Treaty of Baden (1714)
The Treaty of Baden was the treaty that ended formal hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire, which had been at war since the start of the War of the Spanish Succession. It was signed on 7 September 1714 in Baden, Switzerland, and complemented the Treaties of Utrecht and of Rastatt.
The emissaries of the peace congress of Baden on 7 September 1714; Marshall Villars on the far left, Prince Eugene on the far right.
Johann Rudolf Huber, oil on canvas, 1714
|Context||End of the War of the Spanish Succession|
|Signed||7 September 1714|
By the Treaty of Rastatt. Emperor Charles VI accepted the Utrecht treaty on behalf of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the Treaty of Baden, the terms of peace between France and the Holy Roman Empire, which had been formally incomplete, were agreed. Therefore, the last of the many conflicts within the War of the Spanish Succession was ended. The details of the Treaty of Baden and the peace conference are recalled by the town's banneret and eyewitness, Caspar Joseph Dorer (1673-1754), in his "Diarium".
The treaty was the first international agreement signed on Swiss territory. On the margins of the conference, the signatories also secretly agreed to a Catholic union to intervene in favour of the Catholic cantons defeated at nearby Villmergen two years previously, when the Peace of Aarau had ended Catholic hegemony within the Confederacy.
- The treaty allowed France to retain Alsace and Landau but returned the east bank of the Rhine River (the Breisgau) to Austria.
- The prince electors of Bavaria and Cologne were reinstated in their territories and their positions.
- Emperor Charles VI kept the title of King of Spain and the Spanish heritage, which was actually of no value since in Spain, the power remained with King Philip V of Spain alone.
- "Friedensschlüsse von Rastatt und Baden im Aargau, 1714 März 6/September 7" [Peace treaties of Rastatt and Baden, 6 March and 7 September 1714]. Kult.Doku (in German). University of Klagenfurt.
- Coolidge, W. A. B. (1911). . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 184.
- Das Diarium des Badener Friedens 1714 von Caspar Joseph Dorer. Mit Einleitung und Kommentar herausgegeben von Barbara Schmid. Baden, Hier und Jetzt, 2014 (= Beiträge zur Aargauer Geschichte 18). ISBN 978-3-03-919327-1.
- Rolf Stücheli: Treaty of Baden (1714) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 20 December 2001.