A turnover is a type of pastry made by placing a filling on a piece of dough, folding the dough over, sealing, and baking it. Turnovers can be sweet or savory and are often made as a sort of portable meal or dessert, similar to a sandwich. They are often eaten for breakfast.
It is common for sweet turnovers to have a fruit filling and be made with a puff pastry or shortcrust pastry dough; savory turnovers generally contain meat and/or vegetables and can be made with any sort of dough, though a kneaded yeast dough seems to be the most common in Western cuisines. They are usually baked, but may be fried.
Savory turnovers are often sold as convenience foods in supermarkets. Savory turnovers with meat or poultry and identified as a turnover in the United States (for example, "Beef Turnover" or "Cheesy Chicken Turnover") have to meet a standard of identity or composition and should contain a certain amount of meat or poultry.
Common turnover fillings include fruits such as apples, blueberries and cherries, meats like chicken, beef and pork, vegetables such as sweet potatoes, and savory ingredients like cheese. Specialty versions are also found, such as wild rabbit and leek.
In the United Kingdom turnovers are usually filled with cooked apples, but any fruit can be used, as described in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management
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- Refer to the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book entries for "Turnover" and "Poultry Turnover."
- "The Bretzel Bakery: Turnover". Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "Turnover". Food Network.com. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- "Wild rabbit and leek turnover with piccalilli". BBC. Archived from the original on 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-06-14.