U-NII

The Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII)[1][2] radio band is part of the radio frequency spectrum used by IEEE 802.11a devices and by many wireless ISPs. It operates over four ranges:

  • U-NII Low (U-NII-1[3]): 5.150–5.250 GHz. Originally limited to indoor use only. Regulations required use of an integrated antenna, with power limited to 50 mW.[4] Rules changed in 2014 to permit outdoor operation, maximum fixed power 1 watt, maximum fixed EIRP 4 watts (+36 dBm) point-to-multipoint, 200 watts (+53 dBm) point-to-point. However, strict out-of-band emission rules limit practical point-to-point power to lower levels.
  • U-NII Mid (U-NII-2A[3]): 5.250–5.350 GHz. Both outdoor and indoor use, subject to Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS, or radar avoidance). Regulations allow for a user-installable antenna.[5] Power limited to 250 mW[4].
  • U-NII-2B: 5.350–5.470 GHz. Currently 120 MHz of spectrum not allocated by the FCC for unlicensed use.
  • U-NII Worldwide (U-NII-2C / U-NII-2e): 5.470–5.725 GHz. Both outdoor and indoor use, subject to Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS, or radar avoidance).[5] Power limited to 250 mW.[4] This spectrum was added by the FCC in 2003 to "align the frequency bands used by U-NII devices in the United States with bands in other parts of the world".[5] The FCC currently has an interim limitation on operations on channels which overlap the 5600–5650 MHz band.[6]
  • U-NII Upper (U-NII-3[7]): 5.725–5.850 GHz. Sometimes referred to as U-NII / ISM due to overlap with the ISM band. Regulations allow for a user-installable antenna. Power limited to 1W[4]
  • DSRC/ITS (U-NII-4[8]): 5.850–5.925 GHz. At present U-NII-4 spectrum is being considered by the FCC for unlicensed use. U-NII-4 is presently only usable for Dedicated Short Range Communications Service (DSRC) and licensed amateur radio operators.
BandFreq. RangeBandwidthMax PowerMax EIRP
U-NII Low / U-NII-1 / U-NII Indoor5.150–5.250 GHz100 MHz50 mW200 mW
U-NII Mid / U-NII-2A5.250–5.350 GHz100 MHz250 mW1 W
U-NII-2B5.350–5.470 GHz120 MHz
U-NII Worldwide / U-NII-2C / U-NII-2-Extended / U-NII-2e5.470–5.725 GHz255 MHz250 mW1 W
U-NII Upper / U-NII-35.725-5.850 GHz125 MHz1 W200 mW
DSRC/ITS / U-NII-45.850–5.925 GHz75 MHz

Wireless ISPs generally use 5.725–5.825 GHz.
In the USA licensed amateur radio operators are authorized 5.650–5.925 GHz by Part 97.303 of the FCC rules.

U-NII is an FCC regulatory domain for 5 GHz wireless devices. U-NII power limits are defined by the United States CFR Title 47 (Telecommunication), Part 15 - Radio Frequency Devices, Subpart E - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices, Paragraph 15.407 - General technical requirements. Regulatory use in individual countries may differ.

The European HiperLAN standard operates in same frequency band as the U-NII.

5 GHz (802.11a/h/j/n)

Except where noted, all information taken from Annex J of IEEE 802.11-2007 modified by amendments k, y and n. Because countries set their own regulations regarding specific uses and maximum power levels within these frequency ranges, it is recommended that local authorities are consulted as regulations may change at any time.

In 2007, the FCC began requiring that devices operating in channels 52, 56, 60 and 64 must have Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) capabilities. This is to avoid communicating in the same frequency range as some radar. In 2014, the FCC issued new rules[9] for all devices due to interference with government weather radar systems. Fines and equipment seizure were listed as punishment for non-compliance.

Band channel frequency
(MHz)
United States Europe Japan Singapore China Israel Korea Turkey India
40/20 MHz[10]40/20 MHz40/20 MHz[11]10 MHz20 MHz20 MHz20 MHz[12]20 MHz[13]20 MHz40/20 MHz5/10 MHz[14]
1834915NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
1844920NoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
1854925NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
1874935NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
1884940NoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
1894945NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
1924960NoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
1964980NoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
75035NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
85040NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
95045NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
115055NoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
125060NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
165080NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
U-NII-1345170NoNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
365180YesYesYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
385190NoNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
405200YesYesYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
425210NoNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
445220YesYesYesNoYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
465230NoNoNoNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
485240YesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
U-NII-2A525260YesYesYesNoNoNoYesNoNoNoNo
565280YesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
605300YesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
645320YesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYesYes
U-NII-2B5350–5470NoUnknown
U-NII-2C1005500Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1045520Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1085540Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1125560Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1165580Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1205600No[16]YesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1245620NoYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1285640NoYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoYesYes
1325660Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
1365680Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
1405700Yes[15]YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
U-NII-31495745YesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYes
1535765YesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYes
1575785YesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYes
1615805YesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYes
1655825YesNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYesYesYes
U-NII-4[17]1695845NoUnknownNoYes
1735865NoUnknownNoYes
1775885NoUnknownNoYes
1815905NoUnknownNoYes
1855925
(proposed expansion)
NoUnknownNoYes

See also

References

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