Type C4-class ship
The Type C4-class ship were the largest cargo ships built by the United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) during World War II. The design was originally developed for the American-Hawaiian Lines in 1941, but in late 1941 the plans were taken over by the MARCOM.
USS Haven, an example of a Type C4 ship, seen here in 1954, a type C4-S-B2 ship.
|Operators:||United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM)|
|Preceded by:||Type C3-class ship|
|Beam:||71.6 ft (21.8 m)|
|Speed:||17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph)|
|Complement:||Varied by design type|
Eighty-one ships were built as cargo or troopships in four shipyards: Kaiser Richmond, California (35 ships), Kaiser Vancouver, Washington (20 ships), Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock in Chester, Pennsylvania (20 ships) and Bethlehem Steel Sparrows Point, Maryland (6 ships). All ships were capable of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph), driven by a single screw steam turbine generating 9,900 shaft horsepower (7,400 kW).
List of Type C4 ships
C4-S-A1 DWT: 14,863.
- Built by Kaiser Shipyards at Permanente No. 3 in Richmond, California for the US Army Transportation Corps then transferred later to the US Navy. The 30 ships were built from 1942 to 1945. In the 1960 the Navy sold of most of the General ships to private companies. Most were scrapped in the 1980s.
- USS General G. O. Squier (AP-130)
- USS General T. H. Bliss (AP-131)
- USS General J. R. Brooke (AP-132)
- USS General O. H. Ernst (AP-133)
- USS General R. L. Howze (AP-134)
- USS General W. M. Black (AP-135)
- USS General H. L. Scott (AP-136)
- USS General S. D. Sturgis (AP-137)
- USS General C. G. Morton (AP-138)
- USS General R. E. Callan (AP-139), later USNS General H. H. Arnold (T-AGM-9) a missile range instrumentation ship
- USS General M. B. Stewart (AP-140)
- USS General A. W. Greely (AP-141)
- USS General C. H. Muir (AP-142)
- USS General H. B. Freeman (AP-143)
- USS General H. F. Hodges (AP-144)
- USS General Harry Taylor (AP-145), later USNS General Hoyt S. Vandenberg (T-AGM-10)
- USS General W. F. Hase (AP-146)
- USS General E. T. Collins (AP-147)
- USS General M. L. Hersey (AP-148)
- USS General J. H. McRae (AP-149)
- USS General M. M. Patrick (AP-150)
- USS General W. C. Langfitt (AP-151)
- USS General Omar Bundy (AP-152) went missing in 1980.
- USS General R. M. Blatchford (AP-153)
- USS General LeRoy Eltinge (AP-154)
- USS General A. W. Brewster (AP-155)
- USS General D. E. Aultman (AP-156)
- USS General C. C. Ballou (AP-157)
- USS General W. G. Haan (AP-158)
- USS General Stuart Heintzelman (AP-159)
C4-S-B1, C4-S-B2, C4-S-B5 each were 15,300 DWT. Built for troop and cargo transport. Marine series C4 ships were manned by civilian crews but were under the command of the United States Marine Corps for WW2.
- SS Marine Eagle (acquired by the U.S. Army in 1947 and renamed USNS Private Leonard C. Brostrom (T-AK-255)) Built as a tank carrier in 1943. Converted for heavy lift in 1953.
- C4-S-B2 14 built by Sun Ship for World War II were as troop ships in 1944 and 1945. The United States Navy took over 6 to become Haven-class hospital ships in May of 1945 and painted them white. Along with military troop movement, the C4-S-B2 also did Operation Magic Carpet trip to bring home troops and their families. In after the war others were converted to cargo ships.
- SS Marine Angel - Converted to laker in 1952, sold renamed McKee Sons.
- SS Marine Beaver - Became USN hospital ship USS Repose (AH-16).
- SS Marine Devil - Converted to container ship.
- SS Marine Dragon - Converted to container ship.
- SS Marine Dolphin - Became hospital ship USS Tranquillity (AH-14).
- SS Marine Hawk - Became USS Haven (AH-12), later sold and converted to chemical carrier.
- SS Marine Fox - Converted to container.
- SS Marine Lion - Became USS Benevolence later was in collision and sunk in 1950.
- SS Marine Panther - Converted to container ship.
- SS Marine Owl - Became hospital ship USS Sanctuary (AH-17) .
- SS Marine Wolf - Converted to container ship.
- SS Marine Raven - Sold private 1961, scrapped 1976.
- SS Marine Robin - Converted to laker cargo ship in 1952, then converted to barge 1990.
- SS Marine Walrus - Became hospital ship USS Consolation (AH-15).
- Built by Sun Ships in 1945.
- USNS Marine Fiddler (T-AK-267) - Cargo ship till 1973
- SS Marine Flier - Sold private 1951, scrapped 1972 - cargo ship
- SS Marine Arrow - Sold private 1951, scrapped 1971 - cargo ship
- SS Marine Runner - Sold private 1951, scrapped 1971 - cargo ship
- SS Marine Star - Cargo ship that was converted to passenger ship.
- C4-S-A3 14,863 DWT
- Built by Kaiser Shipyards in Vancouver, Washington in 1945 and 1946 as WSA troopship.
- USNS Marine Adder (T-AP-193) - sold renamed SS Transcolorado
- SS Marine Cardinal - sold private in 1964 renamed Baltimore and converted to container ship, later scrapped.
- USNS Marine Carp (T-AP-199)
- SS Marine Falcon - sold private in 1966 renamed Trenton converted to container ship, later scrapped
- SS Marine Flasher - Sold private 1966 renamed Long Beach converted to container ship, later scrapped
- SS Marine Jumper (T-AP-200) - Sold private 1966 renamed Panama converted to container ship, later scrapped.
- USNS Marine Lynx (T-AP-194) - Became USN troopship.
- SS Marine Marlin (T-AP-201) - sold converted to passenger ship. In 1965 converted as dry cargo. Scrapped in 1972
- USNS Marine Phoenix (T-AP-195) -
- USNS Marine Carp (T-AP-199) - , then USN troopship.
- SS Marine Tiger - sold private in 1966 renamed Oakland converted to container ship, later scrapped.
- SS Marine Shark - Sold private 1968 renamed Charleston converted to container ship, later scrapped.
- USNS Marine Serpent (T-AP-202) - became USN ship from 1952 to 1968. Sold to private in 1968 renamed Galveston converted to container ship, later scrapped.
- SS Marine Perch C4-S-A3 - later Sold private in 1965, in collision and sank 1978.
- SS Marine Swallow C4-S-A3 - later sold private in 1965, scrapped in 1978.
- SS Ernie Pyle WSA troopship, used for displaced persons (DPs) refugees after World War II, sold private in 1965, scrapped in 1978.
- C4-S-A4 14,863 DWT
- Built by Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, California in 1946 for break bulk cargo
- SS Marine Snapper - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1972
- SS Marine Leopard - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1972
C4-S-A3 14,863 DWT as break bulk cargo ship.
- Built by Kaiser Shipyards in Vancouver, Washington in 1946.
- SS Mount Davis - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1971.
- SS Mount Greylock - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1971.
- SS Mount Mansfield - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1980.
- SS Mount Rogers - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1971.
- SS Mount Whitney - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1971.
Named after a person
C4-S-A3 14,863 DWT as a break bulk ship in 1946.
- Built by Kaiser Shipyards in Vancouver, Washington.
- SS Scott E. Land - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1980
- SS Willis Vickery - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1979
- SS Louis McH. Howe - Sold private in 1951, scrapped in 1980
- SS Ernie Pyle - Sold private in 1965, scrapped in 1978
C4-S-B2 DWT: 15,300
- Built by Sun Yards in Chester, Pennsylvania in 1944 and 1945.
- USS Haven (AH-12) (laid down as Marine Hawk)
- USS Benevolence (AH-13) (laid down as Marine Lion)
- USS Tranquility (AH-14) (laid down as Marine Dolphin)
- USS Consolation (AH-15) (laid down as Marine Walrus)
- USS Repose (AH-16) (laid down as Marine Beaver)
- USS Sanctuary (AH-17) (laid down as Marine Owl)
- SS Santa Magdelena
- SS Santa Mariana
- SS Santa Maria
- SS Santa Mercedes (later renamed: TS Patriot State)
C4-S-49b 13,915 DWT
Mariner-class break bulk ships were 564 feet (172 m) long with a capacity of 14,000 tons deadweight (DWT). They have speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph). They were some of the largest and fastest ships in the world when they were completed. Built between 1952 and 1955.
- C4-S-1 class
- Built by Bethlehem Steel Co., SB Division, Quincy, Massachusetts in 1952.
- Old Colony Mariner
- Cornhusker State Mariner
- Pine Tree Mariner Converted to passenger ship, Mariposa in 1956.
- Nutmeg Mariner
- Wolverine Mariner
- Bethlehem Steel Co., SB Division, Sparrows Point, Maryland
- Free State Mariner Converted to passenger ship, Monterey in 1957. Renamed *Monte in 2006, scrapped in 2007.
- Mountain Mariner
- Gopher Mariner
- Show Me Mariner
- Sunflower Mariner
- Built by Bethlehem Pacific Coast Steel Corp., San Francisco, California
- Golden Mariner
- Built by Ingalls SB Corp., Pascagoula, Mississippi in 1952.
- Lone Star Mariner
- Evergreen Mariner Became the USN ship USS Tulare (AKA-112), an attack cargo ship. Scrapped in 2011.
- Magnolia Mariner
- Cotton Mariner
- Pelican Mariner
- Peninsula Mariner
- Built by Newport News SB & DD Co., Newport News, Virginia in 1952.
- Old Dominium Mariner
- Tar Heel Mariner
- Volunteer Mariner
- Palmetto Mariner
- Cracker State Mariner
- Built by New York SB Corp., Camden, New Jersey in 1953.
- Garden Mariner
- Diamond Mariner - Became the USN ship USS Paul Revere (APA-248), an attack transport ship.
- Empire State Mariner - Became the USN ship USS Observation Island as a missile range instrumentation ship and later a missile test platform until 2014.
- Prairie Mariner Became the USN ship USS Francis Marion (APA-249), an attack transport ship.
- Silver Mariner
- Built by Sun SB & DD Co., Chester, Pennsylvania in 1953.
- Keystone Mariner
- Buckeye Mariner
- Hoosier Mariner
- Bagder Mariner - Converted to passenger ship, SS Atlantic in 1953.
- Hawkeye Mariner
- Built by Bethlehem Pacific Coast Steel Corp., San Francisco, California in 1953
C4-S-1f built by Todd San Pedro, the three were C4-S-1a converted in 1955 for Pacific Far East Lines Inc. cargo.
- Golden Bear
- Korean Bear
- Japan Bear
- Built by Bethlehem Steel Co., Key Highway Yard, Baltimore, Maryland in 1953
C4-S-1h Conversion for break bulk ships for American President Lines in 1955.
- President Hayes (IV) (Old Dominium Mariner)
- President Jackson (IV) (Volunteer Mariner)
- President Adams (IV) (Palmetto Mariner)
- Preisdent Coolidge (II) (Cracker State Mariner)
C4-S-1s received new 105-foot (32 m) midbodies at Bethlehem Steel's San Francisco yard, this increasing their length from 564 feet (172 m) to 669 feet (204 m). New bow thrusters were also installed. Operator American Mail Lines. 20,200 DWT. Built in 1962.
- Built by Newport News for States SS Company in 1962. 14,600 DWT.
Built by Ingalls Shipbuilders for Farrell Lines. 20,100 DWT. C4-S-58a
- African Comet
- African Meteor
- African Mercury
- African Neptune
- African Dawn
- African Sun
Built by Newport News for United States Lines in 1961. 13,750 DWT. C4-S-57a
- Pioneer Moon
- American Challenger - Scrapped in 1988
- American Charger - Scrapped in 1988
- American Champion - Scrapped in 1988
- American Chieftain - Scrapped in 1988
Built by Sun Ship for United States Lines in 1964 and 1965. 13,750 DWT.
- American Rover - Scrapped in 2004
- American Racer
- American Ranger - Scrapped in 2004
- American Reliance
- American Resolute - Scrapped in 2004
Built by Beth Quincy for United States Lines in 1962 and 1963. 13,750 DWT.
- American Courier - Scrapped in 1988
- American Commander - Scrapped in 1988
- American Corsair - Scrapped in 1988
- American Contractor - Scrapped in 1988
- American Contender - Scrapped in 1988
- American Crusader - Scrapped in 1988
- Pioneer Moon - Scrapped in 1988
Built by for the USN in 1967. One roll-on/roll-off ship in class C4-ST-67a
- Marine Perch a C4-S-A3, was renamed SS Yellowstone. Yellowstone was in a collision with the Algerian freighter MV IBN Batoutaand and sank on 12 June 1978, 14 miles (23 km) southeast of Gibraltar in the Mediterranean Sea in dense fog. Five crewmen on Yellowstone were killed and two were injured, none on IBN Batoutaand. The bow of IBN Batoutaand struck deep into Yellowstone.
- Marine Lion a C4-S-B2, was renamed to USS Benevolence, a hospital ship. On 25 August 1950 she sank after a in collision with the freighter SS Mary Luckenbach in heavy fog off San Francisco. Of the crew of 550, 23 were lost in the sinking.
- USS General Omar Bundy, built in 1944, was sold a few times and renamed SS Poet. In 1980 she went missing without a trace and is presumed sunk. her cargo was 13,500 tons of bulk corn that she loaded at Girard Point Terminal in South Philadelphia, she was to steam to Port Said, Egypt. There was a severe storm in the Atlantic Ocean at the time she vanished and she was low in the water with her heavy load.
- SS Cornhusker Mariner ran aground on the night of July 6 and 7, 1953 in the typhoon "Kit" as it passed close to Pusan Harbor.
Notes and citations
- Pike, John. "C4-S-1a Mariner / APA-248 Paul Revere / AKA-112 Tulare". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- "C4 Cargo Ships". shipbuildinghistory.com. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- usmaritimecommission.de C4
- Colton, Tim. "Yardlist for Bethlehem Steel Company, Sparrows Point MD". Shipbuilding History. www.ShipbuildingHistory.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- "Prudential Seajet - IMO 6523028". shipspotting.com.
- "S.S. Prudential Oceanjet - City of Vancouver Archives". searcharchives.vancouver.ca. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- maritime.dot.gov Mariner class cargo vessel
- usmaritimecommission.de, The Mariner Class (C4-S-1a) and her Subdesigns
- globalsecurity.org, Mariner Class ships
- MARAD-Supported Shipbuilding
- shipbuildinghistory.com, Break-Bulk Cargo Ships Built in U.S. Shipyards Since WWII
- "wrecksite.eu, Marine Perch". wrecksite.eu. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- shipspotting.com, SS Yellowstone
- Collision of U.S. Bulk Carrier SS Yellowstone and Algerian Freighter M/V IBN Batouta, Mediterranean Sea, June 12, 1978, by the United States. National Transportation Safety Board
- "Hospital Ship (AH) Photo Index". www.navsource.org. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- Rasmussen, Frederick N. (March 4, 2006). "The 1980 disappearance of the SS Poet". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- SS Cornhusker Mariner
- uscg.mil, SS Cornhusker Mariner
- American Merchant Marine at War - C4 ships
- US Maritime Commission Details and Outboard Profiles of Maritime Commission Vessels, The C4 Cargo Ship, Conversions and Subdesigns
- US Maritime Commission overview
- US Maritime Commission - Technical Specifications for Ships including definitions of terms
- From America to United States: The History of the long-range Merchant Shipbuilding Programme of the United States Maritime Commission, by L.A. Sawyer and W.H. Mitchell. London, 1981, World Ship Society
- Ships for Victory: A History of Shipbuilding under the U.S. Maritime Commission in World War II, by Frederic C. Lane ISBN 0-8018-6752-5