Tony Jay

Tony Jay (2 February 1933[1] – 13 August 2006)[2] was an English–American actor, voice artist, and singer.

Tony Jay
Born(1933-02-02)2 February 1933[1]
London, England
Died13 August 2006(2006-08-13) (aged 73)
Resting placeForest Lawn Memorial Park, Hollywood Hills
NationalityEnglish, American
EducationPinner County Grammar School
OccupationActor, voice actor, singer
Years active1966–2006
Notable work
Voice of Megabyte in ReBoot (1994–2001)
Original voice of Judge Claude Frollo in Disney's The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996)
Voice of Shere Khan in The Jungle Book 2

A former member of the Royal Shakespeare Company, he was known for his voice work in radio, animation, film, and video games.[3] Jay was particularly well known for his distinctive baritone voice, which often led to him being cast in villainous roles.[4] He was best known as the voice of Judge Claude Frollo in Disney's The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996),[4] Megabyte in ReBoot (1994–2001), Shere Khan in The Jungle Book 2 and the TV series TaleSpin, and the Elder God (plus various other roles) in the Legacy of Kain series of video games.[3]

Jay also made many distinguished on-screen appearances, including the role of Nigel St John on Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1993–1995). He further made guest appearances on programs including The Golden Girls in 1987, Twin Peaks in 1990–91, and Night Court in 1991.[5] His most prominent onscreen role, however, is that of Professor Werner in Twins (1988), the father figure/mentor to Arnold Schwarzenegger's protagonist, Julius Benedict.[3]

Early life and family

Jay was born in London. He attended Pinner County Grammar School,[6] and completed his National Service with the Royal Air Force in 1953.[7] He later recalled, "I was always an actor at school"; but opted for the financial security of a real estate business. Jay moved to South Africa in about 1966,[8] after hearing of the potential there for his line of work.[9] He left South Africa to return to England in 1973, after which he moved to the United States in 1986.[3]

In 2004 he married Marta MacGeraghty.[2]

Career

While establishing his real estate business in England, Jay acted occasionally in amateur productions.[9]

South Africa

Within three months of relocating to South Africa at the age of 33,[8][10] Jay found himself acting in radio dramas such as the detective series Sounds of Darkness where he played a savvy but blind FBI agent (1967–1972). The experience led him to decide to take acting up professionally.[9][3][8]

Jay acted, wrote, and directed radio plays on the South African Broadcasting Corporation's first commercial radio station, Springbok Radio (1950–85). He was especially associated with the comic series Taxi! (1969–1972,1975–1978), in which he not only portrayed New York cabby Red Kowalski, but also co-wrote many scripts with Joe Stewardson. Other shows in which he was involved included Lux Radio Theatre, Playhouse 90, and Tuesday Theatre.[11] Jay adapted, cast, and directed the first 6 months of episodes for The Avengers. The series, based on Seasons 4–6 of the 1960s British television series of the same name,[12] was broadcast on Springbok from 6 December 1971 to 28 December 1973.[13] To bridge the gap between the visual orientation of the British television series and the sound-only perspective of radio, Jay created a narrator which he embued with irony and scepticism.[14]

Jay's voice work led him to do commercials for companies such as Gunston Cigarettes, Barclays Bank, and Bols Brandy.[11]

England

After Jay's return to England in 1973[9] he worked in various television productions.[12] For the BBC series Fall of Eagles (1974) he portrayed Tsar Alexander III of Russia, during which time he met Patrick Stewart, who played Vladimir Lenin.[7][9] Jay appeared as the merchant in Shakespeare's Timon of Athens (1981) for BBC Shakespeare, and in single episodes of popular television programmes such as The Sweeney (1975), The Professionals (1978) and the comedy Whoops Apocalypse (1982).[7]

During this period he was cast as Vladimir Maximovitch in Woody Allen's Love and Death (1975), which was shot in Hungary and France.[7] George Lucas met with Jay about playing Obi-Wan Kenobi in a planned film with the working title Galactic Warfare. Despite Jay agreeing to the role, Lucas decided to cast Alec Guinness, instead.[9]

On stage he had small roles in plays such as Anton Chekhov's The Three Sisters (1976) and Terence Rattigan's[15][16] The Deep Blue Sea (1981).[17][18] More important roles followed with an appearance as Jaggers in Great Expectations (1984) at the Old Vic,[19] and as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.[3][7]

Jay was cast as Vincent Crummles in the Royal Shakespeare Company's 8 1/2-hour-long production of The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (1986) at Stratford-upon-Avon.[20]

United States

After a tour of England, Nicholas Nickleby embarked on a limited tour of the United States, starting with performances in Los Angeles in June 1986, then on to Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. and New York City.[21] "Even before I left England, I told friends I'd be staying if I got the chance," he recalled in a 1986 The New York Times interview.[8]

During its run from August to October 1986 at the Broadhurst Theatre on Broadway, Jay's performance was described as "brilliantly played" by the New York Times.[22][23] Consequently, he was nominated for the 1987 Drama Desk Award as Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play.[24]

Jay's acting drew the attention of an agent who arranged for him to return from England to the United States for an audition. Jay was cast in a pilot program called Circus which was unsuccessful. On set Jay met make-up artist Kathy Rogers, who would become his second wife. He moved to the United States where he became a resident.[25]

In addition, Jay won parts in television series such as Night Court (1991), The Golden Girls (1987), Twins (1988), and Eerie, Indiana (1991). Bigger roles included Paracelsus on the 1987 CBS TV series adaptation of Beauty and the Beast; Minister Campio on Star Trek: The Next Generation (1992); and Lex Luthor's villainous aide-de-camp Nigel St. John in Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1992–95).[7]

Jay's voice-over work included Monsieur D'Arque, the amoral asylum superintendent, in Disney's 1991 hit animated film version of Beauty and the Beast. From 1994 to 2001 he supplied the voice for the virus Megabyte in the computer animated television show ReBoot. According to one source,[26] Jay was preferred to Patrick Stewart, Derek Jacobi, Ian McKellen for the voice of Judge Claude Frollo in Disney's 1996 animated film adaptation of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, directed by Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise, who had also steered his performance in the film version of Beauty and the Beast. Jay reprised Frollo's voice for Walt Disney World's nighttime light and fireworks show Fantasmic! From 1995 to 1996 Jay was the voice of the alien warlord Lord Dregg, the villain during the last two seasons of the original 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles animated TV series.

He is also well-known among fans of the 1996–2003 video game series Legacy of Kain for his voicing of the original Mortanius and of the Elder God, alongside several other minor characters.[27]

In various animated projects Jay took over the voice of Shere Khan, which actor George Sanders had originated for the 1967 Disney animated film The Jungle Book. In 11 episodes spanning 1990–91, Jay voiced Shere Khan for Disney's animated TV series TaleSpin,[27] The Jungle Book: Rhythm and Groove videogame (2000), and the House of Mouse (2001–02). His final appearance as Khan came in the 2003 film The Jungle Book 2. His final role was voicing Spiderus in the Miss Spider series.

Jay was a devotee of classic Broadway and made several recordings and performances of old-time Broadway lyrics, in spoken-word form. A CD of these readings, Speaking of Broadway, was released in 2005;[27] a version recorded in 1996 was entitled Poets on Broadway, as was his website. On it Jay recites lyrics written by the likes of Noël Coward, Ira Gershwin, and Oscar Hammerstein, accompanied by synthesized music which he composed.[28]

Illness and death

In April 2006 Jay underwent surgery in Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (Los Angeles) to remove a non-cancerous tumor from his lungs.[7][29] Afterwards he became critically ill and was readmitted to Cedar Sinai, where he died on 13 August 2006, aged 73.[7][27] He is buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Los Angeles, California.

Filmography

Film

YearTitleRoleNotes
1968Majuba: Heuwel van DuiweUncredited, South African Film
1969Petticoat SafariCo-Writer, South African Film
1970Lied in my hartRudiSouth African Film
1970Scotty & Co.Ginger SidSouth African Film
1970Sien Jou MôreProf. Ivan Ullman(voiced by Danie Smuts)
South African Film
1970Taxi!Red KowalskiSouth African Film
1972My WayNatie KaplanSouth African Film
1972LeatherlipUncredited, South African Film
1975Love and DeathVladimir Maximovich
1977My Way IINatie KaplanSouth Africa
1978The Greek TycoonDoctor
1981Time BanditsThe Supreme BeingVoice
1984Nausicaä of the Valley of the WindNarratorVoice, Disney 2005 dub
1987Little DorritDoctor
1988TwinsProfessor Werner & The Narrator
My Stepmother Is an AlienCouncil Chief
1989Asterix and the Big FightNarratorVoice, English version
1991Beauty and the BeastMonsieur D'ArqueVoice
BeastiesFrankieDirect-to-video
1992Tom and Jerry: The MovieLickboot the LawyerVoice
1994ThumbelinaBullVoice, Uncredited
Scooby-Doo! in Arabian NightsLord of the AmuletVoice, TV movie
1996All Dogs Go to Heaven 2ReginaldVoice
The Hunchback of Notre DameJudge Claude FrolloVoice
Nominated — Annie Award for Voice Acting in an Animated Feature Production
1998The Rugrats MovieDr. LipschitzVoice
An American Tail: The Treasure of Manhattan IslandMr. ToploftyVoice, Direct-to-video
1999Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged MeNarratorVoice, Uncredited
2001Recess: School's OutDr. RosenthalVoice
Race to SpaceNarratorVoice
2002Treasure PlanetNarratorVoice
2003The Jungle Book 2Shere Khan, the TigerVoice
Rugrats Go WildDr. LipschitzVoice
2007Albert Fish: In Sin He Found SalvationNarratorVoice, Posthumous release
2011SeekProducerShort, Posthumous release

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1974Fall of EaglesTsar Alexander III2 episodes
1974JusticeMr. PapaloniosEpisode: "Collision Course"
1974The Case of Eliza ArmstrongHenry Poland QC1 episode
1975Within These WallsMr. GrahamEpisode: "Nowhere for the Kids"
1975The SweeneyLambourneEpisode: "Golden Boy"
1975Affairs of the HeartSir Luke Strett1 episode
1975The Hanged ManLazloEpisode: "Grail and Platter"
1975Six Days of JusticeEdwin LovattEpisode: "Angelica"
1977The XYY ManJacob Mahler2 episodes
1978The ProfessionalsForeign Observer 1Episode: "Blind Run"
1980EscapeColonel JalboutEpisode: "Kim Philby"
1981Timon of AthensMerchantTV movie
1982Whoops ApocalypseBagatuEpisode: "How to Get Rid of It"
1982The Agatha Christie HourCount StreptitchEpisode: "Jane un search if a job"
1985Dempsey and MakepeaceAbe MoserEpisode: "Armed and Extremely Dangerous"
1986The Greatest Adventure: Stories from the BibleCaiaphas, Jerusalem Man No. 3, God2 episodes
1987RivieraHabibTV movie
1987The Golden GirlsLaszloEpisode: "The Artist"
1987HunterFather MichaelsEpisode: "Allegra"
1988Beverly Hills BuntzSheik MohammedEpisode: "Buntz of the Desert"
1988CircusConrad SimpsonTV Pilot
1989Mr. BelvedereCaptain PeelEpisode: "Mutiny"
1988–1989Beauty and the BeastParacelcus6 episodes
1989The SmurfsVoice, Uncredited
1989The New LassieMr. ShepherdEpisode: "Once Upon a Time..."
1989NewhartReginald WoosterEpisode: "Good Lord Loudon"
1989The Easter StoryCaiaphas, Jerusalem Man #3Animated short
1990Christine CromwellEpisode: "In Vino Veritas"
1990His & HersDr. ZimmermanEpisode: "Fear of Marriage"
1990Rainbow DriveMax HollisterTV Movie
1990Peter Pan and the PiratesAlf MasonVoice, 1 episode
1990The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho PandaVoice, Episode: "Pity the Poor Pirate"
1991MatlockJohn Bosley HackettEpisode: "The Critic"
1990–1991Twin PeaksDougie Milford3 episodes
1990–1991TaleSpinMr. Shere KhanVoice, 11 episodes
1991Absolute StrangersWeisfeldTV Movie
1991Murphy BrownDr. Wade BenoitEpisode: "Q & A on FYI"
1991Eerie, IndianaSir Boris von OrloffEpisode: "Scariest Home Videos"
1991Dynasty: The ReunionDr. Jobinet2 episodes
1991Darkwing DuckGrim ReaperVoice, Episode: "Dead Duck"
1991Who's the Boss?Paul MurphyEpisode: "Grandmommie Dearest"
1991SistersCharles DickensEpisode: "Eggnog"
1991Adventures in OdysseyFred J. FaustusVoice, Episode: "The Knight Travellers"
1992JonahVoice, 1 episode
1992Star Trek: The Next GenerationThird Minister CampioEpisode: "Cost of Living"
1992Tom & Jerry KidsVoice, Episode: "Penthouse Mouse/12 Angry Sheep/The Ant Attack"
1991–1993The Legend of Prince ValiantCynan, Baron Alric, MagistrateVoice, 5 episode
1993Sonic the HedgehogGuardianVoice, Uncredited, Episode: "Super Sonic"
1993The Little MermaidWish StarVoice, Episode: "Wish Upon a Starfish"
1993Fugitive Nights: Danger in the DesertTV Movie
1993The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr.Judge Silot GattEpisode: "Brisco for the Defense"
1993Fugitive Nights: Danger in the DesertTV movie
19932 Stupid DogsThe ChiefVoice, 13 episodes
1993–1994Mighty MaxVirgil, Norman's Dad, Witch DoctorVoice, 40 episodes
1994Picket FencesChief RabbiEpisode: "Squatter's Rights"
1994Duckman: Private Dick/Family ManVoice, Episode: "Ride the High School"
1994Scooby-Doo in Arabian NightsVoice, TV movie
1994BeethovenWatsonVoice, Episode: "Scent of a Mutt/Down on the Farm"
1995Reboot: Fast Forward – The Making of 'RebootMegabyteVoice, TV movie
1993–1995Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of SupermanNigel St. John7 episodes
1994–1995Skeleton WarriorsGolden SkullVoice, 13 episodes
1995AladdinKhartoumVoice, Episode: "The Book of Khartoum"
1995Aaahh!!! Real MonstersFrederick, ChiefVoice, Episode: "Eau de Krumm/O'Lucky Monster"
1994–1995Fantastic FourGalactus / Terrax / Nauseated Man on TVVoice, 5 episodes
1995GargoylesAnubisVoice, Episode: "Grief"
1995–1996The Twisted Tales of Felix the CatPeeping Duck, Jaggo Doughnut, Mr.Wizard3 episodes
1996Russia's Last TsarVoice, National Geographic special
1996Siegfried & Roy: Masters of the ImpossibleVoice
1996Captain Planet and the PlaneteersYetiVoice, Episode: "Twelve Angry Animals"
1996AnimaniacsNarratorVoice, Episode: "Dot's Entertainment/The Girl with the Googily Goop/Gunga Dot"
1996Superman: The Animated Series – The Last Son of KryptonSul-VanVoice, TV Movie
1996The Burning ZoneThe ChairmanEpisode: "The Silent Tower"
1996Bruno the KidJarlesburgVoice, Episode: "The Adventure Begins"
1994–1996Teenage Mutant Ninja TurtlesLord DreggVoice, 17 episodes
1994–1996The TickChairface ChippendaleVoice, 7 episodes
1996Spider-ManBaron MordoVoice, 3 episodes
1995–1996The Savage DragonOverlordVoice, 15 episodes
1996The Making of Disney's 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' Himself, Voice of Frollo
1996Pinky and the BrainEgyptian PriestVoice, Episode: "The Mummy/Robin Brain"
1996–1999JumanjiThe Master of JumanjiVoice
1997Puss in BootsNarratorVoice, TV movie
1996–1997Mighty DucksWraithVoice, 21 episodes
1997Adventures from the Book of VirtuesKing DariusVoice, Episode: "Faith "
1997[30]Doomsday: What Can We Do?NarratorVoice, TV documentary
1997Extreme GhostbustersMacrobeVoice, Episode: "Moby Ghost"
1997What If?NarratorVoice, TV documentary
1998Hollywood & VinylHimself1 episode
1998RecessKing Arthur, Fence, St. PeterVoice, Episode: "The Lost Ball"
1998Invasion AmericaThe DragitVoice, 13 episodes
1999Civil War Combat: America's Bloodiest BattlesNarratorVoice, TV documentary, 2 episodes
1996–1999Timon & PumbaaEmpress's Assistant, Jungle InspectorVoice, 2 episodes
1999To Serve and ProtectPolice Pathologist
1999Mickey Mouse WorksOstrichVoice, Episode #1.6
1999–2000Johnny BravoKing Brad, AnnouncerVoice, 2 episodes
2000UFOs: Then and Now?NarratorVoice, TV Movie
2000Buzz Lightyear of Star CommandDr. AnimusVoice, 2 episodes
2001Courage the Cowardly DogJeeves "Evil" WeevilVoice, Episode: "Evil Weevil/McPhearson Phantom"
2001Lloyd in SpaceDr. Werner Von BrainVoice, Episode: "Caution: Wormhole!"
2001ProvidenceUnnamedEpisode: "Rule Number One"
2001The Legend of TarzanPoacherVoice, Episode: "Tarzan and the Rift"
2001ReBoot: My Two BobsMegabyteVoice, TV movie
1994–2001ReBootMegabyteVoice, 26 episodes
2001The Gene PoolRenfeldTV movie
2001–2002House of MouseMagic Mirror, Shere Khan the Tiger, OstrichVoice, 10 episodes
1992–2003RugratsDr. Lipschitz, Doctor, othersVoice, 10 episodes
2003Criss Angel: SupernaturalNarrator, voice – official trailerVoice, TV movie
2003Miss Spider's Sunny Patch KidsSpiderusVoice, TV movie
2003Civil War Combat: Culp's Hill at GettysburgNarratorVoice, Documentary
2003Civil War Combat: The Battle of ChickamaugaNarratorVoice, Documentary
2003Nostradamus: 500 Years LaterNostradamusVoice, Documentary
2004UFO Files – UFOs: Then and Now? The Innocent YearsNarratorVoice, 1 episode
2004Teen TitansNarratorVoice, Episode: "Transformation"
2004Tom and Jerry – The Ultimate Classic CollectionUnknown
1996–2004Hey Arnold!Rex Smythe-Higgins, Voice in the Sky, DoctorVoice, 5 episodes
2005Mickey's Around the World in 80 DaysOstrich
2005Science of the Bible: Jesus, The PreacherHimself, narratorVoice, 1 episode
2005H. H. Holmes: America's First Serial KillerNarratorVoice
2006Me, EloiseVoiceEpisode: "Eloise in Springtime Part 1"
2007Xyber 9: New DawnMachestroVoice, 7 episodes
2004–2007Miss Spider's Sunny Patch FriendsSpiderusVoice, 17 episodes
Nominated—Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in a Feature Film
2007The History Channel Presents: The Civil WarNarratorVoice

Other voice work

Video games

Year Title Role Notes
1992King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone TomorrowCaptain Saladin, Gate, Arch DruidVoice
1996Disney's Animated Storybook: The Hunchback of Notre DameJudge Claude FrolloVoice
1996Blood Omen: Legacy of KainMortanius, William the Just, Dark EntityVoice
1997Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the ClansDrek'TharVoice
1997Fallout: A Post-Nuclear Role-Playing GameThe LieutenantVoice
1998RebootMegabyteVoice
1998Titanic ExplorerCapt. Smith, Sir Rufus IsaacsVoice
1998Die by the SwordRastegar, GrubVoice
1999Legacy of Kain: Soul ReaverElder God, ZephonVoice
1999Planescape: TormentThe Transcendent OneVoice
1999Y2K: The GameMister LeopardVoice
2000Forgotten Realms: Icewind DaleKresselackVoice
2000SacrificeMithrasVoice
2001The Jungle Book: Rhythm 'n GrooveShere Khan the TigerVoice
2001Dopey's Wild Mine RideMagic MirrorVoice
2001Soul Reaver 2Elder GodVoice
2001Forgotten Realms: Baldur's Gate – Dark AllianceXantam The Beholder, EthonVoice
2001Return to Castle WolfensteinThe DirectorVoice, Uncredited
2001Star Trek: Armada IIUSS Caddebostan CaptainVoice
2002Draconus: Cult of the WyrmNarratorVoice, Uncredited
2002Hunter: The ReckoningNarratorVoice
2003FreelancerChancellor Florian Gustov NiemannVoice
2003Star Trek: Elite Force IIArcheopendaVoice
2003LionheartVoice
2003Lionheart: Legacy of the CrusaderVoice
2003Armed & DangerousKingVoice
2003The Lord of the Rings: War of the RingNarratorVoice
2003Mace Griffin: Bounty HunterLeader of the RangersVoice
2003Legacy of Kain: DefianceElder GodVoice
2004Fallout: Brotherhood of SteelAttis, narratorVoice
2004Champions of Norrath: Realms of EverQuestInnorrukVoice
2004GalleonAreliano, narratorVoice
2004X-Men LegendsMagnetoVoice
2004The Bard's TaleNarratorVoice

Audiobooks and audio plays

Audiobooks:

  • 2005: Time’s Fool: A Mystery of Shakespeare by Leonard Tourney. Reader. Blackstone Audio.
  • 2006: The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole. Reader. Blackstone Audio.

Audio plays:

Radio serials:

  • 1967–1976: The Sound of Darkness. Writer, Actor (voice).
  • 1968–1972: Squad Cars. Actor, Announcer (voice).
  • 1969–1972: Taxi! Writer. Red Kowalski (voice).
  • 1971–1972: The Avengers. Announcer (voice), writer, Director.

Commercials:

Accolades

Award Year Category Film Result
Annie Awards[32]
2006 Voice Acting in a Television Production[33] Miss Spider's Sunny Patch Friends Nominated
Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program[34] Nominated

References

  1. Behind The Voice Actors. "Tony Jay". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  2. "Tony Jay—Obituary". Associated Press. 21 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  3. Nelson, Valerie J (20 August 2006). "Tony Jay, 73; Veteran Voice Actor in Film and Video Games". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  4. "Voice actor Tony Jay dies at 73". United Press International. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  5. DeMott, Rick. "Emmy-Nominated Voice-Actor Tony Jay Passes Away". AWN.com. Animation World Network. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  6. "History of the site". Pinner High School. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  7. "Tony Jay – Writer, director". The Avengers Declassified. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  8. Nemy, Enid (19 September 1988). "Broadway". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  9. Gross, Edward (November 1989). "To Reign in Hell". Starlog. p. 21. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  10. In contrast to Jay's own recollection in a Starlog interview and his Los Angeles Times obituary, The New York Times of 19 September 1986 says that he moved to South Africa when he was 33.
  11. "Tony Jay: In Memorium, 1933–2006". Springbokradio.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  12. Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – On the Air". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  13. Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – Introduction". The Avengers Declassified. hiddentigerbooks.co.uk. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  14. Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – Destination Sonovision". hiddentigerbooks.co.uk. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  15. "Three Sisters, Billingham Forum c1976". Picture Stockton Archive. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  16. "Classic Plays: 1976". Rob Wilton Theatricalia. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  17. Amory, Mark (3 October 1981). "Small Changes". The Spectator. United Kingdom. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  18. "The Deep Blue Sea Programme – Greenwhich Cue Theater, 1981". Daily Craze. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  19. Hammond, Mary (2016). Charles Dickens's Great Expectations: A Cultural Life, 1860–2012. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 219.
  20. "RSC Performances: The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". The Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  21. Drake, Sylvie (13 March 1986). "The Marathon 'Nicholas Nickleby' Is Bound for the Ahmanson". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  22. "Stage View: A 'Nickleby' that Fulfills Our Great Expectations". The New York Times. 7 September 1986.
  23. "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  24. "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". Playbill. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  25. Gross, Edward (November 1989). "To Reign in Hell". Starlog. p. 72. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  26. "Sir Ian McKellen". Crawley's Casting Calls. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  27. Rouner, Jeff. "Tony Jay: Playlist for the Ultimate Voice-Over Villain". Houston Press. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  28. "Poets on Broadway – Earphones Award Winner". Audio File. AudioFile Magazine. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  29. "Daytime Emmy nominated Tony Jay Loses Fight to Recover". Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  30. Various release dates are given: 1996 ; 1997 ; 1998 .
  31. "LBC – Ten years on". British Universities Film & Video Council. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  32. The official Annie Awards website shows that Tony Jay was not nominated in 1996 for Voice Acting in the Field of Animation, despite many claims that he had. The 1996 nominees were Nancy Cartwright (winner), Jeff Bennett, Jim Cummings, Tress MacNeille, and Rob Paulsen..
  33. "33rd Annie Awards (2006)". AnnieAwards.org. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  34. "The National Television Academy Announces 33rd Annual Daytime Emmy Award Nominations". emmyonline.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
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