Tuva (/ˈtvə/; Russian: Тува́) or Tyva (Tuvan: Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika [tʰɯˈʋa resˈpʰuplika]), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).[12]

Tuva Republic
Республика Тыва
Other transcription(s)
  TuvanТыва Республика
Anthem: Men – Tyva Men
Coordinates: 51°47′N 94°45′E
Federal districtSiberian[1]
Economic regionEast Siberian[2]
EstablishedMarch 31, 1992
  BodyGreat Khural[3]
  Chairman of the Government[4]Sholban Kara-ool[5]
  Total170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)
Area rank21st
 (2010 Census)[7]
321,722 (+4.5%)
  Density1.8/km2 (4.7/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 [9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-TY
License plates17
OKTMO ID93000000
Official languagesRussian;[10] Tuvan[11]
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicТувагийн
Russian name
Tuvan name
TuvanТыва Республика
Tuvan Transliteration name
Tuvan TransliterationTyva Respublika

The Tuvan republic lies at the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and Mongolia to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. It has a population of 307,930 (2010 census).[7]

From 1921 to 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent nation under the name of Tannu Tuva, officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or the People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was recognized only by its neighbors: the Soviet Union and Communist Mongolia.[13]

A majority of the population are ethnic Tuvans who speak Tuvan as their native tongue, while Russian is spoken natively by the Russian minority; both are official and widely understood in the republic. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural, which elects a chairman for a four-year term.


The territory of Tuva has been controlled by the Xiongnu Empire (209 BC–93 AD) and Mongolian Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Northern Yuan (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758).[14] Medieval Mongol tribes, including Oirats and Tumeds, inhabited areas which are now part of the Tuvan republic.[14]

From 1758–1911 it was part of Mongolia which was under Manchu rule itself. During the 1911 revolution in China, Tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans. Tsar Nicholas II agreed to the third petition by Tuva's leadership in 1912, establishing protectorate over the then independent state. Some Russians, such as merchants, travellers, and explorers were already settled in Tuva at that time. Tuva became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II, on 17 April 1914.

A Tuvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911 Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 that ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tuva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named the governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918, the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav.

From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tuva but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]). On August 14, 1921, the Bolsheviks established the Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red". Tuva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tuvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East.

In 1930, the pro-Soviet regime discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tuva by Russian linguists. In 1943 Cyrillic script replaced Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.[15]

Tuva became a part of the Soviet Union in 1944, with the approval of Tuva's Little Khural (parliament). Tuva became an autonomous republic within the RSFSR after the Soviet victory in World War II. Salchak Toka, the leader of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party and became the de facto ruler of Tuva until his death in 1973. Tuva became the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and, later, Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, on October 10, 1961.

In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl State Pedagogical Institute. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tuvan language and culture. Later in the year, there was a wave of attacks against Tuva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered.[16] Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tuva remains remote and difficult to access.[17]

Tuva was a signatory to the March 31, 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which deals with local legislation.[18] This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to another source) of Tuvans in a referendum on December 12, 1993.[19] At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).


The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.

Biosphere reserve


There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.

Major rivers include:


There are numerous lakes in Tuva, many of which are glacial and salt lakes, including Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km²) – the largest in the republic, and Uvs Lake (shared with Mongolia and a World Heritage Site).


The area of the republic is a mountain basin, about 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the territory. Mongun-Tayga ("Silver Mountain", 3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named after its glacier.

Natural resources

Major natural mineral resources of Tuva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Fauna include sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, musk deer, bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, and eagles.


  • Average January temperature: −32 °C (−26 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 150 millimeters (5.9 in) (plains) to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) (mountains)
  • Much of the territory is affected by permafrost.

Administrative divisions

The Tuva Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) (Kyzyl and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements.


Population: 307,930(2010 Census);[7] 305,510(2002 Census);[21] 309,129(1989 Census).[22]

Vital statistics

Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[23]
Years Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 233 6,559 1,938 4,621 28.2 8.3 19.8
1975 253 6,950 2,306 4,644 27.5 9.1 18.4
1980 272 7,133 2,748 4,385 26.2 10.1 16.1
1985 287 8,110 2,624 5,486 28.3 9.1 19.1
1990 309 8,116 2,664 5,452 26.3 8.6 17.7 3.22
1991 304 7,271 2,873 4,398 23.9 9.5 14.5 2.97
1992 303 6,545 3,006 3,539 21.6 9.9 11.7 2.68
1993 302 6,130 3,480 2,650 20.3 11.5 8.8 2.50
1994 303 6,076 4,086 1,990 20.1 13.5 6.6 2.46
1995 304 6,172 4,010 2,162 20.3 13.2 7.1 2.47
1996 305 5,705 4,110 1,595 18.7 13.5 5.2 2.25
1997 305 4,908 3,954 954 16.1 12.9 3.1 1.91
1998 306 5,267 3,631 1,636 17.2 11.9 5.4 2.02
1999 306 4,894 4,142 752 16.0 13.5 2.5 1.86
2000 306 4,871 4,170 701 15.9 13.6 2.3 1.83
2001 305 4,992 4,165 827 16.3 13.6 2.7 1.85
2002 305 5,727 4,576 1,151 18.8 15.0 3.8 2.10
2003 305 6,276 4,633 1,643 20.6 15.2 5.4 2.28
2004 304 6,127 4,090 2,037 20.2 13.5 6.7 2.19
2005 303 5,979 4,326 1,653 19.8 14.3 5.5 2.11
2006 302 5,950 3,802 2,148 19.7 12.6 7.1 2.06
2007 302 7,568 3,687 3,881 25.1 12.2 12.9 2.60
2008 303 7,874 3,526 4,348 26.0 11.6 14.3 2.68
2009 305 8,242 3,666 4,576 27.0 12.0 15.0 2.97
2010 307 8,262 3,566 4,696 26.9 11.6 15.3 3.03
2011 308 8,478 3,403 5,075 27.5 11.0 16.5 3.25
2012 310 8,266 3,471 4,795 26.7 11.2 15.5 3.35
2013 311 8,111 3,399 4,728 26.1 10.9 15.2 3.42
2014 313 7,921 3,419 4,502 25.3 10.9 14.4 3.49
2015 315 7,489 3,258 4,231 23.7 10.3 13.4 3.39
2016 317 7,421 3,112 4,309 23.4 9.8 13.6 3.35
2017 320 6,977 2,788 4,189 21.8 8.7 13.1 3.19
2018 323 6,607 2,865 3,742 20.5 8.9 11.6
  • Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census,[7] Tuvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Tuvans 97,996 57.0% 135,306 58.6% 161,888 60.5% 198,448 64.3% 235,313 77.0% 249,299 82.0%
Russians 68,924 40.1% 88,385 38.3% 96,793 36.2% 98,831 32.0% 61,442 20.1% 49,434 16.3%
Khakas 1,726 1.0% 2,120 0.9% 2,193 0.8% 2,258 0.7% 1,219 0.4% 877 0.3%
Others 3,282 1.9% 5,053 2.2% 6,725 2.5% 9,020 2.9% 7,526 2.5% 4,4271.4%
18,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[24]

As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tuvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989. The official languages are Tuvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic).

Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and, in general, Tuvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old Believers in the Republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian Old Believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old Believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.[25]

Ethnic Russians make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tuva. The population is mostly Old Believers.[26] Russians account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.


Religion in Tuva as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[27][28]
Atheism and irreligion
Tengrism and Tuvan Shamanism
Spiritual but not religious
Other and undeclared
Other Christians
Russian Orthodoxy

Two religions are widespread among the people of Tuva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tuva for three days.[29] On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had been officially adopted three days previously.[30]

The Tuvan people – along with the Yellow Uyghurs in China – are one of the only two Turkic groups who are mainly adherents to Tibetan Buddhism, combined with native shamanism.[31]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tuva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing.[32][33]

Shamanism is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms.

According to a 2012 survey,[27] 61.8% of the population of Tuva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tuvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.[27]


The head of the government in Tuva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tuva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term. The present flag of Tuva – yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity – was adopted on 17 September 1992.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on 23 October 1993. On 3 April 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva.[34] Sholban Kara-ool's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.[35]


Tuva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metalworking industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the Republic of Tuva is the least developed region in Russia.


Tuva is a region with a unique history, culture, and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rainforest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tuva. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tuva. The biggest of which are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C.

Cold mineral springs and salt lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tuva between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna.


Tuva does not have a railway, although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tuvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. [36]


Traditionally the Tuvan people are a Central Asian Yurt-dwelling nomadic culture, with distinctive traditions in music, cuisine, and folk art. Tuvan music features Tuvan throat singing (khoomei), in which the singer sings a fundamental tone and an overtone simultaneously. This type of singing can be heard during performances by the Tuva National Orchestra.[37]

The singer Sainkho Namtchylak has an international following. Namtchylak is also very involved with Tuvan culture. Every year inviting Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about Tuva, its culture, and its music.

In recent years, Kongar-ool Ondar, another Tuvan throat singer, has become well known in the West, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena.

Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well known Tuvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.

The Tuvan craft tradition includes carving soft stone (agalmatolite). A frequent motif is hand-held-sized animals such as horses.

Important archaelogical excavation in Tuva include Arzhaan-1 , dating to the ninth Century BC. and Arzhaan-2, where Scythian animal art in great variety, and over 9,000 decorative gold pieces were unearthed. A collection of gold jewelry from this site is on display at the National Museum Aldan-Maadyr in Kyzyl.[37]

Festivals celebrating Tuvan traditions include the ecological film festival "The Living Path of Dersu", the Interregional Festival of National Cultures "Heart of Asia". It has become a tradition to hold the international festival of live music "Ustuu-Khuree", the International Symposium "Khoomei - the Phenomenon of the Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia", the Regional Competition-Festival of Performers on National Instruments "Dingildai", the International Felt Festival "Patterns of Life on Felt" Pop songs "Melodies of the Sayan Mountains".[38]

Khuresh, the Tuvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport. The competitors wear colorful costumes with long-sleeved robes, with the objective of throwing their opponent to the ground. Competitions are held at the annual Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak.


The Tuvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tuva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tuva seeking full independence from Outer Mongolia, following the collapse of the Qing dynasty of China in 1911.


Tuva is one of the few places in the world where the original form of shamanism is preserved as part of the traditional culture of Tuva. Shamanism presupposes the existence of good and evil spirits inhabiting mountains, forests and water, the heavens and the underworld. The mediator between man and the spirits is the shaman. It is believed that with the help of spirits the shaman is able to cure patients and to predict the future.[37]

In Tuva, shamanism peacefully coexists with Buddhism. Buddhism is associated with many folk rituals, calendar holidays, and folk medicines in Tuva. Centers of Buddhism in Tuva are Khuree – temples, temple complexes. The temple complex Tsechenling in Kyzyl – the residence of Kamba-Lama, head of Buddhism in Tuva. Treasures of the old Slavonic culture in the Asian Tuva saved along with the values of other peoples – children's folklore ensemble "Oktay" from the city of Kyzyl in the course several ethnographic expeditions In the old believers ' settlements were able to collect and record of conservatives extensive collection of samples of ancient singing art.[37]


Bandy is played in Tuva.[39] Mongolian-style wrestling is very popular, as are most martial arts. [40] Obviously, horse riding related sports are also predominant in the area. [41]


The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tuvan Institute of Humanities, both in the capital, Kyzyl.


  • In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence and were not accepted by serious collectors until recently as they were thought to be produced in Moscow and not to represent a genuine postal service.[42]
  • Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman – The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.
  • Tuva was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues.
  • United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation – Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest).
  • Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage.
  • Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister of Defense, and previously Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and used to be a leader of the political party 'Unity'.
  • Tuvans make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.
  • According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.[43]
  • Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colorful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that.
  • Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.
    • China – Xinjiang: Tuwa people by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture.
    • Russia – Irkutsk Oblast: Tofa people adjacent to north-east Tuva; Buryatia: Soyot people of the Upper Oka river.
    • Mongolia – northern: Tsaatan people; north-western: Dukha/Duva people; western: Tsengel people.
  • The Sayan Mountains in Tuva were featured in Bear Grylls' Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.[44]

See also


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  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Constitution, Article 10.2
  4. Constitution, Article 10.3
  5. Official website of the Government of the Tuva Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool Archived March 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  7. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
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  10. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. Constitution, Article 5.1
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  18. http://gov.tuva.ru/content/1538/21501/
  19. ”Tyva republic approves own constitution”], BBC Monitoring Service, December 15, 1993.
  20. "Top Attractions of Russia". Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  21. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  22. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
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