Type B ship

The Type B ship is a United States Maritime Administration (MARAD) designation for World War II barges. Barges are very low cost to build, operate and move. Barges were needed to move large bulking cargo. A tug boat, some classed as Type V ships, could move a barge, then depart and move on to the next task. This meant the barge did not have to be rushed to be unload or loaded. Towards the end of the World War 2, some ships that had not been completed in time for the war were converted to barges. US Navy barges are given the prefix: YWN or YW. Due to shortage of steel during WW2, Concrete Ship Constructors were given contracts to built concrete barge with the prefix YO, YOG, YOGN and some named after elements, built in 1944 and 1945.[2][3][4][5]

World War II barge types

Steel Barge

  • Built by Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding Company in Mobile, AL, Type Coal, Design # 1039
  • USSB # 301 Name Darien Barge sold to Debardeleben Marine III, Texas in 1969
  • USSB # 302 Name Mamai Barge sold renamed Patricia Sheridan in 1969
  • Built by Union Bridge & Construction Company in Morgan City, LA, Design #1067
  • USSB #2005 Barge
  • USSB #2006 Barge
  • USSB #2007 Barge
  • Built by Nashville Bridge Company in Nashville, TN, Design # 1096
  • USSB #2776 Barge, Tank
  • USSB #2777 Barge, Tank
  • USSB #2778 Barge, Tank
  • USSB #2779 Barge, Tank

Freight Barges -YF - YFN

Most YFN barges were not self-propelled and most YF were self-propelled. A YFN could carry a load of 550 long tons. YFN were near shore with a steel hull. They worked in harbors, rivers and other protected waters. They were 110 foot long, with a 32-foot beam and maximum draft of 8 feet. The Pacific Bridge Company built 27 YFN Freight Barges in 1943: YFN 576 to YFN 603. Pollock-Stockton Shipbuilding Company built: FN 619 to FN 742 YFN 998 to YFN 1016. [6][7]

Refrigerated Freight Barges YFR - YFRN

Most YFRN Barges were not self-propelled and YFR Barges were self-propelled. Olson & Winge of Seattle WA made 10 YFRN: YFRN-833 to YFRN-841 in 1943 for the war. Defoe Shipbuilding Company of Bay City, Michigan build three: YFR-888, YFR-889 and YFR-890 in 1945. Long Beach Naval Shipyard of Long Beach, California built the YFRN-997 in 1945. A few barges were coveted to refrigerated barges, also called a reefer barge.[8]

Repair Barges

Repair Barges type TR, YRB, YRBM, YRDH, YRDM, YRR, LBE were built for World war 2. Repair Barge were self sustaining, 530 tons and 153 feet long built in 1944. They had a beam with of 36 feet and draft of 6 feet. Repair Barge had a machine shop, living accommodations. They repaired small boats and craft. The barge had generators, distilling plant, air compressor and steam boiler, The living space had bed berths, mess hall to support a crew of 48 men: 47 enlisted one Chief petty officer.[9][10][11]

  • Floating Workshops are YR, 96 built, 24 built before ww2
  • Repair and Berthing Barges are YRB, 36 built
  • Repair, Berthing and Messing Barges were YRBM, 56 built
  • Dry-Dock Workshops - Hull are YRDH, 8 built
  • Dry-Dock Workshops - Machinery are YRDM, 8 built
  • Radiological Repair Barges are YRR, 14 built. Used to support nuclear plant overhauls of nuclear ships and submarines, also refueling and decontamination of used equipment.
  • LBE Landing Barge, Emergency repair used in WW2 to repair landing crafts.

Barracks Barge

US Navy Barracks Barges, also called berthing barge was 1,300 tons and 261 feet long. Used for use as a temporary barracks for sailors or other military personnel. A barracks ship also were used as a receiving unit for sailors who need temporary residence prior to being assigned to their ship. Barracks Barge are a type of auxiliary ship, called an APL for auxiliary personal living.[12][13]

  • APB-35 to APB-51, Barracks Ships are propelled Barracks Ship built in 1944. APB has a full load displacement of 2,190 tons. APB are Benewah-class barracks ships, a sample is USS Benewah.
  • APL-1 to 58 are Non-self-propelled Barracks Ship built in 1944 and 1945. APL displacement 2,600 tons full load. Dimensions 261.2' long, 49.2' beam, draft 8.5' when full. WW2 armament was four 20mm guns. Crew complement quarters could hold 71 officers and 583 troops. Some are still in use. Sample see USS Mercer (APL-39).[14]
  • APL-59 to APL-72 are post WW2 Barracks Ships.[15]

Landing Barge, Kitchen

Landing Barge, Kitchen or (LBK) was a landing craft used to support amphibious landings in North Western Europe during and after the Normandy invasion in the Second World War. Its primary purpose was to provide hot meals to the crews of the many minor landing craft not fitted with galley facilities. Constructed of steel, this shallow-draft lighter had storage and serving space to feed 900 men for one week. The kitchen capacity was able to provide 1,600 hot meals and 800 cold meals a day. Used by both the US and British on D-Day.[16][17]

Landing Barge, Vehicle

Landing Barge, Vehicle (LBV 1, mark 1) was a barge with a ramp added to load and unload vehicles like: jeeps and trucks during World war 2. A nine-foot, four inch ramp was added to the stern of the barge for loading and unloading. LBV 2, mark 2, had an engine that could move the LBV up to 4 1/2 knots. Powered by 2 Chrysler RM Gas engines. Used by both the US and British on D-Day. Built is three sizes: small (s) 70 feet long, medium (m) 78 feet long and large (l) 82 feet long. Each had a draft of about 4 feet loaded.[18][19]

Landing Barge, Oiler

Landing Barge, Oiler (LBO) use to store fuel oil or diesel fuel to fuel landing crafts. Had a 40-ton fuel tank, with two compartments and an engine that could move it up to 4 1/2 knots. Used by both the US and British on D-Day.[20][21][22]

Landing Barge, Water

Landing Barge, Water (LBW) a barge (LBV2) with a 33-ton fresh water tank and an engine that could move it up to 4 1/2 knots. For the support of landing in World war 2. Used by both the US and British on D-Day.[23]

Landing Barge, Flak

Landing Barge, Flak (LBF) a Landing Barge, Vehicle with a 40mm anti-aircraft gun, manned by a crew of 5 army men. Also had Two 20-mm Hispano AA guns or two twin Lewis guns. The LBF were 60 to 90 feet long. Could also transport 15 troops. Used by both the US and British on D-Day.[24][25]

Concrete Barge

  • Built by Concrete Ship Constructors in National City, California in 1944 and 1945. These were a type of concrete ship. Steel shortages led the US military to order the construction of small fleets of ocean-going concrete barge and ships. Typical Displacement: 5,636 long tons (5,726 t), full load: 12,910 tons. Length:366 ft 4 in (111.66 m), beam: 54 ft (16 m), draft: 26 ft (7.9 m), crew 52 officers and men. Ship armament 1 to 4 × 40 mm AA gun[26][27][28][29] Concrete Ship were fitted as needed some had diesel-electric power generators for refrigeration or tool use. Other were used to store fuel of water up to 60,000 barrels. Some were used for water distilling. Other were the Quartermaster's general store.[30]
  • Type MC B7-A2 tank barges made by Concrete Ship Constructors Inc in National City CA.

B7-A2 were 5,786 deadweight tons concrete barges.

  • YOGN-42 Sunk by Japanese submarine I-39[31]
  • YOG-85
  • YO-144
  • YOG-40
  • YOG-41
  • YOG-42
  • YO-145
  • YO-146 Sank in accident July 1957
  • YOG-53
  • YO-159 Sank by Japanese submarine RO-42 off New Hebrides 14 Jan 1944
  • YO-160 Atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll on 25 Jul 1946
  • YO-161 Sank Eniwetok 29 Nov 1946
  • YO-162
  • YO-163
  • YO-182
  • YO-183
  • YOGN-82 Sunk on June 23, 2018 to form an artificial reef in Powell River, B.C.[32]
  • YO-184 Sank at Eniwetok during typhoon Sep. of 1946
  • YO-185 Sank off Saipan 16 March 1946.
  • YOG-83 Sank in off Kwajalein 16 Sep. 1948.
  • YO-186 Sank at sea off Guam 5 April 1948.
  • YO-187 Lost by grounding off Midway Island in 1957
  • YOG-84 Lost during typhoon at sea off Saipan 14 Nov 1948

Type B5-BJ1 were covered dry cargo barges. They were 265 feet long with a deadweight of 1,632 tons.

  • Barium
  • Helium
  • Nitrogen
  • Radium
  • Argon
  • Cadmium
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt
  • Iridium
  • Lithium
  • Magnesium
  • Neon
  • Nickel
  • Phosphorus
  • Sodium
  • Sulphur
  • Tellurium
  • Tungsten
  • Uranium
  • Bismuth
  • Bromide
  • Hydrogen with reefer storage
  • Calcium with reefer storage
  • Antimony with reefer storage
  • Cerium maintenance barges
  • Radon maintenance barges
  • YOGN 104 built by Alabama Dry Dock Mobile AL Ex-C 105, disposed of 1947
  • 1950s Built by Trinity Industries in Nashville TN, 165 feet long, 245 tons.
  • YOGN-110
  • YOGN-111
  • YOGN-112
  • YOGN-113
  • Built by Albina Engine & Machine in Portland OR, 165 feet long, 245 tons.
  • YOGN-114
  • YOGN-115 used to support cooling efforts at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power [33][34]
  • YOGN-116
  • YOGN-117
  • YOGN-118
  • YOGN-119 renamed YON 367, sunk as target 1973
  • YOGN-120 renamed Ex-BG 1165, sunk as target 1978
  • YOGN-121
  • YOGN-122 Ex-BG 8452, scrapped 1986
  • YOGN-123 Ex-BG 6380, YON 252
  • YOGN-124 Ex-BG 6383, struck 2006
  • YOGN-125 Ex-YWN 154, now YON
  • Built by Manitowoc SB in Manitowoc WI, 174 feet long, 440 tons.
  • YOGN-196 renamed Ex-YO 196, sunk as target 2000

Trefoil-class concrete barge Type: B7-D1 were built by Barrett & Hilp in South San Francisco, California. They had a tonnage of M.C. Deadweight: 5,687, Full Load: 10,970 pounds. Dimensions: Length: 366'4" by Beam: 54' with max. Draft: 26'

B7-A1 B7-A1 were 5,786 deadweight tons concrete barges.

  • MacEvoy Shipbuilding Corp. of Savannah, Georgia made seven B7-A1 concrete barges in 1944.
  • San Jacinto Shipbuilding Corp. of Houston TX made four B7-A1 concrete barges in 1943.

C1-S-D1 C1-S-D1 were made by McCloskey & Company in Hookers Point, Tampa, Florida in 1944. McCloskey built 24 C1-S-D1. Many were sunk after the as war as breakwater barriers. B7-A1 were 5,004 deadweight tons concrete barges. Name - Completed - Fate

  • Vitruvius Dec-43 Sunk as a breakwater at Normandy
  • David O. Saylor Nov-43 Sunk as a breakwater at Normandy
  • Arthur Newell Talbot Feb-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • Richard Lewis Humphrey Mar-44 Sold in Mexico
  • Richard Kidder Meade Mar-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • Willis A. Slater Feb-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • Leonard Chase Watson Jun-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • John Smeaton Apr-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • Joseph Aspdin May-44 Wrecked and lost 1948
  • John Grant Jun-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • M. H. Le Chatelier 1055 Jul-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • L. J. Vicat Jul-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • Robert Whitman Lesley 1057 Jul-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • Edwin Thacher Jul-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • C. W. Pasley Aug-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Newport OR
  • Armand Considere Sep-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • Francois Hennebique Sep-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Newport OR
  • P. M. Anderson Sep-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • Albert Kahn Oct-44 Abandoned and lost 1947
  • Willard A. Pollard Nov-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • William Foster Cowham Nov-44 Sunk as a breakwater at Kiptopeke VA
  • Edwin Clarence Eckel Dec-44 Scuttled 1946
  • Thaddeus Merriman Nov-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC
  • Emile N. Vidal Dec-44 Afloat as a breakwater at Powell River BC

Wood Barge

  • Built by American Lumber in Millville, Florida
  • Millville EFC # 2432 USSB Design #1067
  • Built by Beaumont Shipbuilder & Dry Dock in Beaumont, TX,
  • Shelbank EFC #2127 later completed as sailing ship Marie F. Cummins, scrapped in 1947
  • Shelby EFC #2128 ater completed as sailing ship Albert D. Cummins, scrapped 1947
  • Built by Coastwise Shipbuilder in Baltimore, MD
  • Catonsville EFC #2141
  • Sherwood EFC #2142
  • Carroll EFC #2143
  • Built by Cobb & Company, F. in Rockland, ME
  • Whitehead EFC #2481
  • Built by Crook, H. E. Baltimore MD
  • Druid Hill EFC #2594
  • Ruxton EFC #2595
  • Built by Crosby Navigation in Richmond, VA
  • Hallowell EFC #2577
  • Richmond EFC #2578

World War I barge types

Many World War I barges were used in World War II, due to the high demand.


  • Built by American Steel Barge Company in Superior, WI, from 1891 to 1945.[35][36]
  • YW , YW-1 to YW-132, Water Barge self-propelled
  • Water Barge non-self-propelled
    • YWN-145 (was YW-145)
    • YWN-146 (was YW-146)
    • YWN-147
    • YWN-148 ex YON-187
    • YW-149
    • YW-150
    • YW-151
    • YW-152
    • YWN-153
    • YWN-154
    • YW-155
    • *YWN-156 ex YOGN-116
    • YWN-157 ex YOG-32


  • Built by Anacortes Shipways in Anacortes, WA in 1918 [37]
  • USSB Barden type# 1001, LDT 2,551,
  • USSB Dacula type# 1001, LDT 2,551,
  • USSB Western Larch I type# B5-G1
  • USSB Western Larch II type# B5-G1
  • USSB Western Larch III type# B5-G1
  • Built by Allen Shipbuilding in Seattle, WA in 1919, Design # 1115[38]
  • USSB Allenhurst type 1115
  • USSB Ahmik type 1115
  • Built by Coastwise Shipbuilding in Baltimore MD in 1919, design # 1067
  • USSB Sherwood
  • USSB Catonsville
  • USSB Carroll
  • Built by Crook, H. E. in Baltimore MD, design # 1067
  • USSB Druid Hill (1919)
  • USSB Ruxton (1920)
  • Built by Crosby Navigation in Richmond VA, design # 1067
  • USSB Hallowell
  • Built by Gildersleeve Shipbuilding in Gildersleeve, CT, Coal Barge, design#115
  • USSB YC 600
  • USSB YC 601
  • USSB YC 602
  • Built by Johnson Shipyards in Mariners Harbor, NY, 1919, design#1067
  • USSB Tompkinsville
  • Built by Machias Shipbuilding in Machias, ME, 1919, design#1067
  • USSB Wellesley
  • USSB Jonesport
  • Built by McEachern Shipbuilding in Astoria, OR, 1920
  • USSB Cabria
  • Built by Meacham & Babcock in Seattle WA, 1919, design#1001
  • USSB Chalois
  • USSB Charnis
  • Built by Midland Bridge in Houston, TX, 1919, design#1067
  • USSB Aransas
  • USSB Matagorda
  • Built by Sloan Shipyards in Anacortes, WA, 1918, design#1001
  • USSB Cabacan
  • USSB Dacula
  • Built by . Johns River Shipyard Co. in Jacksonville, FL, 1919, design#1067
  • USSB Anastasia
  • USSB Daytona
  • USSB Ormond
  • Built by Tacoma Shipbuilding in Tacoma, WA, 1918, design#1001
  • USSB Dione
  • Built by Wright Shipyards in Tacoma WA, 1918, design#1001
  • USSB Endymeon


Concrete Barges were used in WW1. Louis L. Brown built concrete barges at Verplank in New York.[39]

  • YC-516 - Barge # 1 (Coal Barge #516), built 1918.[40][41]
  • YC-442 - Barge # 442 - Built 1918, displacement 922 tons.[42]
  • For WW1 12 emergency fleet concrete barges were ordered for the war, but they were not completed in time and were sold to private companies.[43]

(12 Concrete ships were also built, like the SS Atlantus.)

Notable incidents

  • YOG 42, a gasoline barge, was under tow by Navajo - AT64. Navajo was torpedoed and sank by a Japanese submarine I-39 on 12 September 1943, 150 miles East of Espiritu Santo. YOG 42 adrift was recovered by USS Sioux (AT-75).[44]
  • YO-64 sank due to enemy action in the Philippine in January 1942.[45]
  • YOG 41, YOG 42 and YOG 43 a gasoline barges, sank 22 Feb. 1942 in enemy action in the Philippines.[46]
  • YSP- 44, YSP- 46, YSP- 47, YSP- 48, YSP- 49 salvage barges and the YSR-2, a sludge barge, sank 22 Feb. 1942 in enemy action in the Philippines.[47]
  • YW-50, YW-50 and YW-50 water barges, Sank 24 July 1942 in enemy action in the Philippines.
  • YC-891 sank on 18 April 1945, was it was towed by tug Mauvila (YT-328) off Key West, Florida.
  • USS YOG-76 on 13 November 1969 in Cua Viet Cove, South Vietnam she sank after two underwater explosions hit her. YOG-76 was refloated and taken to Da Nang, South Vietnam, due to severe damage was not repaired.[48]
  • Syncline YO-63 a Bullwheel Class Fuel Oil Barge, Self-propelled, sank in 1972 north of Tahiti.[49]
  • YW-114 a YW-83 Class Self-propelled Water Barge, sank when cargo shifted at Tongass Narrows near Ketchikan, Alaska on 12 August 1989.[50]
  • YF-1079 was grounded and damaged at Buckner Bay, Okinawa, after Typhoon Louise in October 1945. YF-757 also sank in the storm.
  • YON-184 sank at Eniwetok in a typhoon in September 1946.[51]
  • Winifred Sheridan a sea-going coal barge sank with the Mary E. O’Hara a sailing fishing ship after they collided on January 20, 1941 in blinding snowstorm off The Graves Light.[52]
  • Chickamauga barge ran aground the tow steamer Samuel Mitchell at Houghton Point, Lake Superior on May 18, 1908 in fog.[53]
  • Dunaj 2 barge sank after hitting a mine in the Sea of Azov on 29 Sep 1943.[54]
  • YC21 barge sank in a storm on 15 November 1968.[55]
  • Allegheny barge was shelled and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean 9.5 nautical miles (17.6 km) east south east of the Metopkin Inlet, Virginia (37°34′N 75°25′W) by U-boat U-754. All three crew were rescued by USCGC CG-4345 ( United States Navy).[56]
  • YCK-8 wood barge sank 2.7 miles off Key West on 12 December 1943. She was under tow by Army tug LT-4.[57]
  • USS YO-159 a self-propelled fuel oil barge was torpedoed and damaged 250 nautical miles (460 km) east of Espiritu Santo (15°27′S 171°28′E) by Ro-42. Two torpedoes hit YO-159's concrete hull, cracking open. She was full of oil that leaked out and caught fire. She was scuttled the next day by USS PC-1138.[58][59]
  • USS Asphalt (IX-153) an S class Trefoil concrete barge was wrecked at Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands in a storm.[60]
  • USS YO-156 and USS YO-157 World War II self-propelled fuel oil barges were lost at Sitka, Alaska in May 1945.
  • USS Silica a sclass Trefoil concrete barge was grounded on 9 October 1945 by a Typhoon Louise off Okinawa.[61]
  • YON-160 sank in Operation Crossroads. The fuel oil barge was sunk as a target by an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll on 25 July 1946.
  • USS Lignite (IX-162) was wrecked by a typhoon, 9 October 1945.[62]
  • YC-442, Barge # 442 sank 11 September 1923.[63]

United Kingdom

  • Thames lighters, or dumb barge, were non-self-propelled barges. The original Thames barges are sailing vessels, many were converted for the war. LB or landing barges were used, some had ramps added and were called LBR or Landing Barge, Ramped. Some had engines and rudder added to be called LBV or Landing Barge Vehicle. They were used for different task: Landing Barges Oiler (LBO), Water (LBW), Kitchen (LBK) and Emergency Repair (LBE), Landing Barges Flak (LBF) and Gun (LBG). There was also one Landing Barge Cable (LBC). Many were used to for supplies to Normandy.[64][65]

Current barge classes

Type B I barge hull is designed to carry products which require the maximum preventive design to ensure no uncontrolled release cargo to the water or atmosphere.

Type B II barge hull. Barge hulls classed as Type II are those designed to carry products which require substantial preventive measures to ensure no uncontrolled release cargo to the water or atmosphere. But if released to the water would not make a long lasting public hazard.

Type B III barge hull. Barge hulls classed as Type III are those designed to move products of minor hazard and thus need less degree of control.[66]

See also


  1. navsource.org YW-59
  2. militarymuseum.org, Concrete Ship Constructors
  3. shipbuildinghistory.com, Merchant Ships Barge
  4. Wooden Ships and Barges
  5. navsource.org, YC, Open Lighter (Non Self-propelled) bardges
  6. globalsecurity.org YFN - Steel Covered Lighter
  7. shipbuildinghistory.com Freight Barges (YF, YFN) and Refrigerated Freight Barges (YFR, YFRN) Built or Acquired Since WWII
  8. shipbuildinghistory.com, Freight Barges (YF, YFN) and Refrigerated Freight Barges (YFR, YFRN) Built or Acquired During WWII
  9. globalsecurity.org, Repair Barge
  10. shipbuildinghistory.com, Repair Barges (YR, YRB, YRBM, YRDH, YRDM, YRR)
  11. globalsecurity.org Radiological Repair Barges
  12. Castell, Marcus (2003–2005). "The Turbo Electric Vessel Rangatira of 1971". The New Zealand Maritime Record. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  13. nationaldefensemagazine.org, Navy to Replace 70-Year-Old Berthing Barges, July 12, 2017, By Peter Ong
  14. navsource.org, APL-26
  15. shipbuildinghistory.com Barracks Ships and Barges (APB, APL)
  16. Training In Small Landing Craft Operations combinedops.com
  17. "BBC - WW2 People's War - My Story: On a London Barge off Normandy". bbc.co.uk.
  18. Operation Neptune: The Inside Story of Naval Operations for the Normandy, By BB Schofield, page 128 a
  19. D-Day : The assault, Allied Landing Craft and Ships
  20. Operation Neptune, By BB Schofield, page 128 b
  21. D-Day : The assault, Landing Barge, Oiler
  22. US Navy, Landing ships
  23. Operation Neptune, By BB Schofield, page 129
  24. Operation Neptune, By BB Schofield, page 128 b
  25. US Navy, landing Ships, page 65
  26. shipscribe.com, Concrete Barge
  27. shipbuildinghistory.com Concrete Ship Constructors
  28. shipbuildinghistory.com, Gasoline Tankers (YOG) and Barges (YOG and YOGN)
  29. navsource.org, YO / YON Fuel Barge
  30. Beans, Bullets, and Black Oil, The Story of Fleet Logistics Afloat in the Pacific During World War II, Special Type Ships Useful, page 99-100
  31. avsource.org, YOGN-42
  32. navsource.org YOGN-82
  33. navy.mil, U.S. Navy to Provide 500,000 Gallons of Fresh Water to Fukushima Power Plant, 3/25/2011
  34. andiegouniontribune.com, US rushes freshwater to help Japan nuclear plant, 3/25/2011
  35. navsource.org, YW Water Barge
  36. shipbuildinghistory.com, merican Steel Barge Company
  37. shipbuildinghistory.com, Anacortes Shipways
  38. shipbuildinghistory.com, Allen Shipbuilding
  39. US Navy NH 99345 Concrete Barge # 442
  40. SP & ID: Harbor and Service Craft
  41. navsource.org, YC-516, Coal Barge #516
  42. Concrete Barge # 442, 1918-1923.
  43. concreteships.org, The World War I Emergency Fleet
  44. navsource.org, YOG 42
  45. usspennsylvania.org, Naval Losses
  46. World War II Wrecks of the Philippines: WWII Shipwrecks of the Philippines, By Tom Bennett
  47. World War II Wrecks of the Philippines
  48. navsource.org USS YOG-76
  49. navsource.org, Syncline YO-63
  50. navsource.org, YW-114
  51. navsource.org, YON-184
  52. graveslightstation.com, Mary E. O’Hara
  53. Reports of the Department of Commerce and Labor, By United States. Department of Commerce and Labor, page 564
  54. uboat.net
  55. scapaflowwrecks.com, YC21
  56. "Allegheny". Uboat. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  57. wrecksite.eu YCK-8
  58. "Official Chronology of the US Navy in WWII". Ibiblio. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  59. The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II, By Robert Cressman, YO-159
  60. "Naval losses WWII". USSPennsylvania.com. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  61. "Silica". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Navy. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  62. USS Lignite (IX-162)
  63. navsource.org, YC-442
  64. naval-history.net, THAMES LIGHTERS at WAR IN TIME for D-DAY, 6th JUNE 1944
  65. naval-history.net British Vessels Lost at Sea, 1935-45
  66. cornell.edu, Barge hull classifications - B
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