Tyler, Texas

Tyler is the county seat of Smith County, located in east-central Texas, United States.[5] The city of Tyler has long been Smith County's major economic, educational, financial, medical, and cultural hub. The city is named for John Tyler, the tenth President of the United States. Tyler had a population of 96,900 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau, and Tyler's 2018 estimated population was 105,729.[6] It is 100 miles (160 km) east-southeast of Dallas. Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 209,714 in 2010, and is the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, which had a population of 260,559 in 2010.

Tyler, Texas
City of Tyler
Clockwise: Tyler skyline with Plaza Tower at right and People's Petroleum building in center, Cotton Belt Depot, Caldwell Zoo, Chamblee Rose Garden, Smith County Courthouse, Goodman Home.

Rose City, Rose Capital, Rose Capital of America
A Natural Beauty
Location in Smith County and the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°21′N 95°18′W
CountryUnited States
Named forJohn Tyler
  MayorMartin Heines (D)
  City Council
  City ManagerEdward Broussard
  City54.376 sq mi (140.833 km2)
  Land54.2 sq mi (140.5 km2)
  Water0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)
544 ft (165 m)
  RankUS: 287th
  Density1,800/sq mi (690/km2)
130,247 (US: 247th)
216,080 (US: 200th)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP Codes
Area code(s)430/903
FIPS code48-74144[3]
GNIS feature ID1348998[4]
U.S. Routes
Major State Highways

Tyler is known as the "Rose Capital of America" (also the "Rose City" and the "Rose Capital of the World"),[7] a nickname it earned from a long history of rose production, cultivation, and processing. It is home to the largest rose garden in the United States, a 14-acre public garden complex that has over 38,000 rose bushes of at least 500 different varieties.[8] The Tyler Rose Garden is also home to the annual Texas Rose Festival, attracting tourists by the thousands each year in mid-October.[8] Tyler is also home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall.

As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher-education students, a college of engineering, a university health science center, and two regional hospital systems.

In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler. After appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a two-mile (three-kilometer) stretch of U.S. Highway 69 to maintain. Drivers and other motorists traveling on this segment of US 69 (between Tyler and nearby Lindale) will notice brown road signs that read, "First Adopt-A-Highway in the World".


Tyler is located at 32°20′03″N 95°18′00″W[9] at 544 feet (166 m) above sea level. Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, Lindale, New Chapel Hill, Bullard, Edom, Brownsboro, Kilgore, Flint, and Chandler.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles (140.8 km2), of which 54.2 mi2 (140.5 km2) are land and 0.1 mi2(0.3 km2²) is covered by water.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com / NWS

Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, which is unpredictable, especially in the spring. All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South.

The record high for Tyler is 115 °F (46 °C), which occurred in 2011. The record low for Tyler is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred on January 18, 1930.


Historical population
Est. 2018105,729[2]9.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
2017 Estimate[6]

As of the 2010 census,[3] 96,900 people resided in the city of Tyler, Texas. The population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile (688.0/km²). The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2(276.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The median income for the city was $42,752 and the poverty rate was 19.5%.


Legal recognition of Tyler was initiated by an act of the state legislature on April 11, 1846. Texas created Smith County and authorized a county seat. The first plat designated a 28-block town site centered by a main square, located within a 100-acre tract acquired by Smith County on February 6, 1847. The new town was named for President John Tyler, who advocated for annexation of Texas by the United States. A log building on the north side of the square functioned as courthouse and public meeting hall until it was displaced by a brick courthouse in 1852. On January 29, 1850, Tyler was incorporated. Early religious and social institutions included the First Baptist church and a Methodist church, a Masonic Lodge and an Odd Fellows Lodge, and Tyler’s first newspaper.[11]

Though Tyler’s early economy (1847–1873) was based on agriculture, it was also well-diversified during this period. Logging was a second major industry, while complementary manufacturing included metal working, milling wood, and leather tanning. As the seat of Smith County, the town also benefited from government activity.[12] The local agricultural economy relied on slave labor before the Civil War. By 1860, Tyler held over 1000 enslaved persons, which represented 35 percent of the town’s population. So there was strong support for secession and the Confederacy within Tyler, as a high percentage of its residents voted for secession and many of its men joined the Confederate Army. The town was secure enough for the Confederacy to establish the largest ordnance plant in Texas. In 1870, the first bank in Tyler was established by Bonner and Williams. Though both the Texas and Pacific Railroad and the International Railroad (Texas) eschewed routes through Tyler, the town gained an important rail connection when the Houston and Great Northern built a branch line in 1874.[11]

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, fruit orchards emerged as an important new business in the regional economy. Eighty percent of the county agricultural revenue derived from cotton as it persisted as the dominant crop in the first decades of the twentieth century. Peaches were the principal fruit crop as the county fruit tree inventory surpassed one million by 1900. Disease struck the peach trees, though, and local farmers moved toward growing roses by the 1920s. Twenty years later, most of the US rose supply originated in the Tyler area.[11]

On October 29, 1895, an African American suspect named Robert Henry Hillard was burned at the stake in the Smith County Courthouse Square for the alleged murder of a nineteen year-old white woman.[13] Denied a trial and due process, Hillard was taken from law enforcement personnel by a white mob. Hillard's executioners were never punished. Later, two entrepreneurs combined photographs from the actual lynching with others staged with actors and sold the 16-image production as a stereographic set. One of the original sets sits in the United States Library of Congress.[14]

On May 25, 1912, Dan Davis, an African American man suspected of attacking a sixteen-year-old white girl named Carrie Johnson, was burned at the stake in the Smith County Courthouse Square. Johnson survived. Like Hillard, Davis was denied due process and his executioners were never punished. The monstrous lynchings of Hillard and Davis are ignored in historical accounts of Tyler and Smith County.[15]


Local government

According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, and $17.6 million in cash in investments.[16]

List of mayors of Tyler, Texas
  • McDonald Lorance, 1846[17]
  • William Bartlett, circa 1848[18]
  • ?
  • Oscar Burton, circa 1937[19]
  • Zeb J. Spruiell, circa 1955[19]
  • ?
  • Murph Wilson, 1967[20]
  • ?
  • Jack H. Halbert, 1970-1976[21]
  • ?
  • Norman Shtofman, 1982-1984[22]
  • Smith Reynolds, Junior

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[25]

City Manager Edward Broussard
Managing Director of Planning & Economic Development Heather Nick
Managing Director of Culture, Recreation and Tourism Services Stephanie Franklin
Managing Director for Administration (& HR Director) ReNissa Wade
Managing Director of Public Works Scott Taylor
CFO/Finance Director Keidric Trimble
City Engineer Lisa Crossman
Chief of Police Jimmy Toler
Fire Chief David Coble
Director of Parks Russ Jackson
Chief Information Officer Benny Yazdanpanahi
City Attorney Deborah Pullum
Director of Marketing & Communications Julie Goodgame
Vehicle Services Manager Leroy Sparrow
City Librarian Ashley Taylor
Transit General Manager Robert Gil III
Neighborhood Services Manager Raynesha Hudnall
Housing Manager Vacant
Airport Manager Davis Dickson
Human Resources Manager Rose Ray
Water Utilities Financial Manager James Yanker
Water Utilities Manager Joan Roberson
Development Services Engineer Michael Wilson, P.E.
Traffic Engineer Vacant

The Northeast Texas Public Health District[26] is a political subdivision under the State of Texas established by the City of Tyler and Smith County. In place for nearly 70 years, the Health District became a separate entity in 1994, with an administrative Public Health Board. With a stated vision "To be the Healthiest Community in Texas", the district has a full-time staff of over 130 employees. The Health District has a broad range of services and responsibilities dedicated to their mission: "To Protect, Promote, and Provide for the Health of Our Community."

State government

Tyler is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Bryan Hughes, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Matt Schaefer, District 6.

The Texas Twelfth Court of Appeals is located in Tyler.[27]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Region I Parole Division Office and the Tyler District Parole Office in Tyler.[28]

Federal government

The two U.S. Senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. Tyler is part of Texas' 1st congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican Louie Gohmert.

The United States Postal Service operates several post offices in Tyler, including Tyler,[29] Azalea,[30] Southeast Crossing,[31] and the South Tyler Annex.[32]


Colleges and universities

Tyler's higher education institutions include the University of Texas at Tyler and the University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, both part of the University of Texas System, as well as Texas College, the city's only HBCU, and Tyler Junior College.

Primary and secondary schools

Public primary and secondary education for much of the city is provided by the Tyler Independent School District, which includes high schools John Tyler and Robert E. Lee, as well as Premier High School of Tyler, a public charter school (Cumberland Academy). Several Tyler schools offer international baccalaureate and advanced placement programs.

Portions of incorporated Tyler are served by surrounding school districts. These include sections of southeast Tyler, served by the Whitehouse Independent School District, and some sections in the east which are served by the Chapel Hill Independent School District.

Private schools


In addition to its role in the rose-growing industry, Tyler is the headquarters for Brookshire Grocery Company, which operates Brookshire's, Fresh, Super 1 Foods, and Spring Market supermarkets in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas). The company's main distribution center is located in south Tyler, while SouthWest Foods, a subsidiary that processes dairy products, is located just northeast of the city.

The manufacturing sector includes:

According to the City's 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[33] the top ten employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Trinity Mother Frances Health System 3,775
2 UT Health - Tyler 3,153
3 Brookshire Grocery Company 2,599
4 Tyler Independent School District 2,468
5 Trane 1,500
6 SuddenLink 1,500
7 Walmart 1,311
8 The University of Texas at Tyler 1,121
9 UT Health - Tyler (north campus) 925
10 Tyler Junior College 862

Recreation and tourism

Annually, the Texas Rose Festival draws thousands of tourists to Tyler.[34] The festival, which celebrates the role of the rose-growing industry in the local economy, is held in October and features a parade, the coronation of the Rose Queen, and other civic events. The Rose Museum features the history of the Festival. Tyler is also home to Caldwell Zoo, several local museums, Lake Palestine, Lake Tyler, and numerous golf courses and country clubs.[35] A few miles away in Flint, TX is The WaterPark @ The Villages, a year-round, indoor water park. There is also an "Azalea Trail" in Tyler, which consists of two officially designated routes within the city that showcase homes or other landscaped venues adorned with azalea shrubs.[36] The Azalea Trail also is home to the long-standing tradition of the Azalea Belles. The official greeters of the Azalea Trail are known as the Azalea Belles, young women from the Tyler area who dress in antebellum gowns. The belles are chosen each year from area high schools or home school families, and it is an honor to be chosen.

Tyler State Park, located a few miles North of the city limits, attracts visitors with opportunities to camp, canoe, and paddle boat on the lake. Other available pastimes include picnicking, boating (motors allowed – 5 mph speed limit), boat rentals, fishing, birding, hiking, mountain biking, hiking trails, lake swimming (in unsupervised swimming area), and nature study.

The Smith County Historical Society operates a museum and archives in the old Carnegie Library.[37] The East Texas State Fair is held annually in Tyler.[38] Lake Tyler was the location of the HGTV Dream Home contest in 2005. The 6,500 square feet (600 m²) house helped to boost tourism and interest in the community and surrounding areas. It was subsequently sold at public auction in January 2008, for $1.325 million.[39]


Tyler has a Cotton Belt Railroad Depot Museum located near the Chamber of Commerce office.

The Smith County Historical Society, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was founded in 1959 by individuals and business firms dedicated to discovering, collecting, and preserving data, records, and other items relating to the history of Smith County, Texas. The Society operates a museum and archives, which is located in the former Carnegie Public Library building in downtown Tyler. Permanent museum exhibits include life-size dioramas of Smith County history, with topics ranging from the Caddo Indians to the 20th century. Other items from the Society's collections are showcased in revolving, temporary exhibits. The Society's archival library contains historical artifacts of Smith County, including newspapers, city directories, school records, photographs, maps, historical papers and rare books. The archives are open to the public for research on a limited schedule with volunteer staff on duty. The society is also the official caretaker of Camp Ford Historic Park.

Camp Ford was the largest Confederate Prisoner of War camp west of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. The original site of the camp stockade is a public historic park managed by the Smith County Historical Society. The park contains a kiosk, paved trail, interpretive signage, a cabin reconstruction, and a picnic area. It is located on Highway 271, 0.8 miles (1.3 km) north of Loop 323.

Arts and Culture

2018 marks the 50th anniversary of Tyler's Civic Chorale.[40]


The most common form of transportation is the motor vehicle. Tyler is a nexus of several major highways. Interstate 20 runs along the north edge of the city going east and west, U.S. Highway 69 runs north–south through the center of town and State Highway 64 runs east–west through the city. Tyler also has access to U.S. Highway 271, State Highway 31, State Highway 155, and State Highway 110. Loop 323 was established in 1957 and encircles the city, which has continued to grow outside of this loop. Loop 49 is a limited access "outer loop" around the city and currently runs from State Highway 110 south of Tyler to Interstate 20 northwest of Tyler. Loop 124 is 1.5 miles long.

Public transportation

Tyler Transit provides customers with public transportation service within the City of Tyler. The buses run daily, excluding Sundays and holidays. Tyler Transit offers customers the option to purchase tickets, tokens, or passes at the Tyler Transit office, located at 210 E. Oakwood Street inside the Cotton Belt Railroad Depot at the main transfer point. The City of Tyler paratransit service is a shared-ride, public transportation service. Requests for service must be made the day before the service is needed. Trips can be scheduled up to 14 days in advance. ADA compliant paratransit service is provided to all origins and destinations within the service area defined as the city limits of Tyler.[41] Greyhound Lines bus service is available through a downtown terminal.

Via air

Tyler Pounds Regional Airport offers service to and from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and Denver International Airport via American Eagle and Frontier, respectively. While American Eagle provides service with Embraer ERJ-135 and ERJ-145 regional jets, Frontier operates with Airbus A320 mainline jet aircraft, Europe's own equivalent to the Boeing 737. General Aviation services are provided by two fixed-base operators, Johnson Aviation and the Jet Center of Tyler.

Via train

Tyler was the hub for a series of short-line railroads which later evolved into the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, better known as "The Cotton Belt Route". This line later became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which itself merged with the Union Pacific Railroad, which continues to serve the city today. No passenger train service to Tyler has occurred since April 1956, but Amtrak runs through the city of Mineola, a short distance north of Tyler.


A 2014 study by Walk Score ranked Tyler with a walkability score of 32 (out of 100) with some amenities within walking distance.[42]


Hospitals located in Tyler include UT Health Tyler, Trinity Mother Frances Health System, UT Health North Campus Tyler, and Texas Spine & Joint Hospital. There are also many clinics including the Direct Care Clinic.

Places of worship

Tyler is the home of many churches, including five large congregations in downtown, the Marvin United Methodist Church, Dayspring United Methodist Church, West Erwin Church of Christ, First Baptist Church, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Tyler is also the seat of Catholic Diocese of Tyler, which is particularly noteworthy for its St. Joseph the Worker Parish, one of the few churches in America dedicated to the exclusive use of the Traditional Latin Mass. The parish is staffed by the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter. The city also is the home of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception and the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a 100-plus year sanctuary recently renovated and declared a historic and heritage site by the Catholic Diocese of Tyler. The Saint Peter Claver Parish, located in central Tyler, is the second largest Catholic Church in Tyler and was dedicated to St. Peter Claver, a Franciscan priest that assisted the black slaves in Brazil during the slave trade to South America. There is also a Nazarene church on Old Bullard Road, called Tyler First Church Of The Nazarene. The city also has a Chapel of The Church of Jesus Christ Of Latter Day Saints.

Tyler has three United Pentecostal Churches; the largest of them is Tyler Tabernacle located just outside of Loop 323. Park Heights Assembly of God is another and also located just outside Loop 323. The Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic church in East Tyler is also a major center of gathering. The St. Peter and Paul Chapel, a Catholic church, is located next to the Bishop Thomas K. Gorman Regional Catholic School, was constructed and dedicated in 2011, and holds masses in English and Spanish with a significant number of other services offered to all Tyler and neighboring residents. The city's largest church, Green Acres Baptist Church, is located on Troup Highway in southeast Tyler. Tyler is also home to two reformed Baptist churches, Sylvania Church and Living Acts Church, both of which are located in the south Tyler area. Additionally, Tyler has two Jewish houses of prayer, Ahavath Achim, which associates itself with Conservative Judaism and Beth El which adheres to Reform Judaism.[43] Tyler is also home to East Texas Islamic Society, established in 1988, which includes an Islamic house of worship and an Islamic school for children.[44] There's also a Unitarian, Universalist Fellowship on Old Omen Road and Cross Brand Cowboy Church at 11915 FM 2015 Tyler, Texas. The oldest continuously active church in Smith County is the historic 152 year old New Harmony Baptist Church, which is located about 10 miles outside of Tyler at 10251 FM 724 Tyler, Texas.

Two Tyler churches were destroyed during the 2010 East Texas church burnings.


Currently, 18 media outlets and one newspaper are located in Tyler, as well as many more in the surrounding areas.



VHF/UHF Channel
Call Letters


AM stations

Call Letters
600 KTBB News/Talk
1330 KGLD Gospel The Light
1490 KYZS Sports ESPN Deportes

FM stations

Call Letters
88.7 KLOVE Christian Contemporary KLOVE
89.5 KVNE Christian Contemporary Encouragement FM
91.3 KGLY Religious
92.1 KRWR Sports Fox Sports East Texas
93.1 KTYL Hot Adult Contemporary Mix 93.1
96.1 KKTX Classic Rock Classic Rock 96.1
96.7 KOYE Spanish La Invasora
97.5 KTBB-FM News/Talk KTBB
99.3 KAPW Spanish Pop Mega 99.3
101.5 KNUE Country
102.3 KLJT Top 40 Fun Radio
102.7 KBLZ Urban Contemporary The Blaze
104.1 KKUS Classic Country The Ranch
106.5 KOOI Variety Hits Jack 106.5
107.3 KISX Urban Adult Contemporary Hot1073Jamz


College and university teams

Baseball teams

  • Tyler Elbertas (1912)
  • Tyler Trojans (1924–1929, 1931, 1935–1940, 1946–1950)
  • Tyler Sports (1932)
  • Tyler Governors (1933–1934)
  • Tyler East Texans (1950–1953)
  • Tyler Tigers (1954–1955)
  • Tyler Wildcatters (1994–1997)
  • Tyler Roughnecks (2001)


  • East Texas Twisters (2004)

Road races


  • Tyler FC (2016–Present)[45]

High school sports teams

  • All Saints Trojans (Private)
  • Bishop T.K. Gorman Crusaders (Private)
  • Grace Community Cougars (Private)
  • Cumberland Academy Knights (Charter)
  • EXEL Lions (Home School / 6 Man)
  • John Tyler Lions (Public)
  • Kings Academy Knights (Private)
  • Robert E. Lee Red Raiders (Public)
  • Tyler Heat (Home School / 6 Man)
  • East Texas Christian Academy Panthers (Private)


  • The Brook Hill School Guard (Private)
  • Chapel Hill Bulldogs (Public)
  • Lindale Eagles (Public)
  • Whitehouse Wildcats (Public)

Notable events

  • Fragments of the Space Shuttle Columbia landed near Tyler on February 1, 2003. (See Space Shuttle Columbia disaster)
  • On the evening of February 2, 2009, a fire engulfed a number of historic buildings located in downtown Tyler. Eight different fire departments responded to the fire.[46]
  • The 1982 Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe, which prohibited denying schooling to immigrant children, originated in the Tyler Independent School District.[47]
  • Robert E. Mead founded what later became known as Silverleaf Resorts in Tyler in 1977.
  • The Tyler courthouse shooting was on February 24, 2005, when David Arroyo fatally shot his ex-wife and a man in the Tyler Square on the Smith County Courthouse.

Notable people



Government and politics

  • Jere Locke Beasley – (born 1935), born in Tyler, he was the 22nd Lieutenant Governor of Alabama when Governor George Corley Wallace was shot and severely injured in an assassination attempt in Laurel, Maryland, on May 15, 1972. Beasley, a Democrat, hence served as the acting governor of Alabama from June 5 to July 7, 1972.
  • Leo Berman – Republican former member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 6
  • Kevin Eltife – Republican member of the Texas Senate from Tyler
  • Brady P. Gentry – former Chairman Texas State Highway Commission; former US Congressman; the gymnasium at Tyler Junior College named after him
  • Louie Gohmert – Republican U.S. representative and former Smith County judge
  • William Wayne Justice – Democrat U.S. District Court Judge in Tyler for 30 years – made countless key decisions on environment and civil rights
  • Matt Krause – Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Fort Worth; born in Tyler in 1980
  • Frank Melton (1949-2009) – former mayor of Jackson, Mississippi (2005–2009), and former broadcast journalist and general manager of KLTV in Tyler in 1977.
  • Albert Parsons (1848-1887) – pioneer American socialist and later anarchist newspaper editor, orator, and labor activist. Parsons was one of four Chicago radical leaders controversially convicted of conspiracy and hanged following a bomb attack on police remembered as the Haymarket affair. He resided in Tyler, Texas where he was reared by his eldest brother, William Henry Parsons, however Parson's moved the family moved from Tyler in the mid-1850s.
  • Matt Schaefer (born 1976) – Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Tyler since 2013; lawyer and United States Navy officer
  • Dan Smoot (1913-2003) – figure in the anti-communist movement; spent later years at Holly Lake Ranch in neighboring Wood County, where he died at the age of eighty-nine
  • William Steger (1920-2006) – Republican U.S. District Court judge for the Eastern District of Texas, based in Tyler, from 1970 until his death. The William M. Steger Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Tyler was named in his honor in 2006.
  • Martin Heines (born 1962) – he is the current mayor of Tyler, Texas.




  • David Brown - geneticist best known for working with microRNA
  • Josh ByerlyNASA spokesman and one of the "voices of Mission Control"
  • Winston C. Hackett - A native of Tyler, who became the first African-American physician in Arizona.
  • Brian Werner – Conservationist, co-founder of Tiger Creek Wildlife Refuge, located near Tyler.



Sister cities

See also


  1. "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
  2. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  3. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  6. "Quick Facts: Tyler, city, Texas". US Census Bureau. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
  7. Tyler Convention & Visitors Bureau. "Welcome to Tyler, Texas". Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  8. Recreation, City of Tyler – Parks and. "City of Tyler – Parks and Recreation > Park Directory > Tyler Rose Garden". parksandrec.cityoftyler.org. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
  9. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  10. United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  11. Long, Christopher (June 15, 2010). "TYLER, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
  12. Williams, Diane Elizabeth (20 June 2001). "National Register of Historic Places Form: People's National Bank Building" (PDF). Texas Historic Sites Atlas. p. 7. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  13. E. R. Bills. Black Holocaust: The Paris Horror and a Legacy of Texas Terror. Fort Worth, Texas: Eakin Press, 2015
  14. E. R. Bills. Black Holocaust: The Paris Horror and a Legacy of Texas Terror. Fort Worth, Texas: Eakin Press, 2015
  15. E. R. Bills. Black Holocaust: The Paris Horror and a Legacy of Texas Terror. Fort Worth, Texas: Eakin Press, 2015
  16. City of Tyler CAFR. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
  17. "Former Tyler Mayors". Cityoftyler.org. City of Tyler. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  18. Robert W. Glover; Linda Brown Cross, eds. (1976). Tyler & Smith County, Texas: An Historical Survey. American Bicentennial Committee of Tyler-Smith County via University of North Texas Libraries.
  19. Lawrence Kestenbaum (ed.). "Mayors of Tyler, Texas". Political Graveyard. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  20. "In Memory of Murph Wilson" (PDF), Congressional Record, Washington DC, August 7, 1998
  21. "Jack H. Halbert Obituary", Tyler Morning Telegraph, May 31, 2006
  22. "Former Tyler Mayor Dies", KITV
  23. "City of Tyler Mayor". Tylertexas.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 1997 via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
  24. "Mayor". Cityoftyler.org. City of Tyler. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  25. http://cityoftyler.org/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=76
  26. Northeast Texas Public Health District website. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
  27. "Contact Information." Twelfth Eleventh Court of Appeals. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
  28. "Parole Division Region I Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  29. "Post Office Location – TYLER." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  30. "Post Office Location – AZALEA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  31. "Post Office Location – SOUTHEAST CROSSING." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  32. "Post Office Location – SOUTH TYLER ANNEX." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
  33. City of Tyler 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, p. 136. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  34. Until Now Archived March 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  35. Navarro, Edward (2006). "It's Tee Time in Tyler". Images of Tyler. Journal Communications, Inc. 1: 57.
  36. "Frequently Asked Questions". Tyler Azalea Trail. Archived from the original on 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  37. "Smith County Historical Society". Smith County Historical Society. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  38. "East Texas State Fair". Etstatefair.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  39. "HGTV Dream Home Sold, $1.325 Million". Kltv.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  40. "Our History". www.tylercivicchorale.org. 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
  41. "Tyler Transit". Cityoftyler.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  42. "City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  43. "Tyler, Texas", found in the Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities,
  44. "East Texas Islamic Society". Tylermuslims.com. 1988-05-29. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  45. http://www.tylerfootballclub.com/
  46. Palestine Herald Press. February 3, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  47. "History Lesson 10: Plyler v. Doe: Can States Deny Public Benefits to Illegal Immigrants?". www.crfimmigrationed.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  48. "An Update From Max". blogs.myspace.com/sayanything. 2009-05-20. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
  49. https://www.cbs19.tv/article/news/local/hundreds-gather-in-unity-with-east-texas-muslim-community/396286234
  50. "The Man Who Made Wildly Imaginative, Gloriously Disobedient Buildings". The New York Times. 2018-09-10. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  51. "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International.

Further reading

  • Austin, Gladys Peters, Along the Century Trail: Early History of Tyler, Texas (Dallas: Avalon Press, 1946)
  • Burton, Morris Tyler as an Early Railroad Center, Chronicles of Smith County, Spring 1963
  • Betts, Vicki, Smith County, Texas, in the Civil War (Tyler, Texas: Smith County Historical Society, 1978)
  • Everett, Dianna, The Texas Cherokees: A People between Two Fires, 1819–1840 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990)
  • Glover, ed., Robert W., Tyler and Smith County, Texas (n.p.: Walsworth, 1976)
  • Henderson, Adele, Smith County, Texas: Its Background and History in Ante-Bellum Days (M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1926)
  • McDonald, Archie P. Historic Smith County (Historical Publishing Network, 2006).
  • Reed, Robert E. Jr. Images of America: Tyler (Arcadia Publishing, 2008).
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  • Wardlaw, Trevor P. "Sires and Sons: The Story of Hubbard’s Regiment." CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015. ISBN 978-1511963732
  • Whisenhunt, Donald W. comp., Chronological History of Smith County (Tyler, Texas: Smith County Historical Society, 1983)
  • Woldert, Albert, A History of Tyler and Smith County (San Antonio: Naylor, 1948)
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