Type 051 destroyer
The Type 051 destroyer (NATO/OSD Luda-class destroyer) was a class of guided missile destroyers deployed by China. It was the first guided missile destroyer fielded by the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), and the first designed and built in China. The class was based on the Soviet destroyer Neustrashimy. 17 were built from 1970 to 1990; it was not until the 21st century that China would again build a class in such large numbers.
|Preceded by:||Anshan class|
|Succeeded by:||Type 052|
|In service:||December 1971|
|Length:||132 m (433 ft 1 in)|
|Beam:||12.8 m (42 ft 0 in)|
|Draught:||4.6 m (15 ft 1 in)|
|Speed:||32 knots (59 km/h)|
|Aircraft carried:||1-2 helicopters: Harbin Z-9C ASW/SAR (Jinan (105) Luda II only)|
The PLAN began designing a warship armed with guided missiles in 1960 based on the Soviet Neustrashimy, with features from the Kotlin-class destroyer, but the Sino-Soviet split stopped work. Work resumed in 1965 with nine ships being ordered. Construction started in 1968, with trials beginning in 1971. The ships nominally entered service in the early 1970s, but few were fully operational before 1985; workmanship was poor due to the Cultural Revolution.
Construction of the second batch - the remaining ships - began in 1977, with the last commissioning in 1991. The second batch may have been ordered due to the Cultural Revolution disrupting development of a successor class. These ships may be designated Type 051D.
The PLAN initiated an abortive modernization program for the first batch in 1982. The ships would be reconstructed with British weapons and sensors acquired from British Aerospace. The Falklands War made the prospective upgrades less impressive and cost effective, and the project was cancelled in 1984. A 1986 upgrade project using American power plants, weapons, sensors, and computers was cancelled because of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.
The last two ships, Zhanjiang and Zhuhai, were upgraded with foreign - mainly French - systems, possibly being designated as Type 051G, and referred to as Luda III. They became test beds and many of the systems were later employed on the Type 052 and Type 051B destroyers.
The Type 051 was the initial design using Soviet or Soviet-derived systems.
The Type 051D was from the second batch. It had changes to electronics and was equipped for underway replenishment.
Kaifeng initially received the Thomson-CSF Tavitac combat data system, the Type 393 surface search radar, and HQ-7 (Crotale derivative) surface-to-air missiles (SAM); the missiles replaced "X" turret. In 1999, YJ-8 missiles replaced the HY-series, and electronic warfare systems were upgraded.
They were later equipped with YJ-83 anti-ship missiles.
The Type 051Z was a command variant with the ZKJ-1 combat data system. Anti-aircraft warfare capabilities were improved by replacing the 37 mm guns with Soviet 57 mm (2.2 in) guns, and fitting modern Type 381A 3-D radar.
The Type 051G was an improved variant that the last two ships, Zhanjiang and Zhuhai, were completed to. They were equipped with Type 354 3-D air and surface search radar. Four twin YJ-8 launchers replaced the HY-1/HY-2 launchers. The Soviet sonar was replaced by French DUBV-23 search sonar and DUBV-43 variable depth sonar (VDS).
Zhuhai was modified in 1999. The Soviet 130 mm guns were replaced by 100 mm (4 in) guns, derived from French Creusot-Loire Compact, with automated reloaders. An HQ-7 SAM launcher replaced the "X" turret, as on the Type 051DT. Zhuhai was similarly modified.
The Type 051G was also the first Chinese ship to deploy the YU-7 lightweight torpedo, and the Italian 40 mm (1.6 in) anti-aircraft gun.
Ships of class
|2||160||1973||South Sea Fleet||Suffered an explosion in 1978. May have been lost or scrapped.|
|3||106||西安 / Xi'an||Luda||1972||North Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|4||161||长沙 / Changsha||Dalian||1973||South Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|5||107||银川 / Yinchuan||Luda||1972||North Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|6||162||南宁 / Nanning||Dalian||1974||South Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|7||131||南京 / Nanjing||Zhonghua||1973||East Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|Helicopter destroyer (Luda II)|
|1||105||济南 / Jinan||Luda||31 December 1971||North Sea Fleet||Built as Type 051. Converted in 1987. Inactive.|
|8||108||西宁 / Xining||Luda||1985||North Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|11||163||南昌 / Nanchang||Zhonghua||1982||8 September 2016||South Sea Fleet||Last active Type 051 to retire. Preserved as military tourist attraction in Nanchang, Jiangxi.|
|13||133||重庆 / Chongqing||Zhonghua||1976||East Sea Fleet||Inactive.|
|14||134||遵义 / Zunyi||Zhonghua||1987||16 May 2019||North Sea Fleet||Transferred from the East Sea Fleet.|
|15||164||桂林 / Guilin||Dalian||1991||16 May 2019||North Sea Fleet||Transferred from the South Sea Fleet.|
|10||109||开封 / Kaifeng||Luda||1986||16 May 2019||North Sea Fleet||Built as Type 051D. Converted in 1999.|
|12||110||大连 / Dalian||Luda||1988||16 May 2019||North Sea Fleet||Built as Type 051D.|
|9||132||合肥 / Hefei||Zhonghua||1974||East Sea Fleet||Build as Type 051D.. Inactive.|
|165||湛江 / Zhanjiang||Dalian||1990||1991||South Sea Fleet||Active.|
|166||珠海/ Zhuhai||Dalian||1990||1991||South Sea Fleet||Active.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Type 051 destroyer.|
- Bussert and Elleman: Chinese Naval Shipyards
- Tate, Andrew (17 May 2019). "PLAN decommissions four Type 051 destroyers". Jane's 360. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Forecast International: page 4
- Cole: page 24
- United States Navy Office of Naval Intelligence (2018). PLA Navy Identification Guide (Report). Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Jane's Warship Recognition Guide: page 74
- Jane's Warship Recognition Guide: page 76
- Jane's Fighting Ships 2004-2005: p. 127
- Jane's Fighting Ships 2009-2010: p. 139
- Jane's Fighting Ships 2009-2010: p. 140
- Bussert, James C. (August 2004). "China Builds Destroyers Around Imported Technology". SIGNAL Magazine. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Jane's Fighting Ships 2004-2005: page 128
- Bussert and Elleman: The Luda's Gun and Missile Systems
- Bussert and Elleman: The Luda's Antisubmarine Warfare Capability
- "Undersea dragon: Chinese ASW capabilities advance" (PDF). Jane's. 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- Forecast International: page 1
- "Farewell to Nanchang: first-generation Chinese guided missile destroyer decommissioned". Ministry of Defense of the People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Dominguez, Gabriel (14 September 2016). "China's first-generation guided-missile destroyer decommissioned". Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Bussert, James; Elleman, Bruce (2011). People's Liberation Army Navy: Combat System Technology, 1949-2010. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591140801.
- Cole, Bernard D. "What Do China's Surface Fleet Developments Suggest about Its Maritime Strategy?". CSMI Red Book. United States Naval War College. 14. ISBN 978-1-935352-45-7. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Faulkner, Keith (1999). Hutchinson, Robert (ed.). Jane's Warship Recognition Guide (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-4722116.
- Luda Class - Archive 6/2002 (Report). Forecast International. June 2001. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Saunders, Stephan, ed. (2004). Jane's Fighting Ships 2004-2005. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2623-1.
- Saunders, Stephan, ed. (2009). Jane's Fighting Ships 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2888-9.