women's Rugby World Cup Champions
Steve Finkel2017
Dave Hodges2017
Dr. Lyle Micheli2017
Tim O'Brien2017
Candi Orsini2017
Mike Saunders2018
Denis Shanagher Sr.2018
Alexandra Williams2018
Dr. John Chase2018
Reldon Dawson2018
Don Haider2018
Gary Lambert2018
Vaea Anitoni2019
Bob Causey2019
Jen Crawford2019
John Decker2019
Luke Gross2019
Shawn Lipman2019
J. Tyke Nollman2019
Don Reordan2019

Coaching

USA Rugby oversees the coaching of the game. USA Rugby requires coaches to register and complete a certification course.

Geographical unions

USA Rugby organizes amateur registered rugby teams into thirteen geographical unions at the senior club level.[47] High school and youth teams affiliate with State Rugby Organizations while college teams register with either Geographical Unions or College Conferences.

The current Geographical Unions are:

  • Capital (Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C.)
  • Carolinas
  • Eastern Penn (also covers Delaware and South Jersey)
  • Empire (New York, southern Connecticut and northern New Jersey)
  • Florida (excludes most of the Panhandle)
  • Mid-America (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and parts of Illinois)
  • New England
  • Northern California (also covers all of Nevada outside of the Las Vegas Valley)
  • Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington)
  • Rocky Mountain (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and western South Dakota)
  • Southern California (also covers Arizona, New Mexico, and the Las Vegas Valley)
  • Texas (also covers most of Arkansas and Louisiana)
  • True South (Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and the Florida Panhandle)

The following states are not currently covered by a geographic union:

  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kentucky
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Montana
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • In addition, Western Pennsylvania is not covered by a geographic union.

Past leaders

Elected governance history

Election DatePresidentVice-PresidentTreasurerSecretary
June 1975Victor HilarovRichard MoneymakerGail TennantEdmond Lee
June 1977Victor HilarovRichard MoneymakerGail TennantEdmond Lee
June 1979Richard MoneymakerFritz GrunebaumDavid ChambersVacant
June 1981David ChambersFritz GrunebaumJoe ReaganKeith Seaber
June 1983Robert WatkinsKeith SeaberTerry FleenerRobert Jones
June 1985[48]Robert WatkinsKeith SeaberTerry FleenerTom Selfridge (resigned summer of 86, and not replaced)[49]
June 1987[50]Terry FleenerBill McEnteerEdward KaneDick Elliot (replaced by Ian Nixon by December 1987[51])
June 1989Robert WatkinsW.T. HaffnerBrad SharpIan Nixon
June 1991Ian NixonW.T. HaffnerBill PodewilsGene Roberts
November 1992[52]Ian NixonRandy StainerAnne BarryW.T. Haffner (resigned June 94; replaced by Jami Jordan)
November 1994[53]John D’AmicoRandy StainerAnne BarryJami Jordan

In June 1987, the position of Chairman of the Board was added to the executive committee, and Bob Watkins was named to that position.[50] Effective June 1989, that position was retitled Post of Past President, and remained an appointed post until the position was dropped in 1996.

Effective January 1996, an executive vice president was added.

Election DatePresidentExecutive Vice-PresidentVice-PresidentTreasurerSecretary
January 1996[54]Gene RobertsTony SkillbeckNeal BrendelAnne BarryReyn Kinzey
January 1998[55]Anne BarryNeal BrendelTristan LewisBarbara FugatePat O’Connor

Effective March 2000, the Vice President was replaced with Athlete Vice President.

Election DatePresidentExecutive Vice-PresidentAthlete Vice-PresidentTreasurerSecretary
March 2000[56]Anne BarryNeal BrendelMary DixeyFred Roedel IIIPat O’Connor
March 2002[57]Neal BrendelRobert LathamJen CrawfordFred Roedel IIIPat O’Connor

Effective April 2004, the President title was replace with Chairman, and an USARRA Representative was added.

Election DateChairmanVice ChairmanAthlete Vice ChairmanTreasurerSecretaryUSARRA Rep
April 2004[58]Neal BrendelRobert LathamDon JamesFred Roedel IIIDavid PeltonBuzz McClain
March 2006[59]Robert LathamFrank MerrillAlex MagelbyThomas SchmidtDavid PeltonJohn McConnell

Effective 14 July 2006 the governance was changed to a model with a board of directors nominated and approved by a congress.[60]

National office

The governing body of USA Rugby opened a national office on 3 June 1988.[61] The office has been headed by:

NameTitleStart DateEnd Date
Kirk MilesExecutive Director2 May 1988[61]20 December 1989[62]
Roger NepplExecutive Director1 May 1995[63]6 September 1995[64]
Paul MontvilleExecutive Director24 November 1997[65]April 1999[66]
Terry FleenerInterim DirectorApril 1999[67]21 June 1999
Mark RudolphExecutive Director21 June 1999[68]9 November 2001
Dean HahnNovember 9, 2001
Doug ArnotCEO1 December 2002[69]14 July 2006[70]
Steve Griffiths
Nigel MelvilleCEO and President of Rugby Operations11 October 200625 June 2016[71]
Jim SnyderInterim CEO27 June 2016[72]31 July 2016
Dan PayneCEO1 August 2016[73]
Ross YoungCEO30 April 2018[74]

See also

References

  1. USA Rugby, 2010 Audited Financial Statements, http://www.usarugby.org/#cc=[Application]\\Structure\\Content\\Brand%20Resource%20Center\\Content\\Home\\20907F3F-1296-66EA-DD8E-5E2AF35B49C0\\21D94194-12C3-6D38-DF2C-6844DCDD2CBETemplate:View:EditLiveContentTemplate:Tab:View
  2. USA Rugby Football Union, Consolidated Financial Statements, December 31, 2010
  3. USA Rugby by the numbers Archived April 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, USArugby.org. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  4. Universal Sports, USA Rugby named Olympic Sport member of USOC, September 27, 2010, http://www.universalsports.com/news-blogs/article/newsid=493882.html
  5. IRB Awards, Thierry Dusautoir IRB Player of the Year, October 24, 2011, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. http://usarugby.org/womens-sevens-news/item/it-s-us-the-2018-rugby-world-cup-sevens-are-coming-to-the-usa
  7. USA Rugby, Governance, http://www.usarugby.org/#cc%3D%5BApplication%5D%5C%5CStructure%5C%5CContent%5C%5CBrand%20Resource%20Center%5C%5CContent%5C%5CHome%5C%5C20907F3F-1296-66EA-DD8E-5E2AF35B49C0%5C%5C20907F3F-129C-3DB7-096D-04AA3AB59358%5C%5C21D94194-12C0-DA0C-DDAD-B69389F24FC0%7B%7BTab%3AView%7D%7D
  8. USA Rugby, Governance, https://www.usarugby.org/about-usa-rugby/congress/#fndtn-Intro
  9. USA Rugby, Men's National Teams, https://www.usarugby.org/2017/12/gary-gold-to-begin-full-time-usar-role-on-jan-1/
  10. International Rugby Board
  11. Gainline.us, IRB vote propels american to top committee, December 14, 2011, http://www.gainline.us/gainline/2011/12/irb-vote-propels-american-to-top-committee.html
  12. "US Rugby 2012 Form 990" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  13. "CASH SHORTFALL COULD CAUSE EAGLES TO FALL BEHIND", Rugby Today, Pat Clifton, January 20, 2017.
  14. USA Rugby Financial Statements, http://usarugby.org/about-usarugby/financial-statements
  15. "2017 audit final report" (PDF). USA rugby. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  16. https://www.walesonline.co.uk/business/business-news/full-details-wrus-finances-union-13647884
  17. "USA Rugby 2015 Audited Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  18. http://www.wru.co.uk/downloads/WRU_ARA_2015.pdf
  19. http://www.scottishrugby.org/sites/default/files/editor/docs/SRAR_1415_lores.pdf
  20. "USA Rugby 2014 Audited Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  21. "Welsh Rugby 2014 Annual Report" (PDF). wru.co.uk.
  22. Scottish Rugby, 2014 Annual Report
  23. "USA Rugby 2013 Audited Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  24. "USA Rugby 2012 Audited Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  25. Scottish Rugby Annual Report 2011/12.
  26. "USA Rugby 2011 Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  27. Scottish Rugby 2011 Annual Report
  28. http://usarugby.org/documentation/about/financials/2010_Audited_Financial_Statements.pdf
  29. Scottish Rugby, 2009-10 Annual Report
  30. "USA Rugby 2009 Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  31. "USA Rugby 2008 Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  32. "USA Rugby 2007 Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  33. "USA Rugby 2006 and 2007 Financial Statements" (PDF). usarugby.org.
  34. USA Rugby, 2014 Financial Statements. Accessed 18 October 2015.
  35. Majority Vote to Remove Keck Not Enough, Rugby Today, Pat Clifton, 15 March 2018.
  36. American Rugby Dream Turns Sour, The Scotsman, Iain Morrison, 10 June 2018.
  37. "USA to launch six-team rugby union competition in 2016", Fox Sports, November 9, 2015.
  38. http://wplrugby.org/
  39. https://www.usarugby.org/club-championships/
  40. U.S. Rugby Super League, About RSL, http://www.premier-rugby.com/page/show/468964-about-rsl
  41. U.S. Rugby Super League, History, http://www.premier-rugby.com/page/show/468962-history
  42. "Club Competitions". usarugby.org.
  43. https://www.usarugby.org/college-championships/
  44. Philly.com, PPL Park to host rugby college championships, November 10, 2010, http://articles.philly.com/2010-11-10/sports/24952526_1_sevens-rugby-top-priority-2-day-event
  45. "State Rugby Organizations". usarugby.org.
  46. "USA Club Rugby: Geographical Unions". http://usarugby.org/. Retrieved March 4, 2014. External link in |publisher= (help)
  47. Rugby Magazine Vol 12; No. 5 July 1986
  48. Rugby Magazine Vol 13, No. 2 March 1987 and March 87 issue of The Eagle (USARFU publication)
  49. Rugby Magazine Vol 13; No. 5 July/August 1986
  50. December 1987 issue of The Eagle (USARFU publication)
  51. November 1992 AGM Rugby Magazine Vol 18, No. 11; 21 December 1992
  52. AGM 11 – 13 Novembwr 1994; Colorado Springs, CO as reported in Rugby Magazine Vol 20, No 11; 19 December 94
  53. AGM 6 January 96 in Atlanta GA as reported in Rugby Magazine Vol 22, No. 1; February 96
  54. 17 January 1988 AGM at Atlanta, GA as reported in Rugby Magazine Vol. 24 No. 1; 30 January 1998
  55. 3–5 March 2000 Board meeting reported by Rugby Magazine Vol. 26. No.4; 28 April 2000
  56. USA Rugby Official Minutes from 1–2 March 2002 AGM at New Orleans, LA
  57. USA Rugby Official Minutes from 2–3 April 2004 meeting in Philadelphia, PA
  58. USA Rugby Official Minutes from 3–8 March 3–4 2–3 April 2006 meeting in
  59. Official Minutes USA Rugby Board Meeting 14 July 2006
  60. Rugby Magazine Vol 14; No. 4 April 1988
  61. Rugby magazine Vol 16. No. 1; 22 Jan 90
  62. Rugby Union Magazine Vol 3 no. 3; July/Aug 95
  63. Rugby Magazine Vol. 21 no. 8; 18 Sep 95
  64. USA Rugby Touchline - Vol 6, Iss 1 Spring 98
  65. USA Rugby Touchline - Vol 7, Iss 3, Spring 99
  66. Rugby Magazine Vol. 25, No. 3; 15 April 99
  67. Rugby magazine Vol. 25; No. 6; 17 July 99
  68. Rugby Magazine - Vol 28, No. 11; December 2002
  69. Red Terror, Doug Arnot to Step Down as CEO of USA Rugby, 16 April 2006, http://redterror.blogspot.com/2007/03/doug-arnot-to-step-down-as-ceo-of-usa.html
  70. "Nigel Melville to Step Down as CEO of USA Rugby, Rugby International Marketing". usarugby.org.
  71. "USA Rugby Names Jim Snyder Acting CEO". djcoilrugby.com.
  72. "USA Rugby Selects Dan Payne to Become New Chief Executive Officer". usarugby.org.
  73. "Ross Young assumes Interim CEO role with USA Rugby". usarugby.org.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.